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Lesson One

By Shawn Mason,2014-07-08 22:24
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Lesson One Half a Day I. Author Naguib Mahfouz was born on the 11th Dec. 1911 in an old quarter of Cairo, the youngest son of a merchant. He studied philosophy at King Faud I (now Cairo) University, graduating in 1934. He worked in university administration and then in 1939 he worked for the Ministry of Islamic Affairs. He was later H..

Lesson One Half a Day

    I. Author

    Naguib Mahfouz was born on the 11th Dec. 1911 in an old quarter of Cairo, the youngest son of a

    merchant. He studied philosophy at King Faud I (now Cairo) University, graduating in 1934. He

    worked in university administration and then in 1939 he worked for the Ministry of Islamic

    Affairs. He was later Head of the State Cinema Organization at the Ministry of Culture. He also

    worked as a journalist.

    Although widely translated, his works are not available in most Middle Eastern countries because

    of his support of Sadat’s Camp David initiative. In 1994 he survived an assassination attempt by

    Islamic extremists.

     He is married, has two daughters and lives in Cairo.

    Camp David Accords: popular name for the historic peace accords in 1978 between Israel and

    Egypt. The official agreement was signed on Mar. 26, 1979, in Washington, D.C. by Israeli Prime

    Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat, with U.S. President Jimmy

    Carter signing as a witness. Under the pact, which was denounced by other Arab states, Israel

    agreed to return the Sinai to Egypt, a transfer that was completed in 1982. In a joint letter the two

    nations also agreed to negotiate Palestinian autonomy measures in the Israeli-occupied West Bank

    and Gaza Strip, but in fact no progress was made on this issue before Sadat’s assassination in Oct.,

    1981.

II. His works

    Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arab to win the Nobel prize for literature, in 1988. He has been described as "a Dickens of the Cairo cafés" and "the Balzac of Egypt".

    He is now the author of no fewer than 30 novels, more than 100 short stories, and more than 200 articles. Half of his novels have been made into films which have circulated throughout the Arabic-speaking world.

     The Cairo Trilogy in 1957 made him famous throughout the Arab world as a depicter of traditional urban life.

    Each book in the trilogy was named after a suburb of Cairo. The first, Palace Walk; The second,

    Palace of Desire; The third book, Sugar Street.

III. The world in his works

    The picture of the world as it emerges from the bulk of Mahfouz’s work is very gloomy indeed, though not completely disappointing. It shows that the author’s social utopia is far from being realized.

    Mahfouz seems to conceive of time as a force of oppression. His novels have consistently shown time as the bringer of change, and change as a very painful process, and very often time is not content until it has dealt his heroes the final blow of death.

    To sum up, in Mahfouz’s dark description of the world there are only two bright spots. These consist of man's continuing struggle for equality on the one hand and the promise of scientific progress on the other; meanwhile, life is a tragedy.

IV. Creator of the Universe

    I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded. Isa 45:12

    I am the creator of the Universe.

    I am the Father and Mother of the Universe.

    Everything came from me.

    Everything shall return to me.

Mind, spirit and body are my temples,

    for the Self to realize in them

    My Supreme Being and Becoming.

    prayer for the new ageMaitreya

V. Different names of God

    Answer: EL: God "mighty, strong, prominent" (Gen 7:1; Isa 9:6)

    ELOHIM: God "Creator, Mighty and Strong" (Gen 17:7; Jer 31:33)

    EL SHADDAI: "God Almighty or" "God All Sufficient" (Gen 49:24; Mic 2:1)

    ADONAI: "Lord" (Gen 15:2; Judges 6:15)

    YAHWEH / JEHOVAH: "LORD" (Deut 6:4; Dan 9:14)

    YAHWEH-YIREH: "The Lord will Provide" (Gen 22:14)

    YAHWEH-ROPHE: "The Lord Who Heals" (Isa 61:1)

    YAHWEH-NISSI: "The Lord Our Banner" (Exo 1:15)

    YAHWEH-M'KADDESH: "The Lord Who Sanctifies" (Lev 20:8)

    YAHWEH-SHALOM: "The Lord Our Peace" (Judges 6:24)

    YAHWEH-ELOHIM: "LORD God" (Gen 2:4; Psa 59:5)

    YAHWEH-TSIDKENU: "The Lord Our Righteousness" (Jer 33:16)

    YAHWEH-ROHI: "The Lord Our Shepherd" (Psa 23:1)

Lesson Two Going Home

    I. Author

    Pete Hamill was born in Brooklyn, N. Y. in 1935. He attended Mexico City College in

    19561957, studying painting and writing. He has been a columnist for the New York Post, the

    Daily News, and New York Newsday, and has won many journalistic awards.

    At the same time, Hamill has pursued a career as a fiction writer, producing 8 novels and 2

    collections of short stories. His 1997 novel, Snow in August, was on the New York Times bestseller

    list for four months. His memoir, A Drinking Life, was on the same New York Times list for 13

    weeks

II. Florida

    Florida was named by the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León in 1513. He called the region "La

    Florida", roughly translated as Land of the Flowers. He probably chose this name because he was

    impressed by the many colorful flowers. Statehood for Florida came in 1845 (27th state). Florida

    is one of the leading tourist states in the United States. Great stretches of sandy beaches and a

    warm, sunny climate make Florida a year-round vacationland. Major attractions include Disney

    World, Miami Beach, the Everglades National Park and the Florida Keys. Tourists may also visit

    historic sites that date back to the Spanish explorers.

III. New Jersey

    One of the original 13 states, New Jersey was named after the island of Jersey in the English

    Channel. New Jersey is a state of industrial cities and towns, but also of glistening beaches and

    popular summer resorts. It is one of the great coastal playgrounds of the United States. Atlantic

    City is one of the most well-known resorts. New Jersey is located between New York City and

    Philadelphia, making it a convenient location for tourists to the area.

    IV. New York

    The Dutch were the first settlers in New York. After the English took it over in the 1660s, the colony was renamed New York, after the Duke of York. It is one of the original 13 states to join the Union (it joined in 1788). The state includes everything from skyscrapers in Manhattan to rivers, mountains, and lakes in upstate New York. Niagara Falls is one of the chief attractions. New York is the leading center of banking, finance and communication in the United States. Much of the state's greatness lies in exciting New York City, the largest city in the United States and the fourth largest city in the world; its many theaters, museums, and musical organizations make it one of the cultural centers of the Western Hemisphere.

V. Georgia

    Georgia, founded in 1732, is one of the original 13 states. It was named in honor of England's King George II. Georgia is the largest state east of the Mississippi; the state's large size and thriving industries have given it one of its nicknames, the Empire State of the South. During the Civil War, the fall of Atlanta was a crucial turning point in the defeat of the South. Today, Atlanta, which became Georgia's capital in 1868, is a thriving city with major national corporations, and it is considered the economic and cultural center of the Southeast. The natural beauty and famous seaside resorts of Georgia are a major attraction for tourists. Many beautiful monuments and parks, including reminders of important Civil War battles and heroes, dot the Georgia countryside.

    VI. Howard Johnson's

    The first turnpike restaurant in the United States was opened in 1940 by Howard Johnson's on the Pennsylvania Turnpike. The company soon became the leading toll road operator in the country. Johnson pioneered the new convenience food concept of processing and pre-portioning food in company-operated central plants and shipping the food to restaurants for final preparation and cooking to insure high quality standardized service.

    Each restaurant is topped with a bright orange roof so the traveler could immediately recognize the restaurant. This has become a beacon to travelers as Howard Johnson's is known for quality food at reasonable prices and with the added lure of ice cream in 28 flavors. Howard Johnson's had 400 restaurants in 1954 when the company entered the lodging industry with the opening of its first franchised motor lodge in Savannah, Georgia. A pre-sold name in which the motorist placed confidence soon became a combined one-stop dining and overnight convenience. Again, license agreements with investors helped the company expand quickly in the field. Expansion continued to Puerto Rico and Canada and beyond.

Lesson Three Message of the Land

    I. Author

    Pira Sudham is considered Thailand's leading English language writer, who was nominated for the 1990 Nobel Prize for Literature. His literary works are concerned with social-economic-political changes occurring in Thailand. Widely read and highly acclaimed, his books have given an expedient voice to the poor and the voiceless.

II. Bangkok

    Bangkok, population 8,538,610 (1990), is the capital and largest city of Thailand. The city is located on the east bank of the Chao Phraya River, near the Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok is one of the fastest-growing, most economically dynamic and socially progressive cities in Southeast Asia. Local people like to think that it is emerging as a regional centre to rival Singapore and Hong Kong (SAR), China, but it suffers from major infrastructure and social problems as a result of its rapid growth. It is also one of the world's most popular tourist destinations.

    Bangkok is the economic center of Thailand. The Chao Phraya River allows Bangkok to function as a port. The Stock Exchange of Thailand is located in Bangkok. Tourism is a major source of revenue. The city contains many Buddhist temples (known in Thai as Wats), among the best known being Wat Pho and Wat Arun.

    Bangkok's educational and cultural facilities include several universities, a fine arts academy, a national theater and a national museum. Processed food, timber, and textiles are leading exports. Industrial plants include rice mills, cement factories, sawmills, oil refineries, and shipyards. The city is a famous jewelry center, buying and selling silver and bronze ware.

    III. Thai Buddhism

    Buddhism is Thailand's main religion. 94% of Thai people are Buddhist. The other are Muslim, Catholic or Chinese. Buddhism was born 2,546 years ago (the official year in Thailand is the year 2003 and the traditional year is the year 2546). Buddhism is linked with the historical Indian prince, Siddharta Gautama, who became the Buddha and reached the enlightenment. Now his teachings are still followed. His teachings say that people suffer because they are attached to material things, to women or men by heart links. These links cause suffer, jealousy so pain. People are never satisfied, i.e. they want more money, more power. The aim of Buddhism is to get rid of these pains and of these links. There are several kinds of Buddhism. Thai Buddhism is called Theravada Buddhism.

    Everyone can hope to reach enlightenment one day but path shall be long. It takes many lives. Each time somebody or an animal dies, it reincarnates in something else. It is the endless cycle of existence. The rebirth depends on your "KARMA". If you have done good deeds in your life, next

    life will be better. If you have done bad deeds, next life will be harsh.

    Thai Buddhism is fascinating because it is mixed with older religions (Animism, Brahmanism) which were present before the introduction of Buddhism in Thailand. Nowadays the influence of the previous religions is still present.

    IV. Monks in Thailand

    Monks are more suited to reach enlightenment because they follow a strict way of life far from material attachment. Their life is based on 227 monastic rules and 5 major precepts, i.e. no sex, no lies, no robbery, no alcohol, no killing.

    In a temple, some men have been monks for decades but there are also some men who became monk only a short time ago. They do it in order to bring merit to their parents ("THAM BUN"). A

    boy is not a man if he hasn't been a monk once in his life. Even the King of Thailand Rama 9 had been a monk for one month. In old days this period was three months. Now it can be only a few weeks or a few days.

    Some families still refuse to marry their daughter if the future husband hasn't ever been a monk. It means that he isn't ripe enough. Ordination is an important part of life in Thai society. A boy that becomes a monk ("PHRA") for a few months is making a really good action towards his parents. Monks represent the Lord Buddha. When Thai people greet a monk or even a novice, they greet the Lord Buddha's teachings. In a bus, seats in the back are reserved to monks. If a woman is sitting there, she should leave because a woman cannot touch a monk.

Lesson Four The Boy and the Bank Officer

    I. Author

    About the Author

     Philip Ross (1939 ) is an American writer based in New York. After working as a

    newspaper reporter for four years, he turned to freelance (自由职业作家) writing. Many of his

    articles have appeared in the New Yorker (《纽约人》), Reader’s Digest (《读者文摘》) and New

    York Times (《纽约时报》). This text is taken from Strategies for Successful Writing: A Rhetoric

    and Reader, 3rd edition published by Prentice Hall, Inc. in 1993 in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

II. Cultural Background

    Italian Banking in the 14th Century

    Banks first emerged in the Middle Ages when people grew tired of carrying around all their gold and began leaving their money with the goldsmith. The Medici family, one of the most prominent banking families in Europe during this time, became quite wealthy from its banking and money lending practices. This 14th-century painting depicts people depositing and withdrawing money in an Italian bank.

HISTORY OF BANKS

    Functions performed by banks today have been carried out by individuals, families, or State officials for at least 4,000 years. Clay Tablets dated from about 2000 BC indicate that the Babylonians deposited personal valuables for a service charge of one 60th of their worth. Interest charges on loans ran as high as one third.

     The widespread commerce of Rome required a well-developed banking system. Roman authorities set aside the Street of Janus in the Forum for money changers. These individuals not only bought and sold foreign coins; they accepted deposits, made loans, issued bills of exchange and bills of credit (similar to today's checks), and bought mortgages.

    The widespread commerce of Rome required a well-developed banking system. Roman authorities set aside the Street of Janus in the Forum for money changers. These individuals not only bought and sold foreign coins; they accepted deposits, made loans, issued bills of exchange and bills of credit (similar to today's checks), and bought mortgages.

A 16th-century painting depicts a money changer and his wife.

    The Justinian Code of the 6th century AD included laws that governed the lending and trading in money. During the Middle Ages banking activities were curbed by severe restrictions on lending practices. But during the early Renaissance, as international trade revived, Italian money changers once again appeared. They did business in the streets from a bench (banca in Italian; hence the word bank). Florence, Italy, became a great banking center, dominated by the Medici family. Built in the style of ancient Greek temple, the Bank of United States had its headquarters in Philadelphia. It was the nation’s first experiment with central banking.

    Banking as it is now practiced dates from the Banco di Rialto, founded in Venice in 1587. It accepted demand deposits and permitted depositors to transfer their credits by checks. It could not make loans, however, or pay interest on deposits. Its services were free since its expenses were paid by the city. The Banco Giro was formed in Venice in 1619. The two banks merged in 1637 and continued to operate under the name Banco Giro until Napoleon liquidated it in 1806. With the growth of commerce and trade in Northern Europe, the Netherlands became an international financial center. The Bank of Amsterdam was organized in 1609. A chartered public bank was opened in Sweden in 1656. It was probably the first financial institution in the world to issue standard-size payable-on-demand bank bills, which eliminated the handling of copper coins. This bank was merged with the Bank of Sweden in 1668.

    Depositors besiege the Merchant Bank of Passaic, N.J., after the bank was officially closed in 1929. Until the founding of the Bank of England in 1694, England's goldsmiths were its first bankers. They kept money and other valuables in safe custodyfor their customers. They also dealt

    in gold bullion and foreign exchange. They profited from acquiring and sorting coins of all kinds. To attract coins, the smiths were willing to pay interest.

    The goldsmiths noticed that deposits remained at a fairly steady level over long periods of time. Deposits and withdrawals tended to balance each other because customers only wanted enough money on hand to meet everyday needs. This allowed the smiths to loan out at interest cash that would otherwise be idle. From this practice emerged the modern facets of banking: keeping deposits, making loans, and maintaining reserves. Another practice of the goldsmiths, by which a customer could arrange to transfer part of his balance to another party by a written order, was the start of the modern check-writing system.

    The goldsmiths noticed that deposits remained at a fairly steady level over long periods of time. Deposits and withdrawals tended to balance each other because customers only wanted enough money on hand to meet everyday needs. This allowed the smiths to loan out at interest cash that would otherwise be idle. From this practice emerged the modern facets of banking: keeping deposits, making loans, and maintaining reserves. Another practice of the goldsmiths, by which a customer could arrange to transfer part of his balance to another party by a written order, was the start of the modern check-writing system.

    Banks of the 17th century also began to issue bank notes as a form of money. The notes had monetary value because they could be exchanged for specie: hard cash in the form of gold or silver. The amounts of the bank notes issued depended on a banker's expectation of public demand for specie and the bank's confidence in itself. Bank notes were probably first issued in the 1660s by the Bank of Stockholm in Sweden; the practice soon spread to England.

     The Bank of France was founded in 1800. For most of the 19th century the money markets of Europe were dominated by the House of Rothschild.

Frankfurt House of Rothschild

    This photograph depicts the original banking house opened by Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt, Germany. The house was operated by Rothschild and his oldest son, Amschel Mayer, until its dissolution in 1901. The four other Rothschild sons opened bank branches in Vienna, Austria; Naples, Italy; London, England; and Paris, France. The London and Paris branches are still in operation.

Churches and churchgoers

    As for the British churchman, he goes to church as he goes to the bathroom, with the minimum of fuss and no explanation if he can help it.

     Ronald Blythe, British writer

    The British churchgoer prefers a severe preacher because he thinks a few home truths will do his neighbors no harm.

     Attributed to George Bernard Shaw, Irish

     playwright

A man who is good enough to go to heaven, is good enough to be a clergyman.

     Samuel Johnson (17091784), British lexicographer and writer

     I had explained that a woman's asking for equality in the church would be comparable to a black person's demanding equality in the Ku Klux Klan.

     Mary Daly (1928 ), U.S. feminist and theologian

    If people want a sense of purpose they should get it from their archbishop. They should certainly not get it from their politicians.

     Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister

    Nobody but poor folks get happy in church.

     Richard Wright, U.S. novelist

Lesson Five Angels on a Pin

    I. Author

    Alexander Calandra is now Professor of Emeritus of Physical Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. The present text is adapted from ―Angels on the Head of a Pin: A Modern Parable‖ which first appeared in Saturday Review. Dec. 21, 1968 and has, since then, become a

    classic (or an often quoted) case on the problems of American education.

II. Cultural Background

     1. Angles on a pin

    The title of the text ―Angles on a Pin‖ comes from the much-talked about question: ―How many

    angles can dance on the head of a pin?‖ which is used to ridicule those people who asked meaningless questions about the Bible in the Middle Ages. It is also used ironically to describe the kind of questions that philosophers ponder.

     2. Why is the article entitled ―Angels on a Pin‖?

    I. Medieval scholastics were fond of debating such meaningless questions as ―How many angels

    can dance on the point of a pin?‖ ―Did Adam have a navel?‖ and ―Do angels defecate?‖ The

    emerging sciences replaced such ―scholarly‖ debates with experimentation and appeals to

    observable fact.

    II. Callandra seems to be suggesting that ―exploring the deep inner logic of a subject in a

    pedantic (学究的,迂腐的) way is similar to the empty arguments of scholasticism.‖ He compares this to the ―new math‖, so much in the news in the 60s, which attempted to replace rote memorization (死记硬背) of math with a deeper understanding of the logic and principles of mathematics, and he seems to be deriding (嘲笑) that effort, too.

     3. What is meant by academic creativity?

     Academic creativity is a way of thinking about, learning, and producing information in school

    subjects such as science, mathematics, and history. Few experts agree on a precise definition,

    but when we say the word, everyone senses a similar feeling. When we are creative, we are

    aware of its special excitement.

     Creative thinking and learning involve such abilities as evaluation (especially the ability to

    sense problems, inconsistencies, and missing elements); divergent production (e.g., fluency,

    flexibility, originality, and elaboration); and redefinition. Creative learning is a natural,

    healthy human process that occurs when people become curious and excited. In contrast, learning by authority requires students to use thinking skills such as recognition,

    memory, and logical reasoningthe abilities most frequently assessed by traditional tests of

    intelligence and scholastic aptitude. Children prefer to learn in creative ways rather than just

    memorizing information provided by a teacher or parents. They also learn better and

    sometimes faster.

4. Three questions

    1) In what year did Columbus discover America? (The answer, 1492, requires recognizing and memorizing information.)

    2) How are Columbus and an astronaut similar and different? (The answer requires more than memorization and understanding; it requires students to think about what they know.) 3) Suppose Columbus had landed in California. How would our lives and history have been different?

     (The answer requires many creative thinking skills including imagining, experimenting, discovering, elaborating, testing solutions, and communicating discoveries.)

5. How adults ―kill‖ creativity

    Insisting that children do things in the ―right way‖

     Teaching a child to think that there is just one right way to do things kills the urge to try new ways.

    Pressuring children to be realistic, to stop imagining.

     When we label a child’s flights of fantasy as ―silly‖, we bring the child down to earth with a blow, causing the inventive urge to die.

    Making comparisons with other children.

     This is a subtle pressure on a child to conform; yet the essence of creativity is freedom to conform or not to conform.

    Discouraging children's curiosity.

     One of the indicators of creativity is curiosity; yet we often brush questions aside because we are too busy for "silly" questions. Children's questions deserve respect.

    Lesson Six The Monster Are Due on Maple Street

    I. Author

    Rod Serling is one of the leading television playwrights today in the United States, best

    known for his science fiction TV series, The Twilight Zone.

II. Life Story

    Religion: Judaism

    Married a protestant, Carol Kramer, which disagreed with the intention of both families.

    He was enlisted in the United States Army after graduation. Beginning in May 1944 he

    served with the 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 11th Airborne Division in New

    Guinea and during the invasion of the Philippines.

    He was awarded the Purple Heart for a severe wound to his knee. The war was also a

    permanent mental suffering: he would suffer from flashbacks, nightmares and insomnia for

    the rest of his life.

    III. His Works

    On screen narrator of The Twilight Zone, he won two Emmys for it. (a statuette awarded

     annually by the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences for outstanding achievement in

    television)

     Co-wrote Planet of the Apes.

     Wrote more movie scripts and teleplays.

     Seven Days in May, 1964

     It showed Serling’s passion for nuclear

     disarmament?核裁军,and peace. Serling said,"If you want to prove that God is not

     dead, first prove that man is alive."

     The Loner, 19651966

     Night Gallery, 19701973

    IV. Quote

    It is difficult to produce a television documentary that is both incisive and probing when

    every twelve minutes one is interrupted by twelve dancing rabbits singing about toilet paper.

    Throughout his life, he used radio, television, and film as vehicles of social criticism.

    Rod Serling

Lesson Seven Mandelas Garden

    I. AuthorNelson Mandela

     Nelson Mandela (1918) Nelson Mandela is one of the great moral and political leaders of our time: an international hero whose lifelong dedication to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa won him the Nobel Peace Prize and the presidency of his country.

    Since his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, Mandela has been at the center of the most compelling and inspiring political drama in the world. As president of the African National Congress and head of South Africa's antiapartheid movement, he was instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule. He is revered everywhere as a vital force in the fight for human rights and racial equality.

    Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei, South Africa on July 25th, 1918. His father was Chief Henry Mandela of the Tembu Tribe.

     Mandela himself was educated at University College of Fort Hare and the University of

    Witwatersrand and qualified in law in 1942.

     He joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1944 and was engaged in resistance

    against the ruling National Party's apartheid policies after 1948.

     He went on trial for treason in 19561961 and was acquitted in 1961.

    Mandela married Winnie in 1958. It was a love story, tempered tragically by the political ambitions of its two larger-than-life protagonists. He felt guilty for what Winnie had endured because of years of imprisonment. But Winnie and his family always came second to his other great love, the ANC and the liberation struggle.

     In 1960, ANC was banned by the government, so Mandela began the underground activities. In 1963, when many fellow leaders of the ANC were arrested, Mandela was brought to stand trial with them for plotting to overthrow the government by violence. His statement from the dock received considerable international publicity.

     ―I have fought against white domination and I have fought black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society, in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is the hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.‖

     Mandela

     the statement from the dock

     On June 12, 1964, eight of the accused, including Mandela, were sentenced to life imprisonment. From 1964 to 1982, he was incarcerated at Robben Island Prison, off Cape Town; thereafter, he was at Pollsmoor Prison, nearby on the mainland.

    ―He always made the point. If they say you must run, insist on walking. If they say you must walk fast, insist on walking slowly. That was the whole point. We are going to set the terms.‖

     fellow prisoner

     During his years in prison, Nelson Mandela's reputation grew steadily. He was widely accepted as the most significant black leader in South Africa and became a potent symbol of resistance as the anti-apartheid movement gathered strength. He consistently refused to compromise his political position to obtain his freedom.

    DURING A VISIT IN FEB. 1995: As President, Nelson Mandela chips at a rock in the Robben Island quarry. Authorities had just signed over the tiny island off Cape Town to the Department of Arts and Culture for development as a museum.

    Nelson Mandela was released on February 18, 1990. After his release, he plunged himself

    wholeheartedly into his life's work, striving to attain the goals he and others had set out almost four decades earlier. In 1991, at the first national conference of the ANC held inside South Africa after the organization had been banned in 1960, Mandela was elected President of the ANC.

     1993 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate

    Excerpt from the Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech

    "We stand here today as nothing more than a representative of the millions of our people who dared to rise up against a social system whose very essence is war, violence, racism, oppression, repression and the impoverishment of an entire people."

     In 1994, he was elected President of South Africa.

     In 1999, he stepped down from his post and gave his power to his successor.

    During the campaign

SMILE KNOWN ROUND THE WORLD: Nelson Mandela walking the streets of Durban, South

    Africa, during his campaign for the presidency in April 1994. His spirit of forgiveness is widely credited with bringing about a peaceful transition from white to black rule.

Nelson Mandela’s Contribution

    There is consensus in South Africa that without Mandela’s personal commitment to reconciliation, his moral authority, integrity, and intense compassion, the country’s transition to democracy might not have gone as smoothly. He brought about a peaceful transition from white to black rule.

II. Long Walk to Freedom

     Long Walk to Freedom is his moving and exhilarating autobiography, a book destined to take its place among the finest memoirs of history's greatest figures. Here for the first time, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela tells the extraordinary story of his lifean epic of struggle, setback, renewed hope, and

    ultimate triumph.

    The foster son of a Thembu chief, Mandela was raised in the traditional, tribal culture of his ancestors, but at an early age learned the modern, inescapable reality of what came to be called apartheid, one of the most powerful and effective systems of oppression ever conceived. In classically elegant and engrossing prose, he tells of his early years as an impoverished student and law clerk in Johannesburg, of his slow political awakening, and of his pivotal role in the rebirth of a stagnant ANC and the formation of its Youth League in the 1950s. He describes the struggle to reconcile his political activity with his devotion to his family, the anguished breakup of his first marriage, and the painful separations from his children.

    He brings vividly to life the escalating political warfare in the fifties between the ANC and the government, culminating in his dramatic escapades as an underground leader and the notorious Rivonia Trial of 1964, at which he was sentenced to life imprisonment. He recounts the surprisingly eventful twenty-seven years in prison and the complex, delicate negotiations that led both to his freedom and to the beginning of the end of apartheid.

    Finally he provides the ultimate inside account of the unforgettable events since his release that produced at last a free, multiracial democracy in South Africa.

    To millions of people around the world, Nelson Mandela stands, as no other living figure does, for the triumph of dignity and hope over despair and hatred, of self-discipline and love over persecution and evil. Long Walk to Freedom embodies that spirit in a book for all time.

III. Robben Island

     Robben Island is situated a mere 11km from Cape Town, in the middle of Table Bay, within clear sight of the city. It was on this island that Nelson Mandela was held prisoner for 18 years, much of it under hard labour. Prior to being a prison for political activists during the Apartheid era, the island was a leper colony. The island is now a museum and conservation area and was declared a World Heritage

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