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logistics

By Virginia Wood,2014-10-06 14:57
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logistics

lesson 12

     WASHINGTON-Growing freight and logistics bottlenecks at this country's ports and borders threaten America's ability to compete in a global economy,experts in the field say.They warn increased security measures creating costly delays at these locations is reducing the nation's productivity and competitiveness.Security concerns must be measured against the need for smooth freight into this country."Bottom line is bottlenecks and delays increasing costs and decreasing productivity,"said Dr.Chip White,who holds the Schneider National chair in transportation and logistics at Georgia Tech. 1.华盛顿-专家说?美国的港口和边界上日益增长的运费和物流瓶颈对它在全球经济中的竞争力

    造成了威胁。他们警告说?增强的安全措施在该地区造成了成本高昂的延迟?这会降低国家的

    生产力和竞争力。衡量安全措施必须考虑到国家需要稳定运费的问题。底线是瓶颈和延迟导致

    成本的增加以及生产率下降。怀特博士说?他是乔治理工学院运输与物流任施耐德国际教授?

    Freight: n. 船货,运费,货运 v. 装货,运送

    Ports and borders:港口和边界

    ability to do sth:做某事的能力

    ?单词都有“能力”的意思?

     ability n. 能力?才能。主要指体力或智力上的某种能力?或是先天的?或是后天习得的。

    常用短语?to the best of one’s ability 尽力地

     they believed in man’s ability to master the world.他们相信人有驾驭世界的能力。

     capability n. 能力。指人具有进行某种专门工作、完成某项任务必需的技能、智力、才

    能。有时可以与ability通用?不过capability侧重天生的能力?而ability则侧重后天习得

    的能力。

     常见用法?capability of 后接主动意义的动作?capability for后接被动意义的动作。

     The doctor tested the capability of his ears to distinguish pitches. 医生检查了

    他鉴别音高的能力。

     capacity n. 能力?容量。既可以用于人也可以用于物。用于人指接受、吸收、掌握、理

    解的能力?用于物则指容量、容纳能力。

     He has a capacity for mathematics. 他有学数学的能力。

?

    Costly?adj. 昂贵的

    hold a chair 在。。。任教授

    Georgia Tech 乔治理工学院

    Schneider National 施耐德国际

    hold the chair of 任教授

     There are two solutions to this so-called "thickening of the border"-greater use of information technology and increasing investment in highways,rails ,ports and elsewhere ,experts said .They spoke at a Dec.4 symposium sponsored by the U.S.Chamber of Commerce.Manufacturers emphasized additional security measures must be added only as necessary,not willy-nilly such as Congress's recently passed law that would require 100 percent physical screening of freight at airports and ports.

    2.对于所谓的"增强边界",有两个解决方案:更广泛使用信息技术?增加对于高速公路、铁路、

    港口以及其它地方的投资。专家在124日专题讨论会上发表这一观点?这个会议是由美国商会

    资助的。生产商强调额外的安全措施必一定要在必要时才增加?不要不顾3721?比如国会近来

    通过的一项法律要求在机场和港口征收100%的物质筛选费。

Solutions?解决方法 solutions to

    Symposium?n 讨论会?专题研讨会?

    Sponsored: n 赞助者?保证人?

    U.S.Chamber of Commerce 美国商会

    Congress ?n. 代表大会,国会

    willy-nilly 不顾3721

     "If we roll out all the programs such as 100 percent sceening of ocean containers and air freight,programs such as Just-in-Time inventory will come to an end,"predicted

    Kevin M.Smith,general director of global customs for General Motors Corp."There will be no more Just-in-Time deliveries."

3。通用汽车公司的全球海关署总经理凯文。史密斯预测?“如果我们推行所有的政策?比如对

    远洋集装箱和空运征收100%的物质筛选费?那么诸如JIT的流程就完了。那样就再不会有JIT

    交货方式。”

    Roll out?推出?推行

    JIT:及时制。将必要的零件以必要的数量在必要的时间送到生产线?并且只将所需要的零件、

    只以所需要的数量、只在正好需要的时间送到生产。

    The customs?海关总署

     Most of the congestion is not at the ports ,but on the road side and the rail side of these facilities.Lack of capacity at railheads in Chicago,Huston and elsewhere is causing delays because of aging infrastructure."That affects our ability to move costs quickly and efficiently,"White said .He said the trend in freight is

    "better,cheaper,faster."That has led to an explosion in trade from the Far East,mainly China,which is threatening efficiency at West Coast ports and other

    facilities.Truckload productivity has been declining since 2002 because of congestion and other issues,White said ."We're not the only ones with congestion,"he said ."There are huge congestion issues in China and Europe as well."

    4。大多数的阻塞并不发生在港口?而是在港口的路旁和铁路边上。芝加哥、休斯顿及其他地方

    的铁路端点缺乏空间容量?由于基础设施的老化造成了延误。"这影响了我们迅速有效移动成本

    的能力"怀特说,他认为装运的趋势是"更好、更便宜、更快捷"。那已经导致了远东地区贸易的

    爆炸性发展-主要在中国?它威胁到了西海岸的港口及其它设施的有效性。整车生产能力自2002

    年以来出现下降及其它问题?怀特说:并不是只有我们遇到阻塞问题?因为在中国以及欧洲同

    样有大量的阻塞问题。

    Lack of 缺乏

    Aging?老化

    Truckload?整车

     But the United States has a particularly acute problem because of increased security measures begun after the 9.11 attacks."The security-trade dichotomy is going to be an issue in logistics for a long time to come,"said C.Randal Mullett,vice president of government affairs for Con-way,a 4.7 billion trucking company ."It's a modern-day holy grail that we are all searching for ."

    5。不过美国有一个特别尖锐的问题?因为自911袭击事件以来安全措施开始加强?从长远来看?安全-贸易对立将是物流发展的一个难题?它是我们都在寻找的现代圣杯。

    Particular: adj. 特别的,独有的,挑剔的

    Acute: adj. 敏锐的,激烈的,尖锐的

    Dichotomy: n.两分?分裂?二分法

    holy grail?圣杯

    (Mrs. Smith was so ________ about everything that no servants could please her.

     A) specific

     B) special

     C) precise

     D) particular

     题目相关单词解释(提示:最好做完题目再看):

     specific:n. 特效药,特性a. 特殊的,明确的,具有特效的,特定的,具体的

     special:n. 专辑,专车,特别的东西a. 特别的,专门的,特殊的,额外的,附加的,特亲密的

     precise:a. 精确的,严谨的,明白的

     particular:a. 特别的,特殊的,详细的,挑剔的,苛求的n. 细节,细目,详情 )

     GM's Smith said delays of 16 hours or so at the border were not uncommon in the

    immediate days following the 9.11 attacks .Though necessary ,those delays were costly

    and eventually hurt effiency.

    6。通用汽车的斯密施说自911袭击以来?现在16小时左右的延迟并不少见。尽管是必要的?这些延迟是有代价的并会逐渐破坏效率。

     "How many layers of securities does it take before we're actually secure?"Smith asked ."There is a real and direct cost to the private sector for these security layers."These security layers have the ability to become nontariff barriers to trade."He warned of spreading security "like peanut butter across the entire supply chain" without really knowing what the real costs or benefits are .He called for greater use of risk management programs to intelligently design adequate,but not overwhelming,measures of security.GM's Smith railed against "fear-based decision-making,"such as Congress's recent calling for 100 percent physical screening fo both air and ocean cargoes that most experts criticized as unrealistic and overly burdensome.

7在我们安全之前到底有多少项的安全措施呢?斯密施问。对私营部门来说?要付出直接

    的代价。这些安全措施可以变成对贸易无阻碍的成本或者是利益。他呼吁更多使用风险管理程

    序以及明智的设计?足够而不会过多的安全措施。他警告说扩张的安全措施就像是贯穿整个供

    应链的花生酱?并不知道什么是成本或什么是利润。他指责那些基于恐惧的决策制定?比如

    国会要求空运和海运货物都征收100%的物质筛选费?大多数专家指责这法案是不现实的而且是

    过度繁重的。

Actually?真正地?最终

    private sector?私营部门

    nontariff?非关税的

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