Modernists and poets

By Beverly Allen,2015-03-20 07:02
99 views 0
1 James Joyce Objectives: help the student to know about James Joyce, the persons, the artistic features of their works and the characteristics of the selected works. Focus: 1. the point of view of James Joyce 2. characteristics of his selected works. 3.The discussion of the selected work: 4. the features of the novelists. 5. what is special about the stream ..

    James Joyce

Objectives: help the student to know about James Joyce, the persons,

    the artistic features of their works and the characteristics of the selected works.


    1. the point of view of James Joyce

    2. characteristics of his selected works.

    3.The discussion of the selected work:

    4. the features of the novelists.

    5. what is special about the stream of consciousness?

    6.what are the patterns in stream of consciousness?

    Difficult Points:

    comic relief, controlling Image, deconstruction, Imagism,

    psychic distance, psychological criticism, paradox and stream of consciousness.


    1. A brief introduction to the biography. (30 min.)

    2. the poems’ forms and Artistic features of his works. (30 min.) 3. The Main points of the selected works. (30min.)

    4. Relevant exercise. (30 min.)

time arrangement: 10 small classes

    the concrete arrangement:

    1.the background of modernism.

    Modernism rose out of skepticism and disillusion of capitalism. The appalling shock of the First

    world war severely destroyed peoples faith in the Victorian values; and the rise of the irrational

    philosophy and new science greatly incited writers to make new explorations on human natures

    and human relationships.现代主义起源于怀疑论和对资本主义的幻想破灭。第一次世界大战的


    th们对人性和人际关系进行新的探索。 The French symbolism, appearing in the late of 19

    century, heralded modernism.十九世纪晚期法国的象征主义预示了现代主义的诞生。 After the

    first world war, all kinds of literary trends of modernism appeared: expressionism, surrealism,

    futurism, dadaism, imagism and stream of consciousness.一战以后,所有的现代主义文学潮流都


    义(颓废派文艺)意象主义以及意识流等等。Towards the 1920s, these trends converged into a

    mighty torrent of modernist movement, which swept across the whole Europe and America. 到二


    The major figures that were associated with this movement were Kafka, Picasso, Pound, Webern,

    Eliot, Joyce and Virginia Woolfe. Modernism was somewhat curbed in the 1930s. but after the


second world war, a variety of modernism, or post-modernism, like existentialist literature, theatre

    of the absurd, new novels and black humor, rose with the spur of the existentialist idea that the

    world was absurd, and the human life was an agony.这场运动的杰出人物有卡夫卡,毕加索,





    Modernism takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theoretical base.

    The major themes of the modernist literature are the distorted, alienated and ill relationships

    between man and nature, man and society, man and man, and man and himself. The modernist

    writers concentrate more on the private than on the public, more on the subjective than on the



    重描写个人而非公众,强调主观而非客观。。 They are mainly concerned with the inner being of an individual. Therefore, they pay more attention to the psychic time than the chronological one.

    In their writings, the past, the present and the future are mingled together and exist at the same

    time in the consciousness of an individual. 他们十分关注个人的内心世界,因此心理时间比实际时间显得更为重要。在他们的作品中,过去现在未来都混合在一起,在某个人的意识中同

    时存在Modernism is in many aspects, a reaction against realism. It rejects rationalism, which is

    the theoretical base of realism; it excludes from its major concern the external, objective, material

    world, which is the only creative source of realism; by advocating a free experimentation on new

    forms and new techniques in literary creation, it casts away almost all the traditional elements in

    literature such as story, plot, character, chronological narration, etc, which are essential to realism.

    As a result the works created by the modernist writers are often labeled as anti-novel, anti-poetry

    and anti-drama. 现代主义从很多方面看都是对现实主义的反叛,它屏弃理性,而理性是现实





     Stream of consciousness: the narrative method of capturing and representing the inner workings of a characters mind. The term is first used by William James in his Principles of

    Psychology (1890)the term stream of consciousness which was coined by William James in

    Principle of psychology is used to indicate a literary approach to the presentation of psychological

    aspects of characters in fiction. Generally speaking there are two levels of consciousness “the

    speech level and the prespeech level”. The prespeech of levels of consciousness are not censored, not rationally controlled or logically ordered. And stream-of consciousness novel can be

    defined as a type of novel in which the basic emphasis is placed on exploration of the prespeech

    level of consciousness for the purpose of revealing the psychic being of the characters and of

    studying human nature. The realm of life with which stream-of consciousness novel is concerned

    in mental and spiritual experience, such as sensations, memories, imaginations, conceptions,

    intuitions, feelings and the process of associations.

    Dorothy Richardson, Marcel Proust, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf and William Faulkner are

    usually regarded as the most important stream-of consciousness novelists. What these writers have

    contributed to novel is broadly one thing; they have opened up a new era of life for novle by


adding mental functioning and psychic existence to fiction and by creating a novel centered on the

    core of human experience.

    James Joyce was born into a catholic family, in Dublin. When he was young, his family was quite

    well-off; but gradually it became impoverished. Joyce got his education at Catholic school where

    he received very strict religious enthusiasm; but he finally rejected the Catholic church and started

    a rebellion against the narrowness and bigotry of the bourgeois philistines in Dublin. When he

    studied modern languages at Dublins university college, he read a lot of books forbidden by the

    Catholic church. Influenced by Ibsen, Joyce finally decided to take the literary mission as his

    career. He refused to take any part in the nationalist activities of his fellow students. After his

    graduation, Joyce left Ireland for the continent. He lived and worked in France, Italy and

    Switzerland for the rest of his life except a few trips back to Ireland; for Joyce regarded exile as

    the only way to preserve his integrity and to enable him to recreate the life in Dublin truthfully

    completely and objectively in his writings. 他认为流放远行是他个人完整个性的最佳途径,这

    样他才能将自己在都柏林的生活真实,全面客观的重新体现在作品中。 Ulysses, Joyces masterpiece, has become a prime example of modernism in literature, it is such

    an uncommon novel that there arises the question whether it can be termed as a novel at all; for it seems to lack almost all the essential qualities of the novel in a traditional sense; there is

    virtually no story, no plot, almost no action, and little characterization in the usual sense.这部小说是现代主义文学的首要典范。这部小说非常奇特,使人怀疑他根本不是小说,因为他缺乏传

    统小说所说的要素---没有故事,没有情节,几乎没有动作,任务塑造也只有一点点。In Ulysses, Joyce intends to present a microcosm of the whole human life by providing an instance of how a

    single event contains all the events of its kind, and how history is recapitulated in the happenings

    of one day. With complete objectivity and minute details of mans everyday routines and his psychic processes, Joyce illustrates a symbolic picture of all human history, which is

    simultaneously tragic and comic, heroic and cowardly, magnificent and dreary.在这部小说中,他想要展示整个人生的一个微观世界,提供一个例子让大家看看一件事如何包含了同样的类型



    悲剧与喜剧,英雄与懦夫,光辉与阴郁都是并存的,Like Eliots masterpiece, the waste land , Joyces Ulysses presents a realistic picture of the modern wasteland in which modern men are

    portrayed as vulgar and trivial creatures with splitting personalities, disillusioned ideals, sordid

    minds and broken families, who are searching in vain for harmonious human relationships and

    spiritual sustenance in a decaying world. 正如爱略特的荒原, 乔伊斯也为现代的荒原画了一幅真实的肖像,这里的现代人被画成粗俗,萎缩的动物,人格个性也是破坏不健全的,所



    James Joyces writing features: James Joyce is one of the most prominent literary figures of the

    first half of the 20

    th century. As a great artistic genius, Joyce has created a body of work worthy of

    comparison with the other masterpieces of English literature. In Joyces opinion, the artist, who wants to reach the highest stage and to gain the insights洞察力 necessary for the creation of dramatic art, should rise to the position of a god-like objectivity;就应该向上帝一样超脱物外 he

    should have the complete conscious control over the creative process and depersonalize his own

    emotion in the artistic creation.以完全客观的视觉看待所有事物,同时他必须能够完全有意识

    的控制创作进程,并尽可能不将个人的性格情感掺入作品中, He should appear as an


omniscient author and present unspoken materials directly from the psyche of the characters, or

    make the characters tell their own inner thoughts in monologues.他还应该是一个洞悉一切的人,直接写出角色没有从语言反映出的心理活动,或者让角色以独白形式讲出内心的最深处的思

     This literary approach to the presentation of psychological aspects of characters is usually

    termed as “stream of consciousness.这种表达角色心理状态的文学手法便是“意识流”。,and Joyce is regarded as the most prominent stream-of consciousness novelist, concentrating on

    revealing in his novels the psychic being of the characters. Another remarkable feature of Joyces

    writings is his style. His own style is a straightforward one,直白 lucid,清晰 logical 逻辑and leisurely;游刃有余 subtlety, economy and exactness are his standards细微,简洁,精确是他的语言标准。. But when he tries to render the so-called stream of consciousness, the style changes:

    incomplete, rapid, broken wording and fragmentary sentences are the typical features, which

    reflect the shifting, flirting, disorderly flow of thoughts in the major character‟s mind.然而一旦进入所谓‘意识流’他的文风便突转急变:典型特征是不完整,短促,支离破碎的语句和措辞,

    这些都如实反映出角色的思想意识的怪异多变,闪烁不定及杂乱无章。To create his modern OdysseyUlysses, Joyce adopts a kind of mock-heroic style. The essence of the mock-heroic lies

    in the application of apparently inappropriate styles.讽刺英雄体的实质就是运用明显不合适的

    文体。 He achieves this mainly by elaboration his style into parody, pastiche, symbolic fantasy,

    and narration by question and answer from an omniscient narrator. 他是通过故意的模仿,拼凑,象征性的幻想以及有无所不知的旁白自问自答的方式来实现这种文体的。Many critics think that Joyce is a great master of innovation. His radical experimentation激进的改革经验。 ranges from stream of consciousness to his fantastic engagements with rhetoric sentimental romance, historical stylistics, counterpoint and expressionist drama. 不只限于‘意识流’还在与他的修辞

    手法,伤感主义浪漫作品,历史性文体学以及表现主义的戏剧等 His mastery of the English language and style is always highly praised.


    He was born at a mining village in nottinghamshire. His father was a coal-miner with little

    education; but his mother, once a school teacher, was from a some-what higher class, who came to

    think that she had married beneath her and desired to have her sons well educated so as to help

    them escape from the life of coal miners. The conflict between the earthy, coarse, energetic but

    often drunken father and the refined ,strong willed and up-climbing mother is vividly presented in

    his autobiographical novel, sons and lovers.

    thLawrence is one of the greatest English novelists of the 20 century, and perhaps the greatest from a working class family. During his life-long literary career, he had written more than ten

    novels, several volumes of short stories and a large number of poems. He is also a proficient poet,

    he began his poetry writing very early and wrote quite a large number of poems in his whole

    career. His poems fall roughly into three categories--- satirical and comic poems, poems about

    human relationships and emotions and poems about nature. Lawrence does not care much about

    the conventional metrical rules; what he tries to do in poetry is to catch the instant life of the

    immediate present. In several of his best animal poems, Lawrence reveals the sheer unknowable

    otherness of the non-human life.

    what is Lawrences attitude toward mechanical civilization? As a working class boy, Lawrence was brought up in hardship. From his early time, Lawrence underwent a social

    dislocation which made him sensitive to the deadness of bourgeois civilization that caused the


distortion of personality, the corruption of the will, and the dominance of sterile intellect over the

    authentic inward passions of man. Disillusioned in the political, moral and religious aspects of the

    society, Lawrence waged a strong criticism in his works against a civilization that had been

    turning bad, mechanical and repressive. In his opinion, the bourgeois industrial revolution,

    which made its realization at the cost of ravishing the land, had started the catastrophic uprooting

    of man from nature. Those profit-seeking capitalists, with the halfman, halfmachine Clifford

    Chatterley as their typical representative, frenziedly worshiped the filthy materialism and

    mechanisms of matter to inflict their exploitative will on the workmen, the society and the earth.

    Under this mechanical civilization, extraordinary glories in science and speculation might be

    achieved, and society might attain the finest and subtlest veneer of prosperity; but human beings

    would be turned into in animated matter, while the in animated matter would be animated to

    destroy both man and earth. As a matter of fact, the whole western world had become a wretched

    picture of death or the living death of physical paralysis after the First World War. It is this

    agonized concern about the dehumanizing effect of mechanical civilization on the sensual

    tenderness of human nature that haunts Lawrence s writings.

    what is Lawrences ideas about nature. He cherished a passionate love for the beauty of the

    natural world; for he had possessed, in his special way, a sense of the earth, of nature, of the soil in

    which human nature is rooted. From his early years, he had been aware that the ancient sacred

    wood in his hometown was steadily shrinking and that the beautiful landscape was ravished by the

    dirty mines. In his opinion the natural unspoiled place was corrupted by unnatural circumstances

    and the march of civilization; and the modern world had substituted , for the real and natural man,

    an artificial mechanic-controlled being, who would inevitably be unhappy and unbalanced because

    his instincts had been suppressed. To revive the natural instincts of men and women, and to

    establish an ideal community of human life on earth, Lawrence strongly advocated a return ot

    nature, to a primitive way of life. Lwarences ideas about nature are very close to primitivism;

    they are essentially a kind of mysticism of earth, which holds that nature is the darker, more

    spacious, more energetic, and more splendid world, and that man can derive energy, power and a

    dark sort of joy only by getting his life into contact with the elemental life of the cocmos, by

    keeping a harmonious relationship with nature.

    what are Lawrence s views on psychology? He was one of the first novelists to introduce

    themes of psychology into his works. He believed that the healthy way of the individuals

    psychological development lay in the primacy of the life impulse, or in another term the sexual

    impulse. Human sexuality was, for him a symbol of Life Force; any kind of conscious or

    self-conscious repression of the life impulse would cause neurotics or splitting personality in ones

    natural psychological development. That explained why he would stretch the theme of his novel

    psychologically into the irrational recesses of the self where the divine life impulse stirred with

    unpredictable motions.

    He also had his own ideas of individual psyche. In his opinion, there are two kinds fo self in an

    individual : the darkself or active unconsciousness, and the white self or social ego. They exist

    independently in the individuals psyche. When the dark self, which is the true source of the passion, has primacy over the white, the psyche is healthy, when the relationship of forces within

    the individual is disturbed the white self may usurp the primacy and take control of the dark self.

    As a result, that individual may lose its vitality and become a fix-willed, self-enclosed, destructive

    automaton. And such a degenerated individual will surely try his best to control others and


dominate the natural and human world. On the other hand, if the outside world is under the control

    of the mechanical system, it would exert strong influences over the psyches of those who live in it,

    change the individual pshches and turn into machines that seek controls of others. This idea o fhim

    is in a way similar ot Freuds idea of ego and super ego, though he himself denied it.

    Terms: comic relief, a comic scene is introduced into an otherwise serious or tragic fictional or

    dramatic work, usually to relieve, if only momentarity, the tension of the plot. It often heightens,

    by contrast, the emotional intensity of the work. The clown scene in Othello is such an example.

    controlling Image, it refers to the image or metaphor that runs throughout a literary work and

    determines its structure or nature. The lighthouse in Virginia Woolfs to the Lighthouse and the white whale in melvills Mobys Dick. Are such example. deconstruction, it refers to a

    contemporary critical movement greatly indebted to French theorist Jacques Derrda who holds

    that there is an inherently unstable relationship between words and meanings. A deconstructionist

    critic objectively examines each element of the literary text for its internal signification in order ot

    demonstrate that every text finally generates innumerable, contradictory, and untimately

    indeterminate meanings. Imagism, poetic movement that flourished in the us and England

    between 1909 and 1917. the movement was led by the American poets Ezra Pound and later Amy

    Lowell. Other imagist poets were the English writers D.H. Lawrence and Richard Aldington and

    the American poets John Gould Fletcher and Hilda Doolittle. These poets issued manifestos and

    wrote poems and essays embodying their theories. They placed primary reliance on the use of

    precise, sharp images as a means of poetic expression and stressed precision in the choice of

    words, freedom in the choiced of subject matter and form, and the use of colloquial language. Most of the imagist poets wrote in free verse, using such devices as assonance and alliteration

    rather than formal metrical schemes to give structure to their poetry. psychic distance, the

    necessary emotional distance or detachment that readers must achieve if they are to regard a

    literary work objectively. Implicit in achieving psychic distance is the realization that literature is

    not life. psychological criticism, the use of a psychological and psychoanalytic theory to

    interpret a writers work or to understand the personality of the writer. Interpretations based ont eh

    theories of two unaccented ones. E.g. glorious and uxorious. paradox, a statement which while seemingly contradictory or absurd may actually be well-founded or true. Paradox is a

    rhetorical device used to attract attention, to secure emphasis. metafiction a literary work in which the central focus is in the nature of fiction itself or on the way in which fiction established and

    asserts its meaning.


Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email