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Test-tube Reactions

By Barbara Berry,2014-07-16 15:21
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Test-tube ReactionsTest

     Test-Tube Reactions:

     Redox and Non-Redox

    C11-3-01 & 06

     C12-1-10

Introduction:

    Predict what might happen when a piece of copper wire is placed in a solution of AgNO. 3

    If you try this experiment, you will initially see that the copper is a shiny copper color and the solution is colorless. In less than one hour the solution is light blue and the wire is covered with shiny silver needles. What happened?

    Copper metal became copper ions in solution and silver ions became silver metal.

    +2+Cu(s) + 2Ag(aq) Cu(aq) + 2Ag(s)

    2++The Cu(s) loses electrons to become Cu(aq) ions and the Ag(aq) ions gain these electrons to

    become Ag(s).

    Reactions that involve the exchange of electrons are called reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions. When a chemical species loses electrons we say that it is oxidized, and when a chemical species gains electrons we say that it is reduced.

    2++The Cu(s) loses electrons to be oxidized to Cu(aq). The Ag(aq) gain electrons to be reduced to

    Ag(s).

    2+What would you predict if you placed a piece of Ag metal in a solution of Cu?

    +Since we observed that the reaction of Ag and Cu is spontaneous, we would not expect the reverse 2+reaction to be spontaneous. So no reaction occurs between Ag metal and Cu.

    There are several types of chemical reactions: Synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double-replacement, combustion and acid-base. Interestingly, most of these reactions (with the exception of most double replacement and acid-base) are oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. Redox reactions are classified by having both an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction, and hence, an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent. This makes sense since as one reactant is losing electrons (being oxidized), the other is gaining electrons (being reduced) Oxidation numbers can be helpful in determining whether a reaction is redox or non-redox. When a change in oxidation number occurs in a reaction, with both an increase in number and a decrease in number, then the reaction is classified as redox. If this does not occur, then the reaction is non-redox.

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    The types of chemical reactions are summarized below:

Types of Chemical Reactions:

1. Synthesis (composition)

    Example: Tarnishing of silver to form black silver sulfide

     2Ag + S AgS 2

2. Decomposition

Example: Electrolysis of water

     2HO 2H + O222

3. Single Replacement

    Example: Formation of zinc carbonate (used in suntan lotion)

     Zn + HCO H + ZnCO2323

4. Double Replacement

    Example: Formation of barium sulfate (used in X-rays)

BaCO + NaSO BaSO + NaCO 324423

5. Hydrocarbon Combustion*

     Example: Combustion of methane gas

    CH + O CO + HO 4222

    *Products are ALWAYS CO and HO! 22

6. Acid-Base Reactions*

     *This reaction is a form of a Double Replacement reaction where an acid reacts with a base (also called neutralization).

    Example: Milk of Magnesia and HCl (neutralization of stomach acid)

     Mg(OH) + 2HCl MgCl + 2HO 222

    *Products are ALWAYS a salt (ionic compound) and water!

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Redox or Non-redox?

    Use oxidation numbers to determine if a reaction is redox or non-redox. Rules

    for assigning oxidation numbers are found at the end of this document.

Redox Reaction: A chemical reaction (both oxidation and reduction) in which

    changes in oxidation numbers occur.

    Oxidation Reaction: any chemical reaction in which an element increases in oxidation number or loses electrons.

     oxidation

     0 +1

    Example: 2Na + Cl 2NaCl 2

     (Na is being oxidized)

    Reduction Reaction: any chemical reaction in which an element decreases in oxidation number or gains electrons.

     reduction

     0 -1

    Example: 2Na + Cl 2NaCl 2

     (Cl is being reduced)

    NOTE: oxidation cannot occur without reduction!

     A helpful mnemonic: **LEO says GER** (Loss of Electrons; Oxidation) (Gain of Electrons; Reduction)

    The reaction above can be represented as:

     3

    Oxidizing Agent: the substance that causes the oxidation of another element; contains the substance being reduced.

    Reducing Agent: the substance that causes the reduction of another element; contains the substance being oxidized.

     a reducing agent If oxidized

     If reduced an oxidizing agent

     0 0 +1 -1

    Example: 2Al + 3Cl 2AlCl 23

Al is oxidized; Al is the reducing agent

    Cl is reduced; Cl is the oxidizing agent

    0 0 +2 -1 +2 -1

    Example: Zn + CuCl ZnCl + Cu 22

Zn is oxidized; Zn is the reducing agent

    Cu is reduced; CuCl is the oxidizing agent 2

    NOTE: If there is no change in oxidation numbers, it is not a redox reaction!

Objectives:

    ; To observe various types of chemical reactions

    ; To learn to identify redox reactions.

    ; To learn to identify substances oxidized and substances reduced, as well as oxidizing

    agents and reducing agents in redox reactions.

    In this lab you will perform a series of 13 test-tube experiments at 13 stations around the room. Place 13 test-tubes in your rack, plus a test tube containing calcium hydroxide solution (from your teacher) for station #11. Number them from 1-13. Do not empty your test tubes when you leave the station. Follow the instructions for each station. Describe briefly your observations for every reaction and write balanced chemical equations.

Look for: 1. colour changes

     2. a gas being formed

    3. energy changes occurring such as heat or light being released

    4. solids dissolving and new solids formed, especially insoluble solids (precipitates).

These changes tell you what reactants are disappearing or being formed.

Also, for each equation do the complete redox analysis, that is:

    1. Assign oxidation numbers for all elements in the equation;

     2. Identify the element oxidized and the element reduced (if it is a redox reaction);

     3. Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent (if it is a redox reaction).

     4

Materials:

(By Station Number)

    1. HCl (0.1 mol/L solution), 2 cm strips of Mg ribbon, matches, test tube #1

    2. HSO (0.1 mol/L solution), CaCO chips, matches, test tube #2 243

    3. NaOH (0.1 mol/L solution), universal indicator, HCl (0.1 mol/L solution), test tube #3

    4. AgNO crystals, distilled water, copper wire, test tube #4 3

    5. CuCl (0.1 mol/L solution), Al foil, test tube #5 2

    6. KI (0.1 mol/L solution), Pb(NO) (0.1 mol/L solution), test tube #6 32

    7. CuSO (0.1 mol/L solution), NaOH (0.1 mol/L solution), test tube #7 4

    8. Strips of Mg, tongs, burner, test tube #8

    9. HO (3% solution), saturated KI solution, splint, matches, test tube #9 22

    10. Vinegar (acetic acid, 5% solution), baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), test tube #10

    11. CaCO, tongs, burner, rubber stopper with glass tubing, test tube of Ca(OH)(aq), test tube # 11 3212. Mg ribbon, CuSO (0.1 mol/L solution), test tube #12 4

    13. Ca metal, distilled water, splint, matches, test tube #13

Station 1:

Quarter fill the test-tube with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl). Add to it a 2 cm strip of magnesium

    (Mg) ribbon.

Observations:

1.

    2.

You may wish to test the gas by placing a lit match over the top of the test-tube as the gas

    evolves. If it “pops’, it is hydrogen.

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

_____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 2:

Quarter fill the test-tube with dilute sulfuric acid (HSO). Add to it a granule of marble chip 24

    calcium carbonate (CaCO). 3

Observations:

1.

    2.

     5

    You may wish to test the gas by placing a lit match over the top of the test-tube as the gas evolves. If it is carbon dioxide it is likely to extinguish the flame.

Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

_____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________ + _______________

What is the reaction type?

Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

    If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and reducing agent.

Station 3:

    Quarter fill the test-tube with dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Add to it a few drops of universal indicator. This indicator changes the colours of the rainbow (ROYGBIV) and indicates whether something is an antacid (base) or acid. The BIV colours indicate bases. The ROY colours indicate acids. Green is neutral.

What is the colour of the indicator in sodium hydroxide?

    Thus, is it an acid or base?

    Add drops of hydrochloric acid (HCl) until it turns green. When an acid is added to an antacid (base), this reaction is called neutralization

Observations:

1.

    2.

Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

_____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

    If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and reducing agent.

Station 4:

Place a crystal of silver nitrate (AgNO) in a test-tube. ? fill the test-tube with water. Wrap a 3

    copper wire around your finger to make a copper coil spring. Drop the spring into the solution of silver nitrate.

     6

Observations:

1.

    2.

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

    _____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

    Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 5:

Quarter fill the test-tube with dilute copper(II)chloride (CuCl). Add to it a strip of aluminum foil (Al). 2

Observations:

1.

    2.

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

    _____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

    Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 6:

Quarter fill the test-tube with potassium iodide (KI). Add to it a few drops of lead(II)nitrate

    Pb(NO) 32

Observations:

1.

    2.

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

    _____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

     7

    Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 7:

Quarter fill the test-tube with copper(II)sulfate (CuSO). Add to it a few drops of sodium hydroxide 4

    (NaOH).

Observations:

1.

    2.

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

    _____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

    Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 8:

Hold a 1 cm strip of magnesium in the tongs. Light the burner. Heat the magnesium. Drop the

    burnt magnesium in the test-tube.

Observations:

1.

    2.

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

_____________ + _____________ _____________

What is the reaction type?

    Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 9

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Quarter fill the test-tube with hydrogen peroxide (HO). Add to it a few drops of the yellow 22

    solution (saturated solution potassium iodide). It is not involved in the reaction. It just makes the

    hydrogen peroxide decompose.

Observations:

1.

    2.

Test the gas by placing a glowing splint in the top of the test-tube. If the glowing splint reignites

    the gas is oxygen.

Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

_____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

    If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and reducing agent.

Station 10:

    Quarter fill the test-tube with vinegar (acetic acid). Add to it a small amount (use the small scooper provided) of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).

Observations:

1.

    2.

    You may wish to test the gas by placing a lit match over the top of the test-tube as the gas evolves. If it is carbon dioxide it is likely to extinguish the flame.

Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

    _____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________ + _______________

What is the reaction type?

Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

    If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and reducing agent.

Station 11:

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Place a scoop of calcium carbonate in a test-tube sealed with a rubber stopper with fitted glass

    tubing and gently heat over a burner.

Observations:

1.

    2.

You may wish to test the gas by placing the end of the glass tubing into the test-tube of calcium

    hydroxide. If the calcium hydroxide solution turns cloudy, then the gas produced is CO. 2

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

_____________ + heat _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

    Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 12:

Quarter fill the test-tube with dilute copper(II)sulfate solution (CuSO). Add to it a 2 cm strip of 4

    magnesium (Mg) ribbon.

Observations:

1.

    2.

    Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction including states of matter.

    _____________ + _____________ _____________ + ______________

What is the reaction type?

    Assign oxidation numbers to each element in the reaction.

If it is a redox reaction, indicate the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent and

    reducing agent.

Station 13:

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