There are still scientific experiments in the sky? Yes, since the successful launch of the spacecraft into space, all kinds of scientific experiments have begun. These space experiments, colorful and interesting, increase people's understanding of space, and promote the development of space science and technology.
The first puppies and gorillas in the skyOn November 3, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the second satellite, Sputnik II, to take a puppy named Leica into orbit around the earth. Leica soon died of heart failure caused by shock and heatstroke. Leica is the world's first animal to enter space experiments, for human space exploration dedicated life. The Soviet Union later launched unmanned spacecraft on the creation of the necessary living and safety conditions, equipped with a recycling system, and then the puppies back to earth alive and well. These space dogs became the forerunner of manned space flight.On January 31, 1961, the United States launched the Mercury II unmanned spacecraft to launch a three-and-a-half-year-old African chimpanzee called Ham into space. After a 16-minute, 39-second flight, the spacecraft splashed safely across the Atlantic Ocean. The hero Ham returned to Earth and lived for 17 years at the National Zoo in Washington, and died at the age of 25 at the Zoo in North Carolina. Later, American spacecraft successively sent monkeys and orangutans into space for medical and biological experiments.
Tip: Space Hero-Rangers Leica Former Soviet cosmonaut Gagarin was the first man to go into space, but not the first Earth creature to do so. Leica was the first creature on Earth to go into space. As the orbiter made its way into space, but soon died in flight. Data sent back to the ground by sensors on Leica's neck showed that in the final stages of life, Leica was suffering from the last stage.
Chinese Youth Space Experiment on Space ShuttleWhile putting spacecraft into space, mankind has not forgotten to involve children in space development. The United States has almost always solicited space experiments from children on every space shuttle mission. It has even held a special "China Youth Space Shuttle Experiment" for Chinese children. Since 1986, Chinese young students have been participating in the US Space Shuttle "Sporadic Plane Experiment Program". See what creative and imaginative activities are there?Can goldfish swim in weightless space? Can they make tofu in space? Can Chinese herbs grow in space? What does ink painting look like in space?... It's so varied. These experiments attempt to examine the effects of weightlessness, radiation and other factors on these experiments from different angles. Among them, five space experiments were discovered in January 1992 and September 1994 on the Space Shuttle!The Solidification of Liquid Mixtures programme, designed by students at Shenyang 107 Middle School, involves grinding two different materials, Woodstock and Rosin, mixing them evenly and then taking them into space, where they are heated, melted into liquid form, and allowed to cool and solidify. The experiment was used to observe their distribution in space as they melt into liquids, opening a new way of developing new materials and processes.Lanzhou 14 high school students designed the "control of garbage inside the space shuttle" program, the study to solve the space shuttle garbage floating around under weightlessness conditions, health and impact problems. Experiment is this: make a rectangular box, with a baffle to split it in half, half containing space debris, the other half of the four walls of the adhesive tape by the space shuttle to open the outer wall of the space debris, the experiment will be carried out of the space debris. The Interaction of Solid and Liquid Surfaces in Space, proposed by students of Zhengzhou No. 26 Middle School, is also interesting: in a container carried into space by a space shuttle, droplets are sprinkled on different solid surfaces. The experiment is designed to observe what liquid is like on a solid surface without its own weight or other impurities in a weightlessness and vacuum environment. This experiment has important implications for surface coating and welding.The "mixing of water and oil flow under weightlessness" scheme proposed by students of a Hong Kong academy plays an important role in the experimental production of high-purity special alloys and drugs in space. The "effects of weightlessness on the growth and reproduction of paramecium" scheme proposed by the students of Zhonghua Pharmaceutical Factory in Shijiazhuang was to preserve the paramecium capsule by centrifugal drying on the space shuttle, to cultivate the paramecium with sealed bottles of straw water, to provide light and heat for the paramecium using small light bulbs, and then return the results to the ground to be tested to determine the growth of the paramecium cell without success.
Silkworm Babies and Multicolored Soils on Chinese Satellites Chinese students' space experiments began with the US space shuttle, and when did Chinese spacecraft begin carrying Chinese students' experiments? It was in 2005. The idea of "silkworms spitting and cocooning in space", proposed by students at Jingshan School in Beijing, was a throwback: Initially, the experiment was selected as the US Space Shuttle's Sky experiment, which was carried into space by Space Shuttle Columbia on January 16, 2003. Data from the space shuttle showed that the silkworms could adapt to weightlessness, that they were cocoons, that they were ready to spawn and that everything was in good condition. Unfortunately, the Columbia experiment crashed when it returned 15 days later, and the silkworms died. On August 29, 2005, the 22nd Chinese science and technology test satellite was relaunched into space. The device is a cylindrical silver aluminum container, 20 cm in diameter and 18 cm in height, with constant temperature inside. The container is divided into four cubes containing 12 silkworms, including two females, four eggs, four ripening silkworms and a large number of silkworms and cocoons.After 18 days of space travel, the silkworms and their eggs returned to the ground.The experimental group at Jingshan School in Beijing took out the biological vessels and recorded in detail the physiological circulation phenomena of the space silkworms such as their activities, spawning, netting and growth under weightlessness, and obtained the variation data of the silkworms in the space environment. On December 15, 2009, China sent a remote-sensing satellite 8 into space, as well as a small popular science satellite, Hope I, designed for experiments with young people, using an octagonal column frame that weighs 60 kilograms, has a diameter of 0.68 meters and is 0.48 meters high, and is orbiting at 1200 kilometers above the Sun in synchronous orbit. What does this small satellite do in the sky? In addition to amateur radio space communications and space experiments for teenagers, it carries the "Tianyuan" five-color soil experiment conceived by students at Jingshan School in Beijing. The experiment involves placing five-color ceramic beads in a square transparent soil arrangement in Zhongshan Park, Beijing. These small beads do not easily generate five millimeters of static electricity to study the conditions of space particles.
Seeds in the sky on a returning satellite China has successfully launched and retrieved 22 re-entry satellites, on which scientists have carried out many experiments, such as experiments in space life sciences, experiments in space materials processing, and space experiments in crop seeds and microorganisms. What is the most common of these experiments? Spaceflight breeding experiments, in which crops and other plant seeds are taken into space by satellite, mutated under the influence of space environment mutations, then selected and utilized beneficial mutations, and new seeds are selected on the ground to produce new varieties with high yield, good quality and many grains. From 1987 to 2006, China conducted a total of more than 1200 kinds of space breeding experiments using re-entry satellites and spacecraft, of which more than 200 varieties were popularized and applied in agricultural production, with gratifying achievements.After four generations of rice seeds carried by the satellite, a new variety of "Huahang No.1" rice was developed, with a yield of 600 kg per mu, 20% higher than that of the original variety, the grain of rice was crystal clear and bright, and the growth period was shortened by 10 days. After four generations of potato seeds carried by the satellite, a new variety of "Aerospace No. 1" potato was developed, with a yield of 216 kg per mu, an increase of 11 per cent over the original variety. After 4 generations of tomato seeds carried by the satellite, a new variety of "Yufan No.1" tomato was developed, with a yield of 6000 kilograms per mu, 50 percent higher than that of the original variety. The content of vitamin C was also greatly increased.A new variety of "Hangjiao No. 3" chili with early ripening, half-yield and high vitamin C content was cultivated on the ground by the satellite, with an average yield of 2816 kg per mu. Each eggplant seedling can produce more than 100 aubergines, which is 10.5% higher than the original variety and 10 days earlier than the ripening stage.Cowpea seeds on board the satellite are more resistant to high temperatures, higher levels of vitamins, protein and calcium than those on the ground, and also have strong anti-virus and anti-rust ability.The satellite carries the white lotus seed, cultivates in the ground "the space lotus 3" the white lotus new variety, the acreage increases greatly.
The space experiment on the Shenzhou spacecraftFrom November 1999 to November 2011, China successfully launched eight Shenzhou spacecraft, three of which were manned flights. The Shenzhou spacecraft also carried a number of brilliant space experiments. With only one day of space flight to verify the technological capabilities of manned spaceflight, the Shenzhou-1 test spacecraft carried only 10 grams of seeds, including barley, corn, melons, tomatoes, cowpeas, radishes, green peppers, rapeseed and watermelon seeds, as well as varieties of Chinese herbal medicines such as licorice and root. The Shenzhou-2 experimental spacecraft carried 19 kinds of biological samples, including animals, plants and microorganisms, among them 6 white rabbits, 8 small turtles, 12 snails and more than 10 kinds of plant seeds. Experiments in space life science and bioengineering were carried out.The Shenzhou-3 test spaceship carried an incubator containing nine eggs into space. After seven days of space flight, the incubator contained three small chickens that broke their shells, weighing more than 20 grams each, and grew to more than 180 grams in the full moon upon their return to the ground.On Shenzhou-3, it also carried a package of 12 fine grass species weighing one kilogram, 27 rare vegetable species, and opened up a new way to mutate a new kind of bacteria that could be used for physical mutating bacteria to produce a new medicine. The space experiments on the Shenzhou IV experimental spacecraft include: experiments on cell fusion in microgravity; experiments on the separation and purification of biomacromolecules and cells in space by electrophoresis; and experiments on the preparation of medicines by carrying seeds of Chinese herbal medicines. The Shenzhou-5 manned spacecraft is mainly to test the technical performance of the first manned flight into space. In addition, it has carried out on-board experiments, especially sending the seeds of crops from Taiwan's Baodao Island into space and conducting space breeding experiments.The experiments carried on board the Shenzhou VI manned spacecraft include crystal production and space materials science experiments; protein crystallization devices and biological incubators for space life science experiments; biocell reactors for space cell fusion experiments; solar and cosmic interbody high-energy radiation monitors for space astronomy observation activities; and atmospheric composition detection and space environment detection activities.The Shenzhou VII manned spacecraft carried materials science experiments and space breeding experiments. A solid lubricating materials experimental device was installed outside the capsule. The device, weighing 2.265 kg, 27 cm long, 19 cm wide and 5 cm thick, contained 80 experimental samples of 5 categories. After 44 hours of exposure in space, the astronauts took it back on a spacewalk to study the effects of gravity on the development of these endangered plant species in space.The Shenzhou-8 spacecraft mainly tests the rendezvous and docking technology with the Tiangong-1 target vehicle. In addition, it carries 17 space life science experimental projects involving the biological and life science experiments of plants, animals and microorganisms to study the microgravity and radiation effects of the spacecraft's flight in orbit.
Space Experiments on the Russian Space Station Since the successful launch of the Soviet Space Station in 1971, astronauts have been carrying out supervised experiments with wheat, onions, orchids, and other plants on board the station. Crops and plants are grown on the station to provide food, vegetables, melons, and fruits to astronauts on long space flights in the future. Plants can absorb carbon dioxide emitted by humans, release fresh air for human respiration, and convert it into a long-term atmosphere filled with oxygen for spaceflight. During the 15-year space flight of the Russian space station "Peace", astronauts carried out a total of 16,500 scientific experiments on board the station. Extensive research has been carried out on the life sciences of space, the processing of space materials, microgravity science, Earth observation and astrophysics. In particular, experiments have been carried out on the physiological and psychological changes of human beings in long-term space flight, and many results of great practical value have been achieved. In a greenhouse on board the space station, more than 100 plants have been cultivated, focusing on the entire process of growing wheat in space. The greenhouse experiment shows that space is also suitable for agricultural development and provides experience for the future establishment of a space closed ecosystem, the use of plant oxygen and the absorption of carbon dioxide. The research on ways to maintain plant growth using several plant experimental equipment will contribute to the development of energy sealed ecosystems, in particular the interstellar source of food. Several stoves for the production of semiconductors, such as "magma", "corundum" and "crystal", were installed on board the space station. Semiconductors produced in the space environment were of high purity and low cost. In microgravity experiments, high-purity gallium arsenide crystals up to 5 cm in diameter were pulled out, protein crystals 10 times higher in diameter than on the ground were cultured, producing 100 times higher purity and separation than the Earth's anti-influenza interferon agents. Life science experiments such as the hatching of quail eggs, the reproduction of baby fish and the growth of field snails were carried out on board the space station. An incubator containing 60 quail eggs on board the space shuttle Peace produced 37 small quails, but only 10 survived in the harsh space environment. Only 3 embryos survived the flight due to the low temperature in the space capsule and sudden entry into the gravity environment. A number of Earth observation instruments have been equipped on board the space station, and the remote sensing data obtained from these instruments have created and enriched databases covering land and mineral resources, seasonal changes in agricultural land, and changes in global marine life.Many astronomical observation instruments have been installed on the space station "Peace", through which astronauts have observed solar-terrestrial phenomena and their interactions, changes in cosmic rays, the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, thereby predicting the time and location of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; many new radiometric spectral data have been obtained by the observation instruments, which have increased the understanding of the processes of celestial bodies.
Space Experiments on the US Space Shuttle From April 1981 to July 2011, the United States launched 135 space shuttle flights, and has successively carried out 852 space flights, completing more than 2,000 experimental missions in the fields of biology, materials science and astronomy. In May 1985, the first Chinese astronaut, Wang Ganjun, took off on board the space shuttle Challenger. He took his nine-year-old droplet dynamics experiment equipment into Earth orbit and personally operated the droplet flow characteristics test under microgravity conditions. On the second day of the shuttle's orbit, the experiment equipment broke down and Wang spent two days repairing the equipment, then worked overtime to obtain the experimental data, which were used successfully to verify the theory of the importance of the development of the liquid materials.The space shuttle Columbia, launched in March 1982, has a greenhouse in which some crops and other plants are sown, including Chinese mung beans. Why use Chinese mung beans? With so little soil, fertilizer and water on board, Chinese mung beans, an easy plant to take root and sprout, have been selected as space experiments, and the result is that Chinese mung beans are growing well in space. The U. S. space shuttle has a small greenhouse, where astronauts cultivate many plant seeds and seedlings, plant cultivation experiments in space to study the growth of plants in the space environment. The purpose of these experiments is to one day grow crops on the spacecraft, to the long-flying astronauts to provide food vegetables and fruits and other food. In September 1992, eight days into the space shuttle Endeavour, the astronauts carried out 43 space experiments, including 24 experiments in materials science and manufacturing technology, and 19 medical and biological experiments. Endeavour carried two Japanese carp, four female South African claw frogs, 180 African bumblebees, 7,600 fruit flies and 30 fertilized eggs on board the space shuttle. In addition, the space crew was unable to carry out long-term medical experiments on these experiments for medical purposes.The astronaut also conducted an experiment in which heated filaments were used to vaporize metal samples from the glass bubble, which glowed brightly for eight minutes, emitted a wisp of white smoke, and then cooled down. The evaporation gasification experiment, which heated and melted the suspended small spherical glass sample to create a very pure form of glass, was an excellent mission for the astronaut on Endef.On Aug. 8, 2007, Space Shuttle Endeavour brought Barbara Morgan, the first female teacher, into space. On Aug. 14, 2007, she turned space into a classroom and taught a 25-minute space experiment to students on the ground. Morgan demonstrated her effortless effort to fly two male astronauts into the air and float them up; she and two male astronauts sent them back from space to experiment with bubbly soaked seeds.
Space experiments on the International Space Station The International Space Station began construction in November 1998 and was completed in July 2011, during which 203 people entered and more than 600 scientific experiments were carried out, with unprecedented results.
The space experiment on the International Space Station is divided into three phases: In the initial stage, attention was paid to the understanding of the space environment, mainly carrying out experiments in medicine, life science and materials science, which improved the guarantee capability of space flight. At the development stage, attention was paid to accumulating the skills and experience of astronauts in long-term space flight and preparing the conditions for the realization of manned missions to the moon, the establishment of a lunar base and the manned exploration of Mars. In the completion phase, attention was focused on further tapping the potential of the utilization of space resources in low-Earth orbit and opening up new avenues for the benefit of mankind. These space experiments include space medicine, space bioengineering and space life science experiments, indoor physics, space materials science, microgravity fluid physics experiments, and space physics experiments. On May 16, 2011, the US space shuttle Endeavour sent a state-of-the-art cosmic high-energy particle detector, Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. This is a project put forward by Chinese space scientist and Nobel laureate Ding MAGE to explore strange matter in space. The International Space Station also has a number of special equipment for young people to carry out space experiments, operated by astronauts, to observe the experimental process and experimental results. For example, on the station there are a number of experimental shelves, students will plant seeds and seedlings on top, astronauts observed their growth and development in the weightlessness environment in space. When plants return to the ground, students can compare the difference between ground and space plant growth processes or seed germination to understand the effect of weightlessness on plant growth. Small worms and spiders are placed in animal development boxes on the shelf to observe and record the growth and reproduction of worms, study spiders netting and nesting in space. The astronauts also took a variety of toys made by the students to the space station, including clockwork hoppers, spring-loaded frogs, small racing cars running on circular tracks, mechanical fish swimming in the water, and yo-yo balls making noises, demonstrating some of the basic physics and comparing the different phenomena of the universe. The students also asked the astronauts to take a digital camera into space and choose the best view of the earth's geography and space. At present, the International Space Station has arranged more than 30 space experiments, most of which are medical and biological experiments, including therapeutic drugs for difficult diseases, as well as experimental projects in biological engineering, space technology, materials science, Earth observation and space education. From these colorful space experiments, we will see broad prospects for space development.