DOCX

TITLE - PETERPAGES.NET!

By Rosa Rose,2014-11-10 03:25
8 views 0
BASED ON THE STORIED LOGO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE, NETLOGO IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AN OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING. BY CREATING INDIVIDUAL ...

    Traffic Flow on Escalators and Moving Walkways:

    Quantifying and Modeling Pedestrian Behavior in a Continuously Moving System

    Peter D. Kauffmann

    Thesis submitted to the faculty of the

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Science

    In

    Civil Engineering

    Dr. Shinya Kikuchi

    Dr. Antoine Hobeika

    Dr. Ralph Buehler

    February 4, 2011

    Falls Church, Virginia

    Keywords: escalator, moving walkway, cellular automata, pedestrian, capacity

    Copyright ? 2011 by Peter D. Kauffmann

    Traffic Flow on Escalators and Moving Walkways:

    Quantifying and Modeling Pedestrian Behavior in a Continuously Moving System

    By

    Peter D. Kauffmann

    ABSTRACT

    (Enter abstract here)

Acknowledgements

    Thank some people.

    Kikuchi

    Committee: Hobeika for the “how”, Buehler for the “why”

    Greg and Brad for encouraging me to go on trips during the formative phase of my thesis that wound up being heavy in escalator and moving walkway usage

    Connor and Dymond for giving me something to do to support myself financially while I got my act together in grad school

    TISE faculty for providing suitably significant projects that I now understand are preparation for larger research undertakings, specifically Rakha, Abbas, Hobeika, and Kikuchi Parents for not asking questions about when I was going to finish up

    CEE office staff for support with teleconferencing with committee

     iii

Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Introduction to Moving Belts .................................................................................1 1.1 Prevalence of Escalators and Moving Walkways ........................................................... 1 1.2 History and Development of Moving Belt Systems ........................................................ 2 1.3 Design of Pedestrian Interface Areas ............................................................................. 2 1.3.1 Necessary Simplifications ........................................................................................ 3 1.3.2 Flaws in Belt Specification ...................................................................................... 3

    1.3.2.1 Determining Capacity ....................................................................................... 3

    1.3.2.2 Accounting for Regional Differences in Pedestrian Streams .............................. 4

    1.3.2.3 Effects of Crush Loading .................................................................................. 4 1.4 Proposed Approach to Belt Capacity Analysis ............................................................... 4 1.4.1 Model Operation ...................................................................................................... 4 1.4.2 Source Data ............................................................................................................. 5

    1.4.2.1 Inclusion of Automotive Choice Behavior ........................................................ 5

    1.4.2.2 Sensitivity Analysis Capabilities ....................................................................... 5 Chapter 2: Literature Review ...................................................................................................6 2.1 Pedestrian Behavior ....................................................................................................... 6 2.1.1 Unrestricted Condition ............................................................................................. 6

    2.1.1.1 Travel Characteristics ....................................................................................... 6

    2.1.1.2 Available Space ................................................................................................ 7 2.1.2 Confounding Factors ............................................................................................... 8

    2.1.2.1 Stair Climbing .................................................................................................. 8

    2.1.2.2 Elevation Change .............................................................................................. 9

    2.1.2.3 Bottleneck Effects............................................................................................. 9

    2.1.2.4 Following Behavior .........................................................................................10

    2.1.2.5 Passing Choice ................................................................................................11 2.2 Traffic Flow Theory .....................................................................................................12 2.2.1 Following Behavior ................................................................................................12

    2.2.1.1 Existing Derived Equation Models...................................................................12

    2.2.1.2 Rule-Based Models ..........................................................................................13 2.2.2 Passing Choice .......................................................................................................14 2.3 Belt Characteristics.......................................................................................................14 2.3.1 Geometric Specifications ........................................................................................15 2.3.2 Operational Parameters ...........................................................................................15 2.4 Capacity Analysis .........................................................................................................16 2.4.1 Empirical Capacities ...............................................................................................16 2.4.2 Level of Service Determination ..............................................................................16 2.5 Modeling Framework ...................................................................................................17 2.5.1 Simulation Approach ..............................................................................................17

    2.5.1.1 Cellular Automata (CA) Framework ................................................................17

    2.5.1.2 CA Approach to Pedestrian Flow Modeling .....................................................17

    2.5.1.3 Criticism of CA Approach ...............................................................................18

    2.5.1.4 Calibration of Model Parameters......................................................................18 2.5.2 Modeling Language ................................................................................................19 Chapter 3: Model Development .............................................................................................. 20

     iv

     Framework ...................................................................................................................20 3.1

    3.1.1 Pedestrian Parameter Selection ...............................................................................20

    3.1.2 Belt Characteristics .................................................................................................20 3.2 Operation .....................................................................................................................20

    3.2.1 Formulating Inflow .................................................................................................20

    3.2.2 Inducing Movement ................................................................................................20

    3.2.3 Accounting for Confounding Factors ......................................................................20

    3.2.4 Implementing Pedestrian Interaction .......................................................................20 3.3 Data Collection.............................................................................................................20

    3.3.1 Real-Time Outputs .................................................................................................20

    3.3.2 Time-Space Diagrams.............................................................................................20

    3.3.3 Capacity Analysis ...................................................................................................20 Chapter 4: Results and Discussion ......................................................................................... 21 4.1 Model Validation..........................................................................................................21

    4.1.1 Operation ................................................................................................................21

    4.1.1.1 Following ........................................................................................................21

    4.1.1.2 Passing ............................................................................................................21

    4.1.1.3 Bottleneck Effects............................................................................................21

    4.1.2 Capacity .................................................................................................................21 4.2 Potential Applications ..................................................................................................21

    4.2.1 Sensitivity Analysis of Proposed Solutions .............................................................21

    4.2.2 Analysis of Proposed Rule Implementation.............................................................21

    4.2.3 Platform Sizing .......................................................................................................21 Chapter 5: Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 22 5.1 Suggestions for Further Research .................................................................................22 References................................................................................................................................ 23 Appendix ................................................................................................................................. 26

     v

Chapter 1: Introduction to Moving Belts

    In the early days of urban transportation, achieving mobility was not difficult. Travelers could,