TXT

english study

By Philip Edwards,2014-05-07 01:30
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english study

U1

    . establish: set up

     Examples:

     My father established this business forty years ago.

     Public schools for girls were established in some places. 2. distinct: different; separate

     Examples:

     The twins had distinct personalities.

     Those two ideas are quite distinct from each other.

3. elect: choose (somebody) by voting

     Examples:

     They elected him to represent them.

     We must urge that delegates be elected from the various factories in a district.

    4. facility: aids, circumstances, which make it easy to do things

     Examples:

     One of the facilities our students have is a large library.

     This kitchen has a garbage disposal and other modern facilities.

5. assign: give as a share or duty

     Examples:

     They assigned me a small room.

     Two pupils were assigned to sweep the floor.

6. on the basis of : circumstance that provides a reason for some action or opinion

     Examples:

     Students are able, on the basis of experience, to choose which subjects to specialize in.

     Decisions were often made on the basis of incorrect information.

    7. grant: give (especially what is wanted or requested)

     Examples:

     They refused to grant them long-term credits.

     He requested that the Premier grant him an interview.

    8. minimum: the least, or the smallest possible, quantity, number, or degree

     Examples:

     This price is his minimum; he refuses to lower it further.

     Allow a minimum of five minutes for introducing the dialogue.

9. locate: establish in a certain place

     Examples:

     Where is the new factory to be located?

     The baker located his bakery in the new shopping center.

    10. apply for/to: requesting something, especially officially and in writing

     Examples:

     He has applied for a post in England.

     I applied to four universities and was accepted by all of them.

    11. award: give as the result of an official decision, especially a prize

     Examples:

     The University awarded him an honorary degree.

     The best students are awarded special scholarships.

12. at large: as a whole

     Examples:

     The people at large wanted peace.

     The country at large is hoping for great changes.

13. benefit from / by: gain by; receive advantage from

     Examples:

     Who would be most likely to benefit from the old man's death?

     The pupils are benefiting from the scheme.You will benefit by taking a holiday.

    14. exploit: use or develop (a thing) fully so as to get profit

     Examples:

     You must exploit every opportunity to learn new things.

     They exploit its rich resources in wheat and oil.

    15. equip: make (oneself or another) able (to do something) or prepared (for something)

     Examples:

     Your education will equip you to earn a good living.

     Her evening study has equipped her for a career as an electrical engineer.

U2

    1. refer to: send (someone or something) to (usu. someone else) for decision or action

     Examples:

     The Local Court has referred the whole case to the High Court.

     The dispute between the two countries was referred to the United Nations.

    2. criteria: (pl.) an established rule, standard, or principle, on which a judgment

is based

     Examples:

     What criteria do you use when judging the quality of a student's work?

     There are several criteria of a good school.

    3. resident: a person who lives ( in a place) and is not just a visitor

     Examples:

     The local residents were angry at the lack of parking spaces.

     The residents of the town are proud of its new library.

4. come across: meet or discover, esp. by chance

     Examples:

     I have just come across a beautiful poem in this book.

     She came across some old letters in the course of her search.

    5. fill out/in: put in (whatever is needed to complete something)

     Examples:

     After Tom passed his driving test he filled out an application for his driver's license.

     The policeman filled out a report of the accident.

6. fill up: make or become completely full

     Examples:

     The room soon filled up with people.

     The rain has filled up the ditches again.

7. available: able to be got, obtained, used, etc.

     Examples:

     A limited number of seats are still available.

     There were no tickets available for Friday's performance.

8. elevate: make better, higher, or more educated

     Examples:

     The clerk was elevated to a managerial position.

     The government is trying to elevate the living standards of the people.

    9. procedure: an action or set of actions necessary for doing something

     Examples:

     Writing a check is quite a simple procedure.

     We have worked out a new set of procedures for using this machine.

    10. spot: pick out, recognize, see (one person or thing out of many)

     Examples:

     He was the first to spot the danger.

     We spotted the winner of the beauty contest the moment she appeared.

11. variety: number or group of different things

     Examples:

     Everyone arrived late at the party for a variety of reasons.

     The college library has a wide variety of books.

12. learn of: become informed of

     Examples:

     How did you learn of our product? Was it through our advertisement?

     I learned of your new address from your parents.

13. annual: of one year

     Examples:

     The annual farm output was to be increased by 4 to 5 percent.

     Mr. White's annual income is $36,000.

14. financial: connected with money

     Examples:

     In that case they would receive financial aid from the state.

     They are now confronted with a serious financial crisis.

15. detailed: with a lot of facts given

     Examples:

     He gave me a detailed account of his work.

     He kept a detailed diary of the meetings.

U3

1.fashion: the way of dressing or behaving that is considered the best at a certain

    time

     Examples:

     Fashions have changed since I was a girl.

     Fashions for men's clothes change less frequently than fashions for women's clothes.

2. brand: a class of goods which is the product of a particular firm of producer

     Examples:

     What is your favorite brand of soap?

     There are two brands of the article on the market.

3. victim: person, animal, etc. suffering injury, pain, loss, etc. as result of other

    people's actions, or of illness, bad luck, etc.

     Examples:

     He was the victim of ill-treatment as a child.

     Many thousands of animals have been victims of this strange new disease.

4. necessity: something that is necessary

     Examples:

     Food and clothing are necessities of life.

     We'll take only the necessities for the camping trip.

    5. dress up: make (something, or oneself) more attractive, esp. with clothing

     Examples:

     They dressed up for the occasion.

     Are you going to dress up for the party, or is it informal?

6. define: show the character or nature of

     Examples:

     Good manners define the gentlemen.

     What defines us as human?

    7. identify with: cause or consider (someone to be connected with something)

     Examples:

     Wealth cannot be identified with happiness.

     The world identifies Mrs. Pankhurst with female emancipation.

    8. turn to: go to ...for help, advice, sympathy, comfort, etc.

     Examples:

     The child felt there was no one he could turn to with his problems.

     I had to turn to the dictionary for help.

9. quest: search, attempt to find

     Examples:

     The quest for gold was long and difficult.

     He went to the library in quest of something to read.

    10. look to: depend on to provide help, advice, etc.

     Examples:

     We look to you for help / to help us.

     An able young man is ashamed to look to others for assistance.

11. affect: influence

     Examples:

     The amount of rain affects the growth of crops.

     The economic crisis has seriously affected West German exports.

12. add to: put together with something else so as to increase the number, size,

importance

     Examples:

     He added some wood to the fire.

     The music added to our enjoyment.

    13. be one's fault: be something for which one can rightly be blamed

     Examples:

     It is your own fault for not learning.

     Whose fault is it (that) we are late? It is not our fault.

14. consumption: the act of consuming

     Examples:

     There is too great a consumption of alcohol in Britain.

     That price rise did not reduce consumption.

15. step back: think about as if not involved

     Example:

     From time to time, the teachers should step back and let their students run things

    their way.

     It is the time for parents to step back so that their children can handle the

    thing their own way when they grow up.

U4

    1.championship: a competition held to determine the champion; position of a champion

     Examples:

     An American team won the pairs championships.

     They won the men's and women's singles championships respectively.

    2. senior: older in years; higher in rank, authority, etc.

     Examples:

     Mr. Gray is a senior officer in this bank.

     He is too senior to try for a young mans job.

3. bound: ready to start, having started (for)

     Examples:

     They were on the New York express, bound for Maine.

     That ship is bound for South America.

4. distress: a state of danger or great difficulty

     Examples:

     If the storm continues on the mountain, the climber will be in distress by morning.

     The lifeboat went out to rescue a ship in distress.

    5. signal: something intended to warn, command, or give a message

     Examples:

     A red light is often used as a danger signal.

     American Indians used to occasionally send smoke signals.

6. contact: get in touch with (someone)

     Examples:

     I shall contact you by telephone.

     I must contact my lawyer before I make my final decisions.

7. lower: move or let down in height

     Examples:

     Lowering the window shade will keep out the sun.

     He sat quite still, with his gaze lowered to the carpet.

8. approach: the act of coming near or nearer

     Examples:

     Our approach drove away the wild animals.

     With the approach of the Spring Festival the weather turned cold.

9. collision: an accident in which two or more people or vehicles hit each other while

    moving in different directions

     Examples:

     The liner is reported to have had a collision with an oil tanker.

     The two cars were broken into pieces in the collision.

10. in any case: whatever happens

     Examples:

     In any case, I shall return in a day or two.

     In any case, I would insist upon your being paid.

11. crash: a violent vehicle accident

     Examples:

     There have been a lot of crashes lately.

     All the passengers were killed in the plane crash.

12. rear: raise; lift up

     Examples:

     A lion suddenly reared its head from among the tall grass.

     The skyscraper rears above the neighboring buildings.

    13. explode: burst or cause to burst violently and noisily

     Examples:

     The boiler exploded and many people were injured by the hot steam.

     He pumped the ball up too much and it exploded.

14. tragic: very sad; unfortunate

     Examples:

     The tragic accident took eight lives.

     The driver of the car made a tragic mistake.

15. comb through: search something thoroughly

     Example:

     The rescuers combed through the forests for the missing soldier.

     The students spent many hours in the library combing through old books looking for facts they wanted.

    U5

    1.opportunity: a favorable moment or occasion (for doing something)

     Examples:

     It will give you an opportunity to meet all kinds of people.

     Don't let slip any opportunity to practice your English.

    2. claim: say that (sth.) is true or is a fact without having any proof

     Examples:

     Jean claims to own a car but I don't believe her.

     He claimed that he had done the work without help.

3. let alone: not to mention

     Examples:

     I have not even read the first chapter, let alone finished the book.

     The baby can't even walk, let alone run.

4. discourage: prevent (an action)

     Examples:

     We discourage smoking in this school.

     We tried to discourage him from climbing the mountain without a guide.

5. foster: help (something) to grow or develop

     Examples:

     Cooperative learning fosters a spirit of cooperation.

     The mother tried to foster her son's interest in music by taking him to concerts when he was young.

    6. try out: test to find out about quality, worth, effect, etc.

     Examples:

     I want to try out several of the new singers for the part.

     The new engine must be thoroughly tried out before being out on the market.

7. focus on: direct one's attention to

     Examples:

     Today we're going to focus on the question of homeless people in London.

     As we can't study all the resources, I propose we focus attention on one of them.

8. academic: scholarly, theoretical, not practical

     Examples:

     Academic exchanges are an important part of cultural exchanges between two countries.

     His theory received little attention because he was unknown in the academic world.

9. grateful: feeling or showing thanks

     Examples:

     I was most grateful to John for bringing the books.

     We are grateful to our neighbors for help in time of trouble.

    10. sign up: sign an agreement to take part in something

     Examples:

     We will not have the picnic unless more people sign up.

     How many people signed up for this course.

    11. lose oneself in: be extremely interested in something

     Example:

     On a dull winter afternoon, Harry would sit by the fire and lose himself in a book.

     Boys tend to lose themselves in computer games.

12. fall into: pass into a specified state

     Example:

     You have fallen into a bad habit of repeating yourself.

     If you fall into heavy smoking, you'll get healthy problems.

    13. capable: having ability of doing or the power to do

     Examples:

     She is extremely capable and dependable.

     This computer is capable of storing millions of bits of information.

14. appropriate: correct or suitable

     Examples:

     Plain, simple clothes are appropriate for school wear.

     It seemed appropriate to end with a joke.

15. lead to: have as a result; cause

     Examples:

     A bad cold can lead to pneumonia.

     Hard work leads to success.

    U6

1.clap: strike (one's hands) together with a quick movement and loud sound

     Examples:

     The teacher clapped to attract the class's attention.

     The audience clapped at the end of the play.

2. usher: bring or cause to enter

     Examples:

     A series of reforms ushered in the new regime.

     The rising sun ushered in a new day.

3. quit: stop (doing something)

     Examples:

     He quit his job for a better position.

     He should really quit smoking.

    4. persevere: continue firmly in spite of difficulties

     Examples:

     He persevered in his search for a job.

     Despite the failure of his early experiments, the scientist persevered in his

    research.

    5. in the way: blocking the forward movement of

     Examples:

     The chair is in the way; so move it, please.

     Although he thought he was helping us prepare the dinner, he was only in the way.

6. interview: ask questions of (somebody)

     Examples:

     He interviewed all the applicants one by one.

     In the oral test the student is interviewed by an examiner.

7. count out: leave out by choice

     Examples:

     If you are playing football in this rainy weather you can count me out.

     We have ten applicants for the post, but two of them have now accepted other

    appointments, so we can count them out.

8. at times: sometimes

     Examples:

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