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Ladies and Gentlemen: Good morning

By Nicholas Franklin,2015-02-07 22:29
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1 Inaugural Speech Sun Zhengyu (Chairperson of Research Center for social development theory, Jilin University.) It is surely with great pleasure to see this international seminar of Globalization and Multi-Modernity being held today in Jilin University, with the attendance of so many scholars from home and abroad. On behalf of The Res..

    Inaugural Speech

    Sun Zhengyu

     (Chairperson of Research Center for social development theory, Jilin University.)

    It is surely with great pleasure to see this international seminar of Globalization and Multi-Modernity being held today in Jilin University, with the attendance of so many

    scholars from home and abroad. On behalf of The Research Center of Social Development

    Theory In Jilin University, The Research Center of Fundamental Philosophical Theory and

    The School of Philosophy and Sociology, I would like to present my warm welcome and

    hearty thanks to all of you.

    In 1980s, Jilin University took the lead in our country to establish The Institute of Social Development Study, and in 1990s The School of Philosophy And Sociology was established.

    In 2004, The Research Center of Social Development Theory was established as a national

    innovation base, a comprehensive study of social development in cross-subject therefore

    started. In recent 20 years, Prof. Zheng Hangsheng and other scholars helped us make a

    certain amount of achievement, which made this seminar possible.

    I want to take this chance to talk about my understanding of development.

    Development, in its true meaning, is a particular existing pattern of man, that is to say, it is

    an existing pattern for man to realize his own development through the development of

    society. This particular existing pattern is both the most reality we have to face, and the most

    theory of heated argument in sociological field. This is due to the fact that the logic of

    human existence is now facing a severe challenge in our social activities, especially in the

    course of economical globalization.

    The problem of development is severe because, as an existing pattern, it has an unavoidable two-folded meanings. Human history is a course of aim-pursuing activities, it

    always realizes its progress in a certain kind of setback pattern, unilateralism therefore

    becomes the develop pattern of history. Any progress in historical process would certainly

    pay a corresponding cost, any positive effect would be accompanied wit certain negative

    effect, any realization of collective benefits would mean certain lost of partial benefits, and

    any pursue of long term benefits would mean certain abandonment of partial benefits.

    Either the relationship between man and nature, or that between man and society would face

    the same severe challenge in the course of economic globalization.

    As for the relationship between man and nature, Engels once warned us not to enjoy our victory over nature, for nature would take revenge for any victory we have made. Indeed

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    we got what we had expected in every victory, but later, or later after later we found the final result diminished what we had expected. Damage to our homestead would certainly

    threaten our own existence and development. Therefore, it has become a grave task to

    harmonize man and nature in the social development study.

    As for the relationship between man and society, Karl Marx once concluded market economy as human independence based on the matter-dependence In its institutional

    meaning, economical globalization firstly means the globalization of market economy and its

    corresponding principles. Market economy shapes the whole social life according to its

    own requirement, meanwhile its principles such as equivalence exchange and survival of the

    fittest have melted into our life as well. This not only shaped the human independence, but

    also formed a matter-dependence of man. It is the logic of maximum interest rather than

    maximum of happiness that creates the survival logic of modern society. As for man, this

    survival logic becomes a severe challenge to the human logic of expecting good and

    avoiding the bad. Marcuse once said that the inner contradictory of developed industrial

    civilization lies here: its unreasonable part stays in its reasonability. This is the severest

    problem we have to face in the course of economical globalization.

    Social development theory consider development the severest realistic problem, and the primary problem it has to face is how to understand and evaluate the term development

    Development is not only the description but also the evaluation of the existence state and

    process, therefore development is the description of existence with its logical precondition of

    evaluation. This could be summarized as that the problem of development is actually the

    problem of evaluation over existence state and process, and the problem of behavior choice

    according to certain evaluation criterion; in other words, it is a problem to make an orderly

    arrangement in practice. As for the existence logic of expecting good and avoiding bad,

    how to set the criterion of good or bad, and how to choose the right behavior to expect good

    and avoid bad, how to make the orderly arrangement so as to get more good than bad, all this

    form the fundamental problem we have to face. Criterion and choice have become the

    most important nuclear category in social development theory.

    The criterion of development holds a very rich and profound cultural connotation, which includes not only cultural diversity, but also consistency of every age; not only the sure

    tendency of economical globalization, but also the multi-choice of modernization; not only

    the major measure of history, but also the minor measure of history. Here the major

    measure of history refers to the measure we evaluate history from the viewpoint of our

    fundamental interest, long-term interest and collective interest; and the minor measure refers

    to the measure we regulate our historical activities out of our non-fundamental interest,

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    temporary interest and partial interest. Life has told us that if we only hold the major measure and neglect the minor one, we cannot realize the ideal promised by the major measure, and even worse, we would distort it into the actual violence which depresses individual growth. On the other hand, if we only hold the minor measure and neglect the major one, we would lose our ideal and, the most serious, our historical activities would threaten human existence and therefore make us feel too anxious to carry out our duties.

    In the process of the building socialism of Chinese characteristics, we create a general

    concept of Fundamental Human, which has been regarded as the fundamental criterion of development. Being the subtle balance of both the major and minor historical measure, the criterion has now become the start of our behavior choice. The notion of scientific development we have formed in the process of building the socialism of Chinese characteristics holds development as the primary concept, with its core the Fundamental Human, its basic requirement the complete harmony and continuance, and its fundamental solution a plan as whole and attention to all. Under such a guidance, the Chinese government is now bending itself to three problems in social development: the first, being the representative of public interest, it is trying to maximum the public interest so as to meet the social fundamental needs; the second, it is seeking to ease the pressure brought by the resources and environment, so as to realize the continuance; the third, it is enhancing its own construction in the public management structure, so as to promote its public service. This is the behavior choice under the guidance of Fundamental Human, which is also the behavior choice of modernity we have made in the process of economic globalization.

    Being contemporary social science researchers, we are determined to liberate our mind

    and promote our study of social development theory on the basis of deriving foreign achievements. To liberate our mind, I think, we need to have the ambition to build the socialism of Chinese characteristics and to realize the grand restoration of Chinese nationalities. Our country has been open for nearly 30 years, and now we are facing an unprecedented opportunity, and yes, we are facing an unprecedented challenge as well. We need a strong ambition and a wide vision to further the study and research of the socialism of Chinese characteristics, because this effort will widen our way. To liberate our mind also requires us the courage to face reality, during the course of building socialistic market economy, many hidden contradiction would gradually appear, which urges us to study them with the courage to face reality and to solve these problems under the notion of scientific development. Only with such courage can we truly liberate our mind and bring forward new questions. To liberate our mind also requires us the courage of new theory creation, it

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    is not only a slogan, firstly it requires us to liberate our mind from metaphysics, so that we can further study the new situation and new problems rather than making a brief judgment and evaluation on our performance; secondly it requires us to liberate our mind from doctrinarism, so that we can supply creative research achievements to our construction when we meet new opportunities and challenges; thirdly, it requires us to liberate our mind from the dull and empty language pattern, so that we can form new thoughts and new language to make a brand new argumentation and new explanation.

    Karl Marx once said that problem is the proverb of the age, and it is the voice of the age

    which is open, dreadless and dominant to everyone. Being the self-awareness of society, social science is always mostly concerned with the most realistic problem of its age. The survival logic of expecting good and avoiding the bad has met unprecedented challenge in the time of economical globalization, which has brought about a great many tasks to our attention and expectation. We will be listening to various voices from scholars of either home and abroad, who will show us their enlightening and constructive achievements. This would certainly be a good chance for us to learn from each other, and I do wish it a wonderful success!

    Thank you!

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    吉林大学社会发展理论研究中心主任 孙正聿 教授

    尊敬的各位来宾,老师们,同学们:

    在吉林大学召开“全球化与多元现代性”国际学术研讨会,并有众多的国内、外

    著名学者参加,我们感到格外高兴。我仅代表吉林大学社会发展理论研究中心、哲学

    基础理论研究中心和哲学社会学院,向大家表示衷心的感谢和热烈的欢迎!

    20世纪80年代,吉林大学在国内率先创立了社会发展研究所,90年代中期又组建了哲学社会学院,并在2004年成立了作为国家哲学社会科学创新基地的吉林大学社

    会发展理论研究中心,对社会发展理论展开跨学科的综合研究。在这20余年中,我们一直得到郑杭生教授等前辈和各位学者的关心与帮助,从而取得了一定的研究成果,

    并为召开这次研讨会奠定了基础。

    我想利用这个机会,谈一下对“发展”的理解。发展,在其真实的意义上,是人

    的特殊的存在方式,也就是以社会的发展而实现人自身的发展的存在方式。人的这种

    特殊的存在方式,既是当代人类面对的最大的现实问题,也是当代哲学社会科学争论

    最激烈的理论问题。这是因为,趋利避害的人类生存逻辑,在当代人类的实践活动中、

    特别是在“经济全球化”的当代社会的发展中,受到了空前的严峻挑战。

    发展问题的严峻性在于,发展作为人的存在方式,它具有不可避免的二重性。人

    类的历史就是“追求自己的目的的人的活动过程”,它总是以某种“退步”的形式而实

    现自己的“进步”,“片面性”是历史的发展形式。历史过程中的任何进步都要付出相

    应的代价,任何正面效应都会伴生相应的负面效应,任何整体利益的实现都意味着某

    些局部利益的牺牲,任何长远利益的追求都意味着某些局部利益的舍弃。无论是人与

    自然的关系,还是人与社会的关系,在经济全球化的过程中,都面临着严峻的挑战。

    从人与自然的关系说,恩格斯早就警告我们,“不要过分陶醉于我们人类对自然界

    的胜利。对于每一次这样的胜利,自然界都对我们进行报复。每一次胜利,起初确实

    取得了我们预期的结果,但是往后和再往后却发生完全不同的、出乎预料的影响,常

    常把最初的结果又消除了。”破坏人类赖以生存的家园,就必然威胁人类自身的生存与

    发展。如何协调人与自然的关系,是社会发展研究中的重大课题。

    从人与社会的关系说,马克思曾把市场经济概括为“以物的依赖性为基础的人的

    独立性”。在体制的意义上,经济全球化首先是市场经济及其原则的全球化。市场经济

    按照自己的要求去塑造全部的社会生活,也就把市场经济的等价交换、优胜劣汰的原

    则融入整个社会生活,这不仅塑造了人的“独立性”,而且构成了人对“物”的依赖关

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系。利益最大化的逻辑,而不是幸福最大化的逻辑,构成了现代社会的生存逻辑。对

    于人类来说,这个生存逻辑是对人类自身的“趋利避害”的生存逻辑的严峻挑战。马

    尔库塞说,“发达工业文明的内在矛盾正在于此:其不合理成分存在于其合理性中”。

    这就是当代人类在经济全球化的过程中所面对的最为严峻的发展问题。

    把“发展”作为最重大的现实问题而予以研究的社会发展理论,它所面对的理论问题,首要的是对“发展”的理解和评价问题。发展,这不只是对存在状态和存在过

    程的描述,而且是对存在状态或存在过程的评价,因此,“发展”是以评价为逻辑前提

    的对存在的描述。这表明,“发展”问题的实质是对存在状态和存在进程如何评价的问

    题,以及依据某种评价的标准作出行为选择的问题,即在实践中作出各种顺序性安排

    问题。作为人类生存逻辑的趋利弊害,“利”与“害”的标准如何确认,怎样的行为选

    择才是当代人类的真正的趋于“利”而避于“害”,怎样的顺序性安排才能使“利”大

    于“害”,这是当代社会发展所面对的根本问题。“标准”与“选择”构成社会发展理

    论的至关重要的核心范畴。

    “发展”的标准具有极为深刻、极为丰厚的文化内涵。它既内涵着文化的多样性,又内涵着每个时代的“广泛而深刻的一致性”;它既内涵着经济全球化的必然趋势,又

    内涵着现代化的多元选择;它既内涵着“历史的大尺度”,又内涵着“历史的小尺度”。

    所谓历史的“大尺度”,就是以人的“根本利益”、“长远利益”、“整体利益”为出发点

    的反观历史的尺度;与此相对应,所谓历史的“小尺度”,则是以人的“非根本利益”、

    “暂时利益”、“局部利益”为出发点的规范人的历史活动的尺度。生活本身告诉我们,

    当我们离开历史的“小尺度”而仅仅承诺历史的“大尺度”的时候,我们不仅无法实

    现“大尺度”所承诺的价值理想,而且尤为惨痛的是会使这个“大尺度”所承诺的价

    值理想变形,把“大尺度”变成某种压抑个人发展的“本质主义的肆虐”;与此相反,

    当我们离开历史的“大尺度”而仅仅着眼于历史的“小尺度”的时候,我们不仅会失

    去“大尺度”的价值理想,而且尤为严峻的是使这个“小尺度”所规范的历史活动危

    及人自身的存在,从而使人们在这种“小尺度”中感受到一种“生命中不能承受之轻”

    的“存在主义的焦虑”。

    在建设中国特色社会主义的过程中,我们形成了“以人为本”的基本理念,也就是形成了“以人为本”的关于“发展”的根本标准。这个“标准”作为“历史的大尺

    度”与“历史的小尺度”的“微妙的平衡”,构成了我们的行为选择的出发点。我们在

    建设中国特色社会主义的伟大实践中所形成的科学发展观,第一要义是发展,核心是

    以人为本,基本要求是全面协调可持续,根本方法是统筹兼顾。以这个科学发展观为

    指导,中国政府正在致力于解决社会发展的三大问题:一是政府作为公共利益的代表,

    致力于解决公共利益最大化、满足全社会基本公共需求的民生问题;二是致力于解决