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Lesson 1Your College Years

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Lesson 1Your College Years1your,years,1Your,Years

    Lesson 1 Your College Years

    Subject: Intensive Reading

    Level : Second-year Undergraduate Students

    Duration of Time: 12 Class Hours

EXPECTATIONS

    Students are required to finish the following steps in learning this lesson: 1. Connect their own college life with the aspects discussed in this lesson. This part should

    be included in the pre-class work, and they will be asked to talk about their own feeling

    and experiences.

    2. Find out some rhetorical structures, if any.

    3. Paraphrase new phrases and difficult sentences, and analyze some important sentence

    structures.

    4. Remember some frequently seen abbreviations by heart.(P.77)

    5. Do some E-C and C-E exercises, and in this part they should do a better job than they did

    in their first year, that is to say, they should learn to organize their words and express

    their ideas clearly.

STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES

    1. The students read the text before class and do all the pre-class exercises. 2. Grasp the main idea of the text and divide the paragraphs into several main parts. 3. Group discussion and classroom representation for further understanding and

    communication.

TIME ALLOTMENT

    1. Pre-class work and introduction to the background information 2 Class Hours 2. Detailed discussion on text A 5 Class Hours 3. Exercise and Grammar 4 Class Hours 4. Review and Quiz on the learnt language points 1 Class Hours

TEACHING OF PRE-CLASS WORK

    Procedure and Strategies:

    1. Check some important new words by dictation

    P.13 and focus on exercise1, 2, 3, 4 2. Deal with pre-class work on P.9

    3. Give suggestions to exercise2

Glossary Checking:

    Part I: Dictation (15min.):

    (1)academic (2)adolescence (3)affirm (4)anxiety (5)attitudinal (6)counsel (7)crisis (8)encyclopedia (9)endeavor (10)ethical (11)evaluate (12)feminine (13)genetic (14)endowment (15)inherit (16)interact (17)resentment (18)masculine (19)maturity (20)perceive (21)project (22)rebel (23)peer (24)shrink (25)theological (26)definite (27)distinct (28)bounce (29)Baptist (30)seminary

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    Part II: Mention to some important verbs, adjectives, nouns, etc.(15 min.)

     bounce, affirm, contribute, distinct, definite, evaluate, excessive, inherit, masculine,

     perceive, project, rebel, resentment, superior

Pre-class Work Checking:

    1. Explain the following (P. 9) (10 min.):

    1) developmental changes: This is a psychological term which refers to the physical and

    behavioral changes throughout the lifespan.

    2) identity crisis: It refers to the difficulties, confusions and anxieties that you go through

    during adolescence when you are not sure who you really are and what

    your purpose in life is.

    National identity, political identity, cultural identity, social identity, etc 3) to internalize their values: to make faith, values, morals, attitudes, behavior, language, etc

    part of your nature by learning or assimilating them

    unconsciously. In this text, internalize also means to take in

    and make an integral part of one's attitudes or beliefs.

     e.g. had internalized the cultural values of the Italians after three years of living in Rome. 在罗马生活三年以后已经消化了意大利人的文化价值观并融为自我意识的一部分

    4) to affirm personal values: to strengthen values concerning personal life or behavior as

    opposed to social values; moral principles; principles of what

    is right and what is wrong.

    5) in a different light: in a different way

    light here: a way of looking at or considering a matter; an aspect

     e.g. saw the situation in a different light 从另一个角度观察形势

    2. Paraphrase (P. 10) (15 min.):

    Expectations: In this part, I require the students to tell me how they understand the

    following sentences based on their general understanding of the whole

    article and the main idea of the paragraphs these sentences belong to, and

    they neednt to give specific explanations to some new expressions in this

    part. This is an exercise for them to practise their comprehension ability. 1) identity is determined by genetic endowment, shaped by environment, and influenced

    by chance events. (para. 2)

     who we are is determined by three factors/things/aspects——1, our genes, this one is

    natural and inborn, which we get from our parents, so we regard our natural abilities,

    such as waling, running, talking, cleverness, etc as gifts from our parents; 2, environment or surrounding, our characters are somehow determined by things around us; 3, accidental

    experiences, opportunities, chances, etc, they maybe lucky ones or unlucky ones. Life in some degree is full of unexpected things.

    2) First, there is functional independence, which involves the capability of individuals to

    take care of practical and personal affairs, such as handling finances, choosing their own

    wardrobes, and determining their daily agenda. (para. 4)

     First, there is independence in handling everyday life situations, which is an ability to solve practical problems in your daily life, such as learning —— how to save and spend

    pocket money in a proper way, if possible, it includes also how to earn yourself money through doing some part-time jobs; how to choose suitable clothes for yourself; how do

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make your time-table every day.

    3) Fourth is freedom from excessive guilt, anxiety, mistrust, responsibility, inhibition, resentment, and anger in relation to the mother and father. (para. 4)

     If somebody has an excessive need for approval, it means that he is too dependent on sbs

    approval. This is quite natural for children and adolescents, especially those good boys

    and girls, they need others, especially parents, to give them courage before they make their own decisions. They also need to be close to their parents and receive encouragement, love, all kinds of emotional support which give them strength. But when they grow up, this should change. They should no longer have the same needs like children. 3. Dealing with exercise 3, 4, 5, 6 (20 min.)

Introduction to the text (15 min.):

    1. Language style:

    It is at first addressed to college students in the United States. Here it becomes a lesson

    for us to learn with some modifications. In this lesson, the language style is formal, with

    some psychological terms, such as developmental changes, identity crisis, psychological

    separation, sexual identity, etc.

    2. Mention the psychologists in the lesson briefly: Erickson and Hoffman 3. Warming-up Questions :

    1) Do you think your first year study has made some changes to your personal life? 2) Do you think you are now becoming an adult both physically and psychologically? If so, what‟s your plan about connecting your college life with your bright future? 3) Whats your understanding on the term developmental changes? Are you facing and

    experiencing your developmental changes?

Homework:

    1. Finish the vocabulary exercises on P.1416

    2. Read the text again and find out your questions.

    3. Prepare for some questions we will discuss in the following class hours. 1) How many aspects about adolescent process are discussed in this lesson? 2) Tell me your understanding on the terms developmental changes, identity crisis,

    psychological separation and sexual identity.

    3(Is there any rhetorical structure used in para.1?

Detailed Discussion on Text A:

    2. Analyze the Structure of the Text (10 min.):

    Part I (para.13): identity crisis

    Part II (para.4): psychological separation of late adolescents and its four aspects——

    Functional Independence, Emotional Independence, Attitudinal

    Independence, Conflictual Independence

    Part III (para. 5 & 6) : sexual identity of adolescents and how to give and receive affection in

    the adult world for them.

    Part IV (para. 7) : internalization of their religious faith, values and morals Part V (para. 8): how to learn and use the learnt knowledge in a wise way for college

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    students

    Part VI (para. 9): how to become a world citizen Part VII (para. 10): encouragement for college students 3. Explanations to Some Psychological Terms (20 min): 1) developmental changes

    2) identity crisis:

     Creating a “European identity” that respects the different cultures and traditions which go

    to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a

    strategic choice.

     【译文】 不同文化和传统组成了连接欧洲大陆的纽带。创造一个尊重这些文化和传统的“欧

    洲统一认同”绝非易事;需要战略性选择。

     identity意为认同;政治、社会、历史、文化等学科的同学应该都清楚这个概念

    National identity(国家认同)identity crisis(认同危机)cultural identity(文化认同)

    心理學家Erickson提出過認同危機(identity crisis);認為正於青少年期間的個體不可避免

    的需面臨自我認同(self identity)之問題;其中生涯議題乃是認同形成(identity formation)過程中相當重要的主題。這探索經驗不僅讓人有機會思索過去所擁有的;也重新思考未

    來欲承諾的。

    應該盡你自己的能力去嘗試各種不同範疇的東西;去問問身邊的人的意見;又或者接觸

    多一些不同工作的人;了解他們的日常工作等等;嘗試找出自己的興趣在哪裡。

    認識自己是怎樣的一個人;想想自己想要的是什麼;整理自己的自我概念;你就可以找

    到自己的目標。

    3) psychological separation:

     Hoffman (1984) 所編製的「心理分離量表」(Psychological Separation Inventory);原

    來共包含四個分量表,功能獨立 (Functional Independence)、情緒獨立 (Emotional

    Independence)、態度獨立 (Attitudinal Independence)、及衝突獨立 (Conflictual

    Independence)。功能獨立是指能夠不需要父母協助便可處理好個人事務?情緒獨立

    是指在情緒上不大會倚賴父母?態度獨立是指具有自己獨立的信念與價值?衝突獨

    立是指對父母沒有太多的衝突、焦慮、憤怒等。

    4) sexual identity:

     人的性心理是与人的性形态(sexuality)相对应的心理(应该指出;sexuality 在中文里

    尚无适当译法;其内容也非常复杂,为方便起见;此处姑译作性形态”)。人的性形

    态包括人的性身份(sexual identity)、性差异(sexual difference)和性关系(sexual

    relationship)。无论弗洛伊德还是拉康都把人的心理状态与人的性形态联系起来。换

    言之;他们所理解的心理状态差不多完全是人的性心理。当然;更重要的是;弗洛

    伊德和拉康都从所谓恋母情结出发来解释人的性形态和性心理;都把恋母情结视

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    为精神分析学的基本概念。在他们看来;人的性心理取决于童年时期的恋母情结是

    如何解决的;相应地精神分析正是从人的恋母情结出发对人的性心理所作的分析。

    不过;恋母情结对拉康来说与对弗洛伊德来说还不是一回事;拉康的三界说使他对

    恋母情结及人的性形态作出了不同的解释。

Language Points:

    Part I (para.13): identity crisis

    1. Parallelism: 当一句话中的两个或两个以上的概念在功能和目的上有关联时;它们应

    当以同样语法结构来表示。因此;并排的两个或两个以上的主语是平行的;同一主

    语支配下的两个以上的动词是平行的;修饰同一动词的两个以上的状语从句也是平

    行的。其修辞作用是把结构相同或相似、意义相关、语气一致的几个词或句子并列

    使用来表达强烈的感情;突出所强调的内容;增强语言的气势。同时;由于句式整

    齐;节奏分明;也可以增强语言的韵律美。排比一般由三项或三项以上的语句构成;

    排比次序一般由轻到重;由低潮到高潮。这种平行具体表现在单词的排比;短语的

    排比;从句的排比;句子的排比以及段落的排比。

    e.g. What I despised about him was his drinking, gambling, and cursing.

     His symptoms were fever, dizziness, and headaches.

     Gorky himself was a man of such great courage, of such deep simplicity and of such

    intense honesty.

     Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.

     If he wishes to float into fairyland, he reads a book; if he wishes to dash into the

    thick of battle, he reads a book; if he wishes to soar into heaven, he reads a book.

     There is no reason for us to be enemies. Neither of us seeks the territory of the

    others; neither of us seeks domination over the other; neither of us seeks to stretch

    out our hands and rule the world.

    2. Has it ever occurred to you that (para.1)

    Mention to the anticipatory it.

    e.g. It never occurred to me that wealth could ruin a persons life.

     The idea never occurred to me.

     The usage on P.12

    3. dawn on (para.1): to begin to be perceived or understood; strike

    e.g. It suddenly dawned on us that high savings rate may not be a good thing.

     It gradually began to dawn on the economists that the problem was not

    overproduction, but under-consumption.

     Realization of the danger soon dawned on us.

     It struck her that although she was now rich by her own standard, she was not really

    happy.

     The thought struck me from out of the blue.

    4. from adolescence to young adulthood (para.1)

    adolescence: The period of physical and psychological development from the onset of

    puberty to maturity. 一般指成年以前由1315的发育期

    adulthood: Graduation from high school, the right to vote, to drink liquor, and to drive a

    car are all events that, to some degree, signify adult status. But the main

    changes are psychological as well as physical. It is usually fraught with

    anxiety and conflict.

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As Bob Dylan once said,

    "How many roads must a man walk down before you call him a man?"

    Adulthood is a time for work and love. Our lives center around our careers and relationships, leaving less time for anything else. Early adulthood is the period between adolescence and adulthood where we live in limbo. We are not quite adults, and we haven't left some of our adolescent games behind. As we do begin to leave our adolescence, we say goodbye to proms and high school football games and stumble into the work force and the beginnings of passionate love.

    In modern societies there is no specific criteria or rite of passage that states, "ATTENTION BOYS AND GIRLS! YOU HAVE NOW LEFT YOUR ADOLESCENCE BEHIND!

    WELCOME TO ADULTHOOD!" That would be too easy. There are, however, some

    criteria that have been proposed which mark the coming of adulthood.

    As discussed in John W. Santrock's text, Life-Span Development, sociologist Kenneth Kenniston uses the word "youth" to describe the period between adolesence and adulthood. He states that it is a "time of extended economic and personal temporariness (Santrock 387)." He proposes that youth do not have the answers to questions that used to define adulthood. Because more young adults attend college and marry later, the questions have changed. Today, youths question lifestyles and roles in life. This age period is different from adolescence because youth are in a battle between finding out who they are and learning to be socially involved. Adolescent issues focus on self-definition.

     Be quite still and solitary. The

    world will freely offer itself to you to

    be unmasked; it has no choice, it

    will roll in ecstasy at your feet.

    -Frank Rafke

     Major Factors that Affect the Transition into Early Adulthood

    Often, our relationships with

    our parents change. We feel Trying to find our own too old to live with our Acknowledging our needs and strengths and weaknesses. We parents, but we are not quite impulses. We know what we have to try to enhance the ready to form a family of our want to do and what needs to strengths and to overcome our own. We want to try to form get done. weaknesses. an identity as an individual,

    apart from our family.

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    Learning to live comfortably Learning to live in our new

    While trying to form our in our own bodies. We are surroundings (if we leave

    identity, we need to keep the individuals, no two alike. At home) and the loss of the

    ties with our families. If we this point in our lives we need financial security we had with

    don't we are losing a great to learn to accept who we are. our parents. We are now in

    support network. Self esteem can make a world charge of our own space and

    of difference. life-style.

     Needs of Youth in this Life stage

    Freedom to take steps Explore all Independent choices. into the world. possibilities.

    Love is like a violin. The music may stop now and then, but the strings remain forever.

    -Bacher

    LOVE

    Finding your partner for life

    Young people should learn more about intimacy with others. In other words, a relationship should not rely solely on sexual intimacy. Rather, it should gear toward emotional intimacy. Young relationships, along with any relationships must have commitment to be successful. In any relationship, we must be friends with the other individual in order to totally respect them as a person. This puts you both on the same level, and tends to make couples more compatible. This is because we understand one another. You most likely have the same interests, same thoughts, similar accomplishments. You are alike and that's good. Proximity

    is a critical factor in beginning a relationship. Clearly, we will never fall in love with someone we do not know. Physical attraction is also a major determinant in choosing a mate. The matching hypothesis suggests that we pick people who are like us or at about our same level of attractiveness. We also look for someone who will validate us. This is called consensual validation. This occurs when our significant other supports our views or interests. There is an emotional bond.

    There are three types of love:

    ; Friendship love

    ; Romantic/Passionate love

    ; Affectionate/Companionate love

    Robert J. Sternberg has proposed the Triangular Theory of Love. There are 3 components, which form 7 types of love. The three components are intimacy, passion and commitments.

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    These are each placed at one point on the triangle and, depending on which components are present in the relationship, they give rise to the 7 different types of love. These are as follows:

     Intimacy Liking someone (sharing, self-disclosure)

     Passion Infatuation

    Together for a reason ("we're here for the Commitment kids")

    Intimacy & Passion Romantic love (falling in love)

    Passion & Commitment Fatuous (no intimacy)

    Commitment & Intimacy Companionate love (best friend)

    Intimacy, Passion, & Consummate love (all of it!) Commitment

    A desire for love leads us to form relationships!!!

    Relationships

    Throughout youth one soars through the building blocks that they have been establishing for themselves since birth. Decisions are made that impact their life profoundly. By the time youth is reached, one will have met many people. With some of these people, close relationships may begin forming. Relationships are interactions that take place over a

    series of time among people who become acquainted with one another. Relationships are

    more than individuals coming together because of a common attraction. People get to know one another through factors related to content, diversity, quality, and temporal patterning. Relationships involve complimentarily and reciprocal interactions.

    In Erik Erickson‟s Eight Stages of Human Development, his sixth stage deals with Intimacy

    versus Isolation. As we move through our youth, intimacy is crucial to us. Relationships are highly valued. Self-disclosure through intimacy in friendships and love make the world a better place for us. During adolescence Erickson believes that the important issues in our lives are finding out who we are and where we are going in life. Intimacy comes only after we are on our way to successfully finding ourselves (Santrock 425). If we do not develop a healthy sense of intimacy in our youth we fight the chance of dealing with isolation. We will experience isolation if we do not form healthy friendships and some sort of intimate relationship with someone.

    According to psychologist Jacob Orlofsky, young adults show five styles of inimate

    interactions. We use these styles to communicate with friends, family, partners, and acquaintances. The following chart describes the styles:

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    When a person forms and maintains one or more deep and long-lasting love Intimate Style relationship.

    When a person shows mixed emotions about commitment; a doubtfulness Reanimated that is shown in the way they offer love without obligations or long-lasting Style ties.

    When a person has superficial relationships that are usually friendships of Stereotyped

    the same-sex (as opposed to opposite-sex friendships). Style

    When a person keeps a long-lasting sexual relationship without depth or Pseudo

    closeness. intimate Style

    When a person shys away from social interactions and has very little and/or Isolated Style no friendships of any kind.

    College Life

    On this web page we take a close look at those students between the ages of 18-25 years old attending college. These students are fresh out of high school looking into the unknown future. Looking for a career along with a major is a hard decision in one's life. Most students in this age bracket tend to put college as a priority in their lives, in which case a student will take a full load of at least 12 credit hours in their courses per semester. However, some do attend college classes part-time and tend to stay in school for much longer. Usually, these are the people who have begun to start a family and are working many hours at a full-time job. Other times, part-time college students are those who choose to go through college at a slower pace. It is simply up to the individual.

    As one approaches their twenties many questions arise about where their life is going to lead them. Young adults begin to establish themselves as adults. They become individuals that are distinct from their families. One becomes more involved in doing things for themselves. The emotional back-up from families will always be there, but now, an individual has built a strong-hold on their own. The support of one's family is no longer essential because you are now earning your way through life. What lies ahead in the future? In the book "The Adult Years" we are shown a couple of options concerning one's transition into adulthood. . . . .

    Some people leave home to go to college.

    Others try to find a job in another city or an area away from home.

    Many get married.

    Others move or change their living environments (e.g. apartments,

    college dormitories, house).

    Overall, one needs to establish goals for themselves... These goals will carry you through the career of you choice and impact your life dramatically. Our goals ARE our future. Stay on track.

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    College isn't always for everyone. Many of us attend college to get away from home and our childhood, while at the same time staying away from the responsibilities of an adult. According to a response of 14,521 students in 1997 we see that college binge drinking is

    extremely popular. Two out of every five students (42.7%), were reported to be binge drinkers in college. One out of five, compared to the two out of five, are frequent binge

    drinkers. However, there is a slight decrease from 44.1% in 1993. During college, students tend to use alcohol as a way to have fun, or a way to get away from reality for a short bit of time. More and more people become accustomed to simply kicking back and getting drunk on the weekends. Some students who live on a campus or university say that there is nothing else to do on campus. A study done in 1994 by Wechsler & others stated that binge drinkers reported problems such as missing classes, physical injuries, troubles with policies, and engaging in unprotected sex. It is stated that by a person's mid-twenties, many binge drinkers have reduced their alcohol intakes.

    You may feel the whole world down

    the pathway of years, and get pats

    on your back as you pass. But your

    final reward will be heartache &

    tears if you've cheated the (wo)man

    in the glass.

    -Herb Score

    When choosing a degree one should choose a career that suits and excites them. One wants a job that they enjoy and that they feel good about. Otherwise an individual may experience burnout and an unhappy early life. Enjoy life to its fullest. When an individual chooses a degree that they feel is best for them, they will excel in that area.

    Development occurs throughout our ENTIRE lives. Each day we learn more, teach more, and develop because of this.

    Young adulthood, also known as youth, is a bridge between adolescence and adulthood. People in this age bracket begin to form adult lives and structure themselves for this new life-style. At this point in our lives we are too old to be considered adolescents, but we are not quite old enough to be an adult. This dramatic change occurs over time as an individual grows. There are no specific rules to tell us that we have reached the maturity of being an adult because maturity is also a developing process. We just sort of fall into the roll and suddenly, one has become a full fledged adult.

    The youth of our world go through a very exciting, yet stressful time. People between the ages of 18-25 struggle to find their place in the adult world because of the dreams and visions they are trying to fold out for their futures, along with the new responsibilities of adulthood. It can be very a confusing and difficult time for this age group because they are looking for a career and companions while facing the obstacles that come their way. However, there are many fond memories to cherish as we look back on our lives. This is the time we form the life that will determine our future. Lead

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