Test Five (A)
I. Reading Comprehension
We typically think of folkways and mores as having considerable durability, as being relatively fixed and slow to change. Yet we often yearn for something new, for variety and novelty. At first it may seem impossible that this desire could be satisfied through norms, since norms emphasize conformity. Yet curiously, we mange to be conformists even when we seek change. We achieve this strange outcome by a set of norms that demand some measure of conformity while they endure, but that last only a short time. These norms are termed fashions and fads. A fashion is a folkway that lasts for a short time and enjoys widespread acceptance within society. Fashion finds expression in such things as styles of clothing, auto design, and home architecture. By virtue of fashion, the suit that was in vogue five years ago often seems out of place today. The automobile of three years past that appeared so beautiful and appropriate looks outdated and even somewhat odd now. and “gingerbread” and brown stone houses no longer suit most of our tastes.
A fad is a folkway that lasts for a short time and enjoys acceptance among only a segment of the population. Indeed, the behavior is often scorned by most members of society. Fads appears in amusements, new games, popular tunes, dance steps, health practices, movie idols, and slang. Adolescents seem to be particularly fascinated by fads. Since clothing and gestures can arbitrarily serve as signs of in-group or out-group status, fads provide young people with a sense of identity and belonging.
Fashions and fads are found in all spheres and walks of life. Intellectuals who often scorn the “ridiculous” behavior of the youngsters themselves follow the latest plays, books, foods, and scholarly theories currently in vogue in their social worlds.
21. The strange outcome refers to ________.
A) being relatively fixed and slow to change B) yearning for something new
C) conforming to norms while seeking change D) desiring novelty and variety 22. Fashions and fads are norms that ________.
A) last for a long time B) last for a short time
C) enjoy great popularity D) are accepted by the minority of people
23. In terms of fashion, ________.
A) people‟s taste changes with time passing by B) youngsters are more loyal followers
C) adults are more conservative D) only scholars appreciate the value
24. According to the passage, youngsters are often drawn together ________.
A) if they are from the same neighborhood B) if they follow the same fads
C) when they study in the same school D) when they follow the same fashions 25. Scholars ________.
A) will not follow the fashion and fad B) often help the youngsters to choose proper fads C) will study the phenomenon of fashion and fad
D) tend to criticize the youngsters for their fad-fallowing
It‟s an age-old dispute: Men are from Mars, women are from Venus. Males and females show
different behaviors almost from birth. Researchers say these behaviors are due to basic differences in brain structure and activity. Studies show men are better at hitting targets and solving math problems while women are better at memorizing words and recognizing faces. Why the differences?
A test of the brain‟s electrical activity shows that women commonly use both sides of their brain while men rely more on one. Scientists already know that the two sides of the brain control different functions – one controlling the sense of space, for example, the other controlling language. Some researchers believe that the different ways men and women use their brains evolved from ancient times, when cave men hunted and women cared for the children. Men had to have good aim. Women had to talk to the kids.
Whatever be the explanation, the battle of the sexes continues. And although their brains are constructed slightly differently, men and women may be equally capable. They may simply rely on different abilities. Take a couple arguing over the location of their car in a parking lot. The man might use his sense of space to find it, while the woman relies on her recognition of landmarks. They both find the car. But chances are that they‟ll still argue about who‟s the better driver and
who‟s better at finding the way home.
26. The first sentence means people have different ideas about whether ________.
A) men and women are from different planets B) men and women don‟t like each other
C) there is any association between the behaviors of men and women
D) there are any differences between the behaviors of men and women
27. Women ________.
A) use both sides of the brain B) only use one side of the brain
C) are more rational D) are more capable than men
28. The brains of men and women ________.
A) are distinctively different in structure B) evolve from ancient times
C) have different functions D) change with the passage of time
29. Men and women ________.
A) have the same brains B) can be equally capable
C) are equally capable of everything D) often have quarrels with each other 30. The example given at the end shows that ________.
A) men are all too dominating B) women always nag about everything
C) men are better at finding their cars in the parking lot
D) men and women rely on different abilities to do the same thing
In America, there are more households with pets than those with children. At least 43 percent of U.S. homes have pets of some sort. Common pets include tropical fish, mice and birds. But the all-time favorites are cats and dogs, even at the White House. Americans sometimes have strong feelings about whether dogs of cats make better pets. “Dog people” and “cat people” often enjoy
Leading a dog‟s life in America isn‟t such a bad thing. Many grocery stores sell gourmet pet foods to owners eager to please their pets. In Houston, Texas, dogs can have their dinner delivered to their homes, just like pizza. Pets can even accompany their owners on vacation. Fancy hotels are beginning to accommodate both man and beast. Furry guests are Four Seasons Hotels can enjoy gourmet meals served on fine china and sleep in soft beds.
The average American enjoys having pets around, and for good reason. Researchers have discovered that interacting with animals lowers a person‟s blood pressure. Dogs can offer
protection from burglars and unwelcome visitors. Cats can help rid the home of unwanted pests. Little creatures of all shapes and sizes can provide companionship and love. In many cases, having a pet prepares a young couple for the responsibilities of parenthood. Pets even encourage social relationships: They give their owners an appearance of friendliness, and they provide a good topic of conversation.
31. The “make” in the first paragraph means the same with that in ______.
A) “You will make a good engineer.” B) “I just can‟t make it.”
C) “Jenny made a promise to him.” D) “My father knows how to make a stool.”
32. “Dog people” and “cat people” ______.
A) hate each other B) are not friendly C) like different pets D) lead different lives 33. Dogs ______.
A) are lied by more people B) can sleep in beds in some hotels
C) are more useful than cats D) have to stay at home when their owners are on vacation 34. In terms of health, ______.
A) leading a dog‟s life is beneficial B) raising pets can do good to us
C) leading a cat‟s life is beneficial D) cats are more helpful
35. Having a pet ______.
A) will occupy a lot of your leisure time B) can help you kill time
C) can help you get the sense of being a parent D) brings you a lot of trouble Passage Four: Read the following passage and answer each question within 10 words. Trademark protection is obtainable for any word, symbol, or combination thereof that is used on goods to indicate their source. Any word – even a common word such as “look”, “life”, or “apple”
– can become a trademark, so long as the world is not used descriptively. “Apple” for fruit salad
might not be protectable. “Apple” for computers certainly is.
Common forms such as geometric shapes (circles, triangles, squares), natural shapes (trees, animals, humans), combinations of shapes, or colors may be protected. Even the single color pink has been protected as a trademark for building insulation. Three-dimensional shapes such as bottle and container shapes and building features (for example, McDonald‟s golden arches) can also be
While people generally only speak of trademarks, that term encompasses other types of marks. A trademark is specifically any words or symbol or combination of the two that is used on goods to identify their source. However, a service mark is a word or symbol or combination used in connection with the offering and provision of services. Blue Cross / Blue Shield, Prudential Insurance, and McDonald‟s are service marks for health insurance services, general insurance services, and restaurant services, respectively. Ownership is established by advertising the mark in conjunction with the service, as opposed to trademarks, where advertising is insufficient – the
mark must be used on the goods in commerce.
In you use any such name or feature to identify and distinguish your products, then think of trademark protection. Ownership of a trademark allows you to exclude others from using a similar mark on similar goods that would be likely to confuse consumers as to the source of the goods. 36. What do trademarks mainly indicate?
37. Which product cannot use “apple” as its trademark?
38. Can you name two common forms a trademark can take?
39. Which mark can be used in establishing ownership?
40. What can you do if you own a trademark?
II. Vocabulary and Structure
41. Although the international situation has _____ many changes, China will adhere to the path of
building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
A) undergone B) designated C) brightened D) fluttered
42. Come on, it‟s time to _____ these toys _____.
A) turn / over B) take / off C) let / loose D) put / away 43. Despite his father‟s _____ she was still frightened of the dark.
A) testimony B) reassurances C) management D) objection
44. AIDS, acquired _____ deficiency syndrome (综合症), is a disease which destroys the natural method the body uses to protect against other diseases.
A) curative B) weary C) immune D) humble
45. The council has operated much more effectively since _____ replaced political dogma.
A) pragmatism B) reassurance C) management D) humanity
46. Eammon was plump and _____ but very attractive to women.
A) humble B) slender C) balding D) fatty
47. They made it perfectly clear that it was _____ to go on.
A) useless B) dreary C) persistent D) sincere
48. Jane glanced at the clock. “Oh dear, I‟m late! I have to run or I‟ll be late for my first
appointment.” She kissed her husband quickly, picked up her _____, and started for the door.
A) checkbook B) briefcase C) shoeshine D) champagne
49. We‟ve spent so much money on our new house, we can‟t afford to _____ it.
A) scrawl B) furnish C) retail D) criticize
50. After perhaps a seventh attempt the moth slipped from the wooden ledge and fell, _____ his
wings, on to his back on the windowsill.
A) snatching B) fluttering C) enhancing D) inheriting
51. People often say “I‟ll put the _____ on” when they are going to make tea or coffee.
A) spice B) rack C) kettle D) oven
52. It‟s a good school, but it‟s just not part of the _____ League.
A) Literature B) Icy C) Chicory D) Ivy
53. His ideas are _____ with the spirit of his age.
A) in essence B) in tune C) in time D) in principle
54. The dramatic contrast in progress since then between the Internet, which has shown explosive
growth, and the space program, which has shrunk, bears eloquent _____ to the value of private-sector competition.
A) definition B) testimony C) statement D) stationery
55. That music always _____ happy memories.
A) comes down to B) takes on C) brings back D) pops out 56. Particularly easy to identify is the sound every citizen knows, the _____, sliding clatter of a
wagon turning off the car track so that a trolley can pass it.
A) sprinkling B) opposing C) rasping D) balding
57. What‟s _____ in your mind just before a race when you‟re waiting for the starter‟s signal?
A) odd B) marvelous C) merciless D) uppermost
58. Please accept my _____ apologies.
A) hypothetical B) heartfelt C) limitless D) fierce
59. Coalition aircraft patrolling the no-fly zone in southern Iraq attacked an Iraqi military _____
command and control center near Al Kut, about 95 miles southeast of Baghdad, U.S. Central Command said.
A) mobile B) scarce C) successive D) considerate
60. The Chinese people of all ethnic groups are firmly opposed to any attempt to split the Chinese
_____ and sovereignty.
A) campus B) section C) territory D) lantern
61. She was so thirsty that she drank a _____ of orange juice.
A) cargo B) cob C) carton D) carriage
62. The new manager hoped to _____ the decline in the company‟s fortunes.
A) subtract B) transfer C) reverse D) assemble
63. The police interviewed the dead man‟s relatives, friends and _____.
A) cripples B) weathermen C) shipmates D) victims
64. In September these kids _____ 2,000 miles south to a warmer climate.
A) transplant B) enhance C) migrate D) immigrate
65. At the age of fifteen she was _____ school.
A) kicked over B) kicked out of C) kicked off D) kicked against 66. He wasn‟t stupid. I‟ve seen enough criminal trials to know _____ of armed attacks are seldom able to identify their offenders because their attention focuses on the guns, rather than on their
A) representatives B) victims C) toddlers D) prayers
67. The salary in my new job is great, but _____, I‟m not impressed.
A) by the rest B) for the rest C) and the rest D) at rest 68. She _____ the hope that he was still alive.
A) clung to B) is clinging to C) clang to D) clinged to
69. The grass _____ where the children used to play.
A) was wore away B) was worn away C) worn away D) wear away 70. Thirty people were injured in the ensuing fracas that turned the restaurant into a _____ of
broken glasses and overturned tables.
A) hometown B) campus C) territory D) battlefield
It is the policy of keeping Africans inferior and separate from Europeans. They are to be kept separate by not being allowed to live as citizens with rights in _71_ towns.
They may go to European towns to work, but they may not have their families _72_; they must
live in “Bantustans”, the native areas. They are not to _73_ with Europeans by sitting in the _74_
cafe, waiting-room, compartment of trains, seats in parks. They are not to _75_ from the same
beach, go to the same cinema, play _76_ the same game field or in the same _77_.
Twelve percent of the land is _78_ for the Africans to live and farm on, and this is mostly dry, _79_, mountainous land. Yet the Africans are three quarters of the people. They are _80_ to go and
work for the Europeans, not only because their lands do not _81_ enough food to keep them, but also _82_ they must earn money to pay their taxes. Each _83_ African man has to pay ；1 a year poll-tax, and ten shillings a year tax for his hut. _84_ they go into European areas to work, they are not _85_ to do skilled work; they are hewers of wood and drawers of water, and their wage is
about one-seventh of _86_ a European would earn for the same kind of work. If a European _87_ an African to do skilled work of the same kind _88_ for Europeans, such as carpentry, both the European and his African employee my be _89_ ；100. Any African who takes part in a strike may be fined ；500, and / or sent to _90_ for three years.
71. A) European B) British C) African D) American 72. A) working B) there C) at home D) either 73. A) deal B) combine C) cope D) mix
74. A) other B) black C) same D) luxurious 75. A) walk B) bathe C) drink D) cook 76. A) with B) on C) in D) around
77. A) team B) sport C) activity D) right 78. A) amounted B) counted C) left D) utilized 79. A) rich B) cultivated C) well-designed D) poor 80. A) determined B) about C) expected D) forced 81. A) rise B) possess C) store D) grow 82. A) for B) as C) because D) perhaps 83. A) adult B) young C) old D) child 84. A) Since B) When C) Unless D) After 85. A) allowed B) assumed C) encouraged D) returned 86. A) which B) how C) what D) that
87. A) employs B) hire C) forces D) obliged 88. A) checked B) reversed C) done D) decided 89. A) wasted B) lost C) contributed D) fined 90. A) countryside B) army C) prison D) isolation IV. Guided Writing
The Advantages and the Disadvantages of Traveling
Test Five (B)
I. Reading Comprehension
Would you like to know if your body is older or younger than it should be? Dr. David Wikenheiser has been studying ageing in Vancouver, Canada, for the past 10 years and has found the average person is 15 or more years older biologically than chronologically.
He says: “We all know people who are 30 but look over 40, and others who are 70 yet look 50. The difference comes down to lifestyle. Some people‟s bodies get „rusty‟ faster than others, and
this makes them age more quickly.”
Virtually every ageing process is related to the oxidative (氧化的) compounds or free radicals
produced by our body as a reaction to pollution, ultraviolet light, stress, smoking, alcohol and pesticides. But these can be neutralized by antioxidants.
After conducting more than 3,000 tests, Dr. Wikenheiser believes that, on average, you can lower your biological age by 10 years in three months with the right lifestyle changes. “You can‟t alter your genetics but you can make other changes, such as eating the right food, drinking enough water to flush out toxin (毒素), exercising and managing stress,” he says.
11. Some people are biologically older mainly _____, according to the passage.
A) because they work too hard B) because of their genes
C) because of their poor lifestyle D) because they once contracted a major disease 12. Ageing process may not be related to _____.
A) the oxidative compounds produced by our body
B) pollution, stress, and so on
C) drinking alcohol
D) using cosmetics
13. Dr. David has been studying ageing for at least _____.
A) 5 years B) 10 years C)15 years D) 20 years
14. Working for _____ is not good for you.
A) more than two hours a day B) more than fourteen hours a week
C) more than two hours on end each time D) no more than 8 hours on end per day 15. _____ is not listed in the paragraph as a bad habit.
A) Eating two meals a day B) Exercising too much
C) Avoiding fat D) Not eating fruits
Academy Award nominees who go home empty-handed may not have a shiny Oscar to show off, but they may turn out to be the bigger winners in the game of life. According to a study published in British Medical Journal, Oscar-winning screenwriters are more successful, more productive, and more respected than losing nominees; however, they die sooner by about four years. “Because success is usually linked to better health, this is the first occupation whose success is not associated with improved longevity,” says Donald Redelmeier, leader author of the study.
Researchers tracked down information about every person who was ever nominated for an Oscar since the awards were first handed out decades of years ago.
To explain the puzzling findings, he offers two theories. The first is the “work-to-death”
hypothesis. According to Redelmeier, screenwriters are more apt to lead unhealthy lifestyles, meaning they smoke more, exercise less, and work a lot of late-night hours, which translates into not enough sleep.
Screenwriters don‟t have a boss to report to, which brings into account Redelmeier‟s second
explanation, the “party-heavy hypothesis.” “When you become a successful screenwriter, you gain
status without daily accountability, and as a consequence your success may lead you to more alcohol, more parties, and more obesity,” he says.
16. The losing Oscar nominees turn out to ______.
A) live longer generally than Oscar winners B) make greater success in their careers
C) have happier families D) work harder than Oscar winners
17. According to the passage, it is ______ that ruins the Oscar winners‟ health.
A) success B) hard work C) unhappy family life D) worry about the future 18. According to the “work-to-death hypothesis”, Oscar-winning screenwriters ______.
A) just dwell on their fame B) don‟t work very hard
C) develop some bad habits D) become workaholics
19. In the “party-heavy hypothesis”, “heavy” refers to ______.
A) heavy load on the mind B) heavy piles of writings
C) too oily food D) becoming overweight
20. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A) Oscar-winning screenwriters are more famous than the losers
B) Success will always lead to better health, better life.
C) Researchers made a survey on all Oscar nominees.
D) Oscar is harmful to its nominees‟ health.
During the often stormy relationship between science and religion, in 1633, at the age of 69, the noted Italian scientist was judged by the Inquisition (宗教法庭) to have violated a church edict
against following the controversial Copernican view that the sun, not the earth, was at the center of the universe. For the last nine years of his life, Galileo lived under house arrest. Despite some tributes to Galileo by later church leaders, including several Popes, his condemnation has continued to ruin the relations between the Vatican – indeed, perhaps all
religious authority – and scientists.
The division became a matter of special concern to Pope John Paul II. In public statements, he said that there are no irreconcilable differences between science and faith. As a symbol of courtesy, he made the rehabilitation (恢复名誉) of Galileo a major goal. In 1980 John Paul II appointed a commission of scientists, historians and theologians to reexamine the evidence and verdict. The panel finally came to the conclusion that “The judges who condemned Galileo committed an
21. The relationship between science and religion had been ______.
A) very friendly B) unharmonious C) steady D) astounding
22. Galileo was judged ______.
A) because he agreed with Copernius B) because he didn‟t believe in God
C) because he acted against the Bible D) because he refused to follow Copernius 23. Some later church leaders, including several Popes, ______.
A) spoke for Galileo B) accused the church for its wrong-doing
C) criticized Galileo D) tried to reconsider the judge against Galileo 24. Pope John Paul II can be best described as ______.
A) dominant B) enthusiastic C) open-minded D) courteous
25. The commission didn‟t include ______.
A) scientists B) theologians C) historians D) the Pope
Passage Four: Translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.
Imagine football teams without quarterbacks; armies without officers; corporations without executives; universities without deans; orchestras without conductors; and youth gangs without bosses. (26) Without overall direction people typically have difficulty coordinating their activities.
Consequently, some group members usually exert more influence than others. We call these individuals leaders. (27) Small groups may be able to get along without leaders, but in larger groups a lack of leadership results in chaos.
Leaders differ in their styles for exercising influence. Through the years, the classic experiments in leadership by Kurt Levin and his associates have generated considerable interest. (28) In these pioneering investigations, adult leaders working with groups of 11-year-old boys followed one of three leadership styles. In the authoritarian style, the leader determined the group‟s polices, gave
step-by-step directions so that the boys were certain about their future tasks, assigned work partners, provided subjective praise and criticism, and remained aloof (疏远的) from group
participation. In the democratic style, the leader allowed the boys to participate in decision-making processes, outlined only general goals, suggested alternative procedures, permitted the members to work with whomever they wished, evaluated the boys objectively, and participated in group activities. (29) In the laissez-faire (自由放任) style, the leader adopted a
passive, uninvolved attitude, provided materials, suggestions and help only when requested, and refrained from commenting on the boy‟s work.
The researchers found that authoritarian leadership produces high levels of frustration and hostile feelings toward the leader; productivity remains high so long as the leader is present, but slackens (松弛) in the leader‟s absence. Under democratic leadership members are happier, feel more group-minded and friendlier, display independence (especially in the leader‟s absence), and
exhibit low levels of interpersonal aggression. Laissez-faire leadership resulted in low group productivity and high levels of interpersonal aggression. However, it should be emphasized that the study was carried out with American youngsters accustomed to democratic procedures. (30) Under other circumstances and in different cultural settings, an authoritarian leader may be preferred.
II. Vocabulary and Structure
31. The research project has only been _____ for three months, so it‟s too early to evaluate its
A) in secret B) in contact C) on its behalf D) under way
32. These flowers are a token of my _____ for all your help.
A) appreciation B) fancy C) curiosity D) creation
33. When the fire alarm rang we _____ outside the emergency exit.
A) fluttered B) trembled C) assembled D) linger
34. The symbol of the shepherds‟ crook (曲柄杖) is an ancient one, representing the _____
shepherds who were the first to worship the newborn Christ.
A) traditional B) bushy C) weary D) humble
35. Four hospitals in the city were _____ yesterday as main medical facilities to treat SARS cases.
A) furnished B) designated C) snatched D) transferred
36. For two months the city was surrounded by enemy forces, and no supplies could be _____.
A) subscribed to B) clung to C) pulled up D) brought in
37. Our fabrics are carefully selected for their _____ to ensure they won‟t irritate a baby‟s skin.
A) dignity B) softness C) awareness D) advantage
38. The design of the kitchen is satisfactory: the refrigerator is not next to the _____ and there is enough space.
A) gin B) replica C) stove D) fuse
39. On the contrary, the things to be compared must have something.
A) in principle B) in turn C) in tune D) in common
40. _____ forward a little while a person is talking shows you are interested in and listening to what the person is saying.
A) Migrating B) Scrawling C) Leaning D) Exposing
41. It is believed that the dripping of the water can _____ stones.
A) wear out B) take up C) wear away D) take in
42. I bought some new clothes through a main-order.
A) register B) catalog C) delivery D) disorder
43. CCTV programs are _____ by satellite to different areas in the world.
A) transformed B) transacted C) transferred D) transmitted
44. Bob, June and Alison _____ are coming to dinner tonight.
A) in essence B) and the rest C) for once D) for all the world 45. He‟s always trying to _____ on me how much easier life is if well-organized.
A) impress B) compress C) gain D) take
46. “Tonight, I ask for your _____ for those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened.”
A) humanity B) appreciation C) lanterns D) prayers
47. There has been no _____ so far from the police on the case.
A) testimony B) comment C) quote D) turkey
48. For a teacher to hit a child is not just _____ wrong but also illegal.
A) wearily B) lastingly C) morally D) traditionally
49. I made _____ use of my time, mixing with a lot of different people and practicing my Spanish.
A) significant B) reliable C) barge D) profitable
50. I need a pair of _____ shoes to match my dress.
A) handy B) artificial C) tan D) vital
51. I want a new watch _____ as the old one doesn‟t work well.
A) brochure B) palette C) lace D) strap
52. “How could they do this to my children?” cried one man with tears _____ down his face.
A) saturating B) streaming C) slashing D) sprinkling
53. NQLX is a _____ venture with the London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE) to create a market for single stock futures and other futures products.
A) mechanical B) joint C) successive D) traditional
54. The photographs display the fate of a single city, but their meaning is universal, since, in our