Effective pixels: Image sensors receive incident light through an optical lens. Effective pixels are the number of pixels on the image sensor that will be directly reflected in the final output data of a still image. Interpolations are a method of increasing the pixel size of an image without generating pixels. Some artificial interpolations of lost pixels are calculated using mathematical formulas based on the color of surrounding pixels.
Sensitivity (ISO): A popular measure of how much light a film needs in order to achieve accurate exposure. Sensitivity is generally expressed in terms of ISO values. This value increases the sensitivity of the film to light, so that it can be shot in different light sources. Digital camera manufacturers generally convert the sensitivity (or equivalent sensitivity to light) of the CCD of a digital camera to the sensitivity of a conventional film.
White balance: Color is essentially an interpretation of light. What looks white in normal light may not look white in darker light, and "white" in fluorescent lighting is also "non-white". White balance is a technique for defining "white" as "white" regardless of ambient light.
Digital zoom: Through the calculation of the program on the body and the coordination of the optical system, we can take the subject to do local magnification, interpolation to simulate the effect of the optical zoom. It works similar to the way we will be in the computer to zoom in a certain part of the image, but the "digital zoom" is in the shooting process directly on the CCD to complete the exact part, "digital zoom out of the camera is only a selection of the use of the reference area, ".
Optical Zoom: For digital cameras, "optical zoom" does not change the size or resolution of the picture, the number of pixels used to describe the picture remains the same. This is the fundamental difference between "optical zoom" and "digital zoom", reflected in the image, that is, the image quality will be different, optical zoom without sacrificing the quality of the premise of the zoom, thus more practical than digital zoom.
Exposure compensation: after the camera metering, you can make different series of adjustments to achieve the image and the actual light approximation, which is the exposure compensation.
Manual exposure: The combination of aperture and shutter can be freely controlled. The shutter speed display in the viewfinder provides a dimming aperture or shutter for correct exposure. Exposure can be deliberately increased or decreased to create a special effect if necessary.
Lens focal length: refers to the distance between the focal point and the lens after the parallel light passes through the lens. Basically, if the position of the subject remains the same, the focal length of the lens is proportional to the magnification of the object.
Aperture: the number of different levels of aperture size is called the aperture coefficient, in f /, it is the inverse of the relative aperture such as 1:3,5, the aperture coefficient is f / 3.5 or 3.5, the smaller the aperture, the less the amount of light, each level of difference, the number difference of 2 square root, such as:1, l.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 11, 16, people said the aperture coefficient.
TTL: Through The Lens (via lens) is a single-lens reflex viewfinder.
AF (Auto Focus): There are two ways of AF, according to the control principle is divided into active and passive two. Active AF through the camera to emit a ray (generally infrared), according to the reflected back of the ray signal to determine the distance of the subject, and then automatically adjust the lens to achieve automatic focus. Passive focus to determine a little bit of the biomimetic focus of the camera, it is a high quality, and even more accurate image of the camera, the camera, it is difficult to focus.
AE (Auto Expose): AE means that the camera automatically determines the exposure amount according to the light conditions. There are two kinds of fundamental metering principles: incident mode and reflection mode. The incident mode is to measure the brightness of the light incident to the camera to determine the exposure combination. Reflection mode is to measure the actual brightness of the subject, that is also the brightness of the imaging to determine the exposure combination.
Aperture priority: is to determine the use of the aperture, and then the camera based on the calculated exposure to determine the appropriate shutter speed, this method is suitable for the need to pre-set the depth of field or with the flash to adjust the ratio of the occasion ;
Speed priority: is to determine the shutter speed, let the camera choose the appropriate aperture size, suitable for shooting moving body; mixing priority is to make up for the lack of a single priority first determine the aperture or shutter range, and then the camera to determine the exposure combination.
Program control: is to let the camera according to pre-programmed control procedures exposure.
Predefined mode: It is the manufacturer according to several common light conditions, preset a more reasonable exposure parameters for shooting choice.
AWB: (Automatic White Balance) automatic color adjustment, according to the location of the light source, automatic sensing and thus adjust the color temperature function.
Color temperature: refers to the light source due to different types of color differences caused by the scale of the subject matter.
iSAPS technology: (Chinese name: intelligent scene analysis based on photographic space) is Canon's unique technology, applying statistical analysis technology to improve the performance of AF, AE and AWB. By analyzing the frequency and parameters of user photos, Canon can obtain the setting of various factors such as relevant focal length, focus distance, scene brightness, etc. Depending on different combinations of statistical frequencies as well as advanced digital scene prediction algorithm, Canon AEF / AEF can be more effectively optimized. (Canon proprietary technology)
Broadband digital technology: make full use of memory card space to maximize the recording of moving images and sound. (Olympus proprietary technology)
Multi-point intelligent autofocus: (Multi-Point AiAF) wide-area autofocus automatically selects one or more focal points for the subject in the viewfinder. In conjunction with iSAPS technology, it enables faster and more accurate autofocus in a variety of shooting environments. (Canon proprietary technology)
FlexiZone AF / AE: FlexiZone AF / AE feature allows the photographer to freely move the automatic focus within the viewfinder and eliminates the need to reframe the shot when the subject is not in the center of the frame. When selecting point metering, the user can select the focus in the viewfinder, thus adapting to the complex lighting environment to a greater extent. (Canon proprietary technology)
Digital ESP metering system: Select the appropriate exposure mode in different environments (even in very harsh light conditions). This ensures accurate exposure results even in backlighting or high contrast situations. (Olympus proprietary technology)
Point metering system: Up to 8 points in the same frame are metered to read a specific area of the photo for desired precision and exposure locking.
Central weighted average metering: Based on the average metering, the center of the picture or the nearby picture is calculated according to different weighting coefficients, with the weight of the center being the largest, the higher the edge of the picture, the smaller the weight. The final value is the metering value.
Storage media portion:
CF card: The CF card was first introduced by SanDisk in 1994. This storage medium uses flash technology to permanently store information without power supply. It is fast, lightweight and the size of a matchbox.
XD card: (eXtreme Digital), jointly developed and held by Olympus, Fuji and Toshiba, Olympus and Fuji saw that the SM card was no longer keeping pace with trends and technology, so they teamed up to launch a slimmer, more technologically advanced XD card.
MMC card: MultiMedia Card-Multimedia card, a multi-function memory card developed by SANDISK and Siemens of Germany, can be used to carry a variety of digital products such as telephone, digital camera, digital video camera, MP3, etc.
SD card: Secure Digital Card-Secure Digital Card, developed by Japan's Panasonic Corporation, Toshiba Corporation and the United States SANDISK Corporation, has a large capacity, high performance, especially security features such as multi-function memory card. It than the MMC card more than a data copyright protection of the password authentication function (SDMI specifications), now more than MMC digital card, MP3 / MC-compatible devices, and most of the speed, MMC.
Sony Memory Stick: The Sony Memory Stick is a digital storage medium for an ultra-micro volume (chewing-gum size) integrated circuit that Sony developed in July 1997 with Casio, Fujitsu, Olympus, Sanyo and Sharp.
Image save format:
Exif format: (Exchangeable image file-an abbreviation for an interchangeable graphics file), this format is specifically for digital camera photos. This format can record digital photo attribute information.
Exif2.2: is a newly improved digital camera file format that contains a variety of shooting information necessary for optimal printing.
DPOF (Digital Print Order Format) format: is a standard print ordering data format that automatically transfers recorded ordering requirements to the output device when a consumer wants to export an image from a digital camera, either from a personal print camera, a printer, or a professional print output service center.
DCF format: is a unified recording format for digital cameras. It is an abbreviation of Design Rule of Camera File system in the JEIDA specification designed to facilitate the use of image files between related devices.
RAW format: is a direct reading sensor (CCD or CMOS) on the original record data, that is, these data has not yet been exposure compensation, color balance, GAMMA adjustment and other processing. To put it bluntly that is, no human factors taken by the image, without compression. Therefore, professional photographers can be in the later stage through a special software, such as Photoshop, to the photo exposure, compensation is more conducive to adjust the balance, GMA processing.
TIFF: short for Tagged Image File Format. It is different from other bitmap File files in that it can record preview images and mass content. Because its software package can ignore unreadable information, it can be said that its file format is relatively platform-independent.
Here are some common tips for photography, hope to have a small 7 and other friends card machine help!
1. Keep the camera stable
Newly photographed filmgoers often experience blurred images caused by camera shake, so avoid camera shake when shooting. In general, the left hand held the elbow against the chest, or the body against a stable object. Using a telephoto lens, make sure to add a tripod. Press the shutter to stabilize gently. The whole person should relax and use the lower knee position when shooting.
2. Keep the sun behind you
Photography is a perfect combination of light and shadow. Sufficient light is needed to shine on the subject when shooting. The easiest way is to have the sun behind you with some offset. Light can illuminate the subject and brighten its colors and shadows. A slight offset can create some shadows to show the texture and stereoscopic feel of the object. However, it should be noted that when taking your own shadow.
3. Selection of shooting style
Different ways of holding the camera (vertical or horizontal) result in different image effects. Photographs taken vertically can emphasize the height of the subject (such as shooting a forest), while crosses can emphasize the width of the subject (such as shooting a continuous mountain range). However, when shooting a pocket camera, care should be taken not to cover the flash with your fingers.
4. Change the shooting style
You should always try new ways of shooting, or you will feel the same way if you watch too much. There is a lot of randomness in your personal shots. You can go anywhere if you think the images are interesting or meaningful. For example, you can take some close-up shots of people, panoramic images, the same scene in different climates, and so on.
5. Shooting distance reduction
Sometimes, instead of photographing the whole person or object, emphasizing a particular feature of the scene can have a stronger visual impact. You can get better results than shooting from a distance by simply being closer to the subject.
6.enhance the visual effect of the depth of field
Depth of field is very important for shooting, and each photographer does not want his or her photos to be stereoscopic and to look like a flat surface. So during shooting, add some objects to show relativity to increase the depth of field. For example, to take a distant mountain range, add a character or a tree to the foreground of the picture. A wide-angle lens can exaggerate the relationship between the normal space of the subject and the depth of perspective.
7. Correct composition
The easiest way to highlight the subject in a photographic composition is to place the subject in the centre of the picture. The whole picture has a special stability because the subject is in the centre of the picture. But it is boring to always place the subject in the middle. A good photograph is usually well composed. It is more common in photography to divide the frame into three parts (horizontal and vertical), and then split the photograph is used.
Larger scenes can be shot with a wide-angle lens, but such a shot can throw away a lot of details, especially meaningful ones. So sometimes a zoom lens should be used to make the image smaller and capture small and interesting images.
9.pre-focus shooting characters
When photographing a person, you can wait for a while and adjust the exposure and focal length in advance after determining the location and angle of the shot. Strive to shoot in a short time to reduce the tension of the subject and get photos with natural expression. In changeable weather, light also changes, so it is necessary to take more film in order to have enough images for final selection.
10.the best use of the lens
Camera in general, the best aperture in the shooting technique is 5.6-8, the maximum aperture to the direction of the small aperture dial 2-3 gears. Keep the camera stable, master the correct manner and body posture, choose a higher shutter speed, such as 135 cameras 100 mm lens, preferably with 1 / 125 seconds speed. If the mountains must be shot with a slower shutter speed, then the camera should be used to reduce the maximum UV light exposure between the three scaffolding lens to maintain a clear image.