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Unit 1.doc

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Unit 1.doc

    第一单元 作指南

    我单能单不单表我单的看法想事情)Unit 1

    却无法不思考而出好的单西。思考不

    A Guide to Composition单成一篇文章的基单)而且在我单行

    文单指引我单)单我单能单在单安排和文Although we can think without expressing our ideas, we

    章单格等重要单单上做定。单篇附单决会帮cannot write well without thinking. Not only does thinking 助了解是什单特征使一篇文章有力)

    provide the substance of a composition; it also guides us 并个且提供一如何具有单些特征的策

    略。as we proceed, enabling us to make important decisions about arrangement and style. This appendix will help you 四重要的特征

    一篇文章要单得有力必单有一致to understand what characteristics make a composition

    性、单单性、单重性和深入性。effective. It will also provide an efficient strategy for achieving those characteristics in your writing.要单的文章具有一致性)

    你你并要单展出的中心思想在文章

    Four Important Characteristics单单点明。有中心思想)文章有力便

    无单起。中心思想支配着文章要包含

    To be effective, a composition must display unity, 什单)不包含什单)一点单始、从哪从哪

    一点单束)以及单最好地安排单点的coherence, emphasis, and development.

    次序。在单始之前)就必单楚你写你清

    中心思想是什单)才能单起单些指单作To Give Your Composition Unity, Develop a Central

    用。如果单了省单单而急急忙忙单)你笔Idea, and State It Early in the Composition. Without a 想在的单程中单单一中心思想)那单写个

    central idea, you have no basis for making your 半小单后)单单单单搔首、单眉不解)个你

    会你单单单完全失去了方向或者已单走单了composition effective. A central idea provides control over

    死胡同单单子不省单单。——并永单不要假单

    what to include in the composition and what to exclude, 你你写两知道想什单。把中心思想用一

    个达来句子表出?如果需要的单)修where to begin and where to end, and what arrangement of

    改次以定那就是想表的?在几确你达thoughts is best. If it is to provide this guidance, the 你写它的单候回单以保持方向。

    central idea should be clear to you before you begin

    要单的文章具有单单性)writing. It saves no time to rush headlong into a

    必单单单一单容易辨单的单单模式)然后

    composition expecting find an idea somewhere along the 用单单文章的单。它来构不是成熟的

    作者单单全世界的人都迫不及待地想way and then, half an hour later, after much head

    看到他的作品。他单的单度是?“如果单scratching and eyebrow furrowing, to decide that you are 我单篇文章的人在理解文章上有困单)

    hopelessly lost or at an dead end. Never assume you know 就单他单那单好了?我的思想单得他单努

    力去理解。”单单单度是幼稚的。单文章what you want to say. Put it down in a clear sentence or

    的人单不单单的文章的反单和单到单人你你two; change it several times, if necessary, to be sure it is 的不单单的文章单的反单是一单的。单句单单what you want to say; and refer back to it for direction 他单单单想?“单作者的思路不会个清晰?

    如果自己都无法把的单点弄楚她她清)while you are writing.

    我是不浪单我单的单单去推单的。”然会宝

    后他单把的文章在一单。会你扔To Give Your Composition Coherence, Choose a

    要避免单者有单单的反单)要单的Recognizable Pattern of Organization and Follow it.

    文章有单单性)必单保单的单点的单次你你Immature writers have the idea that the world is waiting 是容易被感知的。只要有可能)就单

    breathlessly to hear from them. Their attitude is “If readers 单在单束一单点后才单到下一单点个个?单

    单单者就不用不必要地在单点之单回跳have trouble figuring out my meaning, let them struggle to

    单着看?)用适的单接单或短单提示当来do so; my thoughts are worth the effort.” That attitude is 单者单点之单重要的推单。

    naïve. Readers of your writing will react to incoherence

    要单的文章具有单重性)just as you do when you encounter in others. In other

    要单予的单点相单的单著性程度。

    words, they’ll think to themselves, “This person is 单候一篇文章的每一单点有完全一单

    的重要程度。但是单单的例子是其罕单confused; if she couldn’t make her meaning clear, I’m not

    的。大多情下)各单点的重要性之数况going to waste my valuable time trying to figure it out.” 单有单著单。要考单单点的中心思区你与你

    Then they’ll throw it aside.想的单单单系定在一篇文章中相单来决它

    的重要程度。单在单单中心思想的单程To avoid such a reaction and make your writing coherent,

    中单越大)单就越重要。要强单他单份它you must be sure that the order of your ideas is sensible. 的重要性)可以用一下单些方法?

    Whenever possible, you must also finish one idea before

     单一重要单点更多的篇幅?1.moving on to the next (so that your readers don’t have to 也就是单)比其单点单)它来

    jump back and forth between ideas unnecessarily) and 提供更多信息)更深入探

    究。provide helpful connecting words or phrases to signal

    只要有可能)单予重要单点2.significant shifts from one idea to another.有强单作用的位置。单尾是最

    具强单作用的)其次是单单。To Give Your Composition Emphasis, Give Each of 所以)如果文章正文有

    Your Ideas the Degree of Prominence It Deserves. 四单点或单点)最好把个你

    最重要的那放在最后)There may be occasions when every idea in a composition

    其次的放在单单)其他的放

    has exactly the same degree of importance as every other. 中单。

    有单候重单使用单单单)或者使3.But those occasions are extremely rare. Much more often,

    用回单。后者不重单单单单)the ideas differ significantly in their importance. To 但单的意思单单单单像)它与很

    determine the relative importance of the ideas in a piece of 能单单者单生单想。在一篇单于单

    的文章里)像尊敬、奉、writing, consider their exact relationship to your central

    深情单单的单就是回单。但是ideas in a piece of writing. The larger the role they play in 要注意的是?重单和回单

    都要单使用)不然单单慎会犹communicating that idea, the more important they are. Use

    不及。these approaches to give greater emphasis to more

    要单的文章具有深入性)important ideas:

    要在重要的单点上多下功1.夫。不是

    Assign an important idea more space; that is, provide more 所有的单点都需要单篇大单。遵循使用强

    单的原单)得通单必要的深入掘懂挖来information about it and develop it further than other

    从你你的单者那得到想要的反单)然后ideas.提供那单掘例如)通单使用单的挖——扣

    2.例子)描述)定单)解单和其他手法

    深入单述。如果的目的是单服的单者你你)Whenever possible, give important ideas the positions of

    你很当的多单点都要有适的深入性。

    greatest emphasis. The end is the most emphatic position,

    作策略and the beginning is the next most emphatic. Thus, if you

    基本的策略单单?通单五步单很个had four points or arguments in the body of your 来写并真个完成作单做好每单步单。单单始

    composition, you’d put your most important point last, 写来作的人常常想着他单可以抄近路单

    省单单)但往往单果是不幸的。他单或者your next most important point first, and the others in the

    写没出了一篇破单不堪的、有单服力的

    middle.缺少好文章所具有的一或特征个几个

    的作文)或者单了次单都不好以致花3.

    单太多不必要的单单。而我要提出的五Repeat key words occasionally, or use echo words. The 步单是腹稿)单)草稿)修改和单单划写

    latter are words that do not repeat the key words but

    腹稿whose sense is similar enough to call them to mind. In a

    单步单是一单新思单和辨单思单个个composition about love, words like respect, devotion and 的单程)解了单单、单理了事件)它决从

    affection would be echo words. One caution, though: Both 而提供了一篇解析性的?单服性的?

    文章的基单。单一步单单单上包含了本单repetition and echo words must be used judiciously, or

    五章单的全个内当你容。然)可以在

    they will make your composition seem inflated.本单之前使用单附单作单指南)单单

    一单于腹稿的思单单程的单单就可以单始

    To Give Your Composition Development, Elaborate on 了。单思单个你单始于单单单和事件的单心

    即当把单些单单和事件作使人单单的Important Ideas. Not every idea warrants extended

    单)作单展的理解和了解当你内treatment. To honor the principle of emphasis, be sensitive 会你了单单的感知到的单些

    to the development necessary to elicit the response your )单单单单地通单近你极单的单

    它来找它单出、单单的不完之单、提want from your readers, and then provide that

    出自己和其他人不单意的地方、搜索development – for example, by using cases in point, 其原以及单其示容保持感。

    当你找你到想要单单的单单或事件单descriptions, definitions, explanations, and so on. When

    你当尽要使用的单句、通单可能多的your purpose is to persuade your readers, many of your 方式把表出。单于单单)使用“我它达来

    ideas may require considerable development.单单才能怎呢……?”单单的单句?单于事

    件)使用“是……?”或者“单单

    ?”单单的单句。单你达使用的表方A Strategy for Composing法越多)单的思路就越多)单你启会你

    也就更有可能看到正的真内The basis strategy can be stated very simply: Approach 下一步)单单那单单或事件)个从

    你你自己或单单的人的单单单始)然后通单composing as a five-stage process and give careful

    单和单单的方式了解相单单的意单。attention to each stage. Beginning writers often think they 的目单是得到有单理单单或事件的必

    can cut corners and save time, but the result is usually 要的信息。单单单单以单究你研几

    有单单的大的单。了解的单单单)你学unfortunate. Either they produce a shabby, ineffective

    会从它想单的方法去使用。单piece of work that lacks one or more of the characteristics 也是一单。

    of good writing, or they make so many false starts that 当你搜集到了单于单单和事件所

    有重要的事单和单点单)就可以回they spend more time writing than necessary. The five

    你怎之前的单单?“我单单才能……

    stages are prewriting, planning, drafting, revising, and ?”、“是……?”、“单单……

    ?”?。不要单于少数几个答案。努ending.

    力单求量多单的想像得到的答案)而

    判留到后一点的单。单;

    断会你的单单阻塞新单点的单生)把的Prewriting角限制在单常的、熟的、有单

    单。以下是一些已单被单明有This stage is the creative and critical thinking process that 刺激提单单点单的想力的方法)大

    solves the problem or resolves the issue and thus provides 部分自第章?

    无束地。单单单的控制)the substance of an analytical (persuasive) piece of

    单一个另个单单出一单。把单writing. This stage comprises virtually everything 单都单单下)然后回到

    contained in the 15 chapters of this book. You may, of 起点)单展那些有单的。

    一单。单比无无束地更course, be using this appendix for guidance before you 更省力)单只需要单单

    have read the entire book, so a brief discussion of the 单或短单。单在手单随笔单单)

    单单出的单候就可以单单thinking process as a prewriting activity is in order. The

    地单单。activity begins in your alertness to problems and issues, 强迫自己单生不同单常的看法。在考单

    seeing them as exciting intellectual challenges, as well as 所有单单单或事件单常的看法

    之后)要单迫自己去想想opportunities to enlarge your understanding and gain

    不单常的看法)使是那些

    insights. Beyond being merely receptive to challenges that 你从听以前单想单的那些。

    做单比。想想的单单或事件)或者单你你confront you, you should actively seek them out by

    单的单单回单起了什单、单你它practicing close observation, looking for imperfections in 在一或多方个个没有有

    things, noting your own and other people’s 同点。单单子出的单系单找来

    常被单明是知单。dissatisfactions, searching for causes, and being sensitive

    不单常的单单多有用的单明

    来没前被单单之单有单系的to implications.

    具的单

    想。单自己?“如果单单单解了)个决When you find a problem or issue that you want to

    事单单单会怎呢构化?address, express it in as many ways as you can using the 个并形象)解单其中的单单。

    appropriate questions: “How can …?” for problems and 利弊不同单点的单单。7.???

    有可能太单向于事件的一“Is …?” “Does …?” or “Should …?” for issues.

    )以致无法想到能单Remember that the more expressions you produce, the 反单的那一方所用的单。但

    more avenues of thought you open, and the greater the 那正是使的单单单得正所

    要做的事情。一得更chance that you will achieve genuine insight.

    理的单的方法是?强迫

    自己出单事件的一单更Next, investigate the problem or issue, starting with your

    有单的单气会。单单做有单

    own experience and that of people you know, then 示可能你会内略的

    相单的单想。单想是想8.???consulting appropriate authorities by means of interviews

    出的)但是可能单生and reading. Your objective is to obtain the information 的单单中的事件相单的事单

    necessary to deal effectively with the problem or issue. 和事情。例如)如果正单

    单人提出的改单来你学The modern library has a wide array of resources you can

    注程序的册你单)就可use to research almost any topic. Get to know your library 以考单单个会单单有全单

    作的单生单去什单and learn to use it imaginatively. Do the same with the

    困单?如果有的单?。Internet.提出魔鬼化的想法。9.????

    单的信)单有人单的单When you are in possession of all important facts and 单。例如)如果到单单的

    points of view about the problem or issue, produce 单点?无件地接自我

    单人单生健康的情单、单得answers to your initial questions (“How can?” or “Is?”

    更单心单人)就可以以提“Does?” or “Should?”). resist the tendency to settle for a 出反单单点单单无件地接——条

    few answers. Strive for a large and varied number of 自我单人单生不健康

    情单、单得不单心单人。?可conceivable answers, postponing judgment until the later

    能单单单多会很单的信

    evaluation stage. Remember that the habit of judging 很当你理的)但单单有些

    是不理的单候)不要hastily can block the production of ideas and limit your

    单。?perspective to the common, the familiar, and the 示性的单西。10.??

    uncreative. Here are some proven ways to stimulate your 是单单的一些单点)单单有它没

    接地表出)而是达来imagination in producing ideas, most of them from

    通单表出的单西助达来来帮Chapter 9.理解、示。

    提出有单的可能性。11.??

    有单的可能性是1.和单向的相单。例如)

    如果有人单一新的单个医Free writing. Relax control of your mind, and let one idea

    单比单行的花单少而且lead to another. Record all of them and then go back and 盖面更)可以单?广你

    pursue any that seem promising.“如果单单上花单更多)

    覆盖面也比单行的小2.

    呢称?”如果有人List making. Since it involves only single words and 异会减族群之单的short phrase, list making is faster and more efficient than )可以单?“可能你它

    反而会呢增加摩擦?free writing. Keep a pen and paper handy at all times and

    briefly note ideas when they occur.

     在单单个你写)要单单出作单的3.

    单单。单点单单于当糙的、单略的式单)Forcing uncommon responses. After considering all the 用不同的格式单单单要比单单已单被来它

    typical responses to the problem or issue, press yourself to 地单展成句子和段落单容易。单当你

    于单理大单单的单点和各单各单度的单think of some atypical ones, even those that you have

    ?例如本单的单用文?单)单原理就never or thought of before. 不是小单单了。以下是在单文章单要你划

    遵循的步单?4.

    的单点。的句子1.Making analogies. Consider what the problem or issue or 或单于是否整单、正的心确担

    the items of evidence you have uncovered remind you of, 在 单步单里是

    不必要的。单单子不是文个你what they are similar to in one or more respects. Such

    章的草稿)只是的一些connections often prove insightful.材料集合)单看看而

    5.已。

    单单排方式。定单安排决怎2.Constructing unusual combinations. Many useful

    你会的单点的单序单单者最容inventions come from combining ideas or tools not 易)最容易被单服。以跟随

    下是最普遍的在单服性的文previously considered related.

    章里单单单点的方法。?单而单单6.的文章单常使用单或多单单单Using visualization. Ask yourself “How would the 的单单模式。?

    单单到单的单序)一单始单单situation change if the problem were solved?” from a

    被提出)然后才用支visual image and note the details.性的单来个很单单。单方法容

    易)学会你很单可以有7.

    地单出?“单是我相信的)Constructing pro can con arguments. You may be so 以下是我单什单相信。”inclined toward one side of an issue that you have 到单单的单序)单单单你你

    的单者一步一步到单单。达当

    你个蒂想反单一单的difficulty thinking of anything worthwhile that could be

    的单点单)单模式是比单said for the opposing view. Yet that’s just what you must 好的。

    do to be fair-minded. Forcing yourself to list the 果单序)单?例如大单

    条会?的原因先被单单)然arguments that could be advanced on either side of the

    后才是单果。?反单)果issue is a way to achieve that more reasonable perspective. 单序也可以使用。?

    It sometimes reveals an insight you would otherwise have 重要程度排序)支

    的单据按照最次要到最重要、overlooked.

    的单序排。单方法的

    8.一单单是改后的重要

    程度排序?第重要的单Constructing relevant scenarios. Scenarios are

    被放在最单始)而最重要的imaginatively conceived but realistic examples of 被放在最后。单单排方法是

    situations and events that are relevant to the issue under 单单得单者第一和最后

    单的好单的。consideration. For example, if you were evaluating a proposed change in registration procedure on your 在定如何安排的单点你决你将你

    后)单单单。单单在单文章草稿是就它号你写campus, you might consider what hardships, if any, it

    可以单单地很你划来按照的单。would create for a part-time commuting student who has a

    full-time job.单单的单单和单单。单单者3.

    好接你它的中心思想和9.

    的单展单程。单做到单一点怎呢?Playing devil’s advocate. Challenge popular beliefs, 以下是文章单单的有几个

    asking questions no one else seems to raising. For 的方法?

    单单)然后单单可能的答案example. If you encountered the notion that unconditional

    单一个你示在单单的单单或事

    self-acceptance makes one emotionally healthy and more 件的单短的单。

    引用可以引出的中心思caring of others, you’d entertain the opposite idea – that it

    想的名言makes one emotionally unhealthy and less caring of 单有单反方的单点在单单出单?

    others. (You will probably find that many common beliefs 也就是单)引用同意的反

    方的一单点)用单出个它来are perfectly reasonable, but don’t be surprised to discover

    不同意的地方。

    some that aren’t.)

    以下是单单一篇文章的一些有方法?10.

    提出文中单与尽据呼单的单。单单Identify implications. Implications are ideas that are 述文章引言部分提到的容)回内即

    understood or suggested by what is said, though not 所提出的单单)或者单引用的事、

    单等做出单单。行引用)强单文章另你directly expressed themselves. The highly publicized

    的中心或个另重要的点。引用一单accounts of children “divorcing” their parents imply that

    事单单)但单得定只是在强单文章中确它

    心而提出前提及的新单点。members of families have the right to accept or reject the

    单述若依文中单点所行单可单other members. Does this suggest, you’d wonder, that 裨益)或者相反)单出若非

    parents have the same right? If so, should they be 可能单致的不后果。

    单要而有力的单述单者单得同意单permitted to “divorce” or disown their children?

    点的理11.

    Noting ironic possibilities. Ironic possibilities run counter 单注出些单点需要单4.

    持以及如何单行单单。 单明的to expectations or intentions. For example, if a health care

    单者不单单单的单点而信服)

    plan is touted as costing less than existing plans and 单要看的支持单点的单

    有力。单单且当你尽单的providing greater coverage, ask, “What if it costs more

    析了单单后)就知道你会你and delivers less?” If someone proclaims that cultural 的那些单点可能到单

    diversity will reduce friction among ethnic groups, ask, 以及在单单情下单的单况怎

    单、不可或缺的。“Might it instead increase friction?”

    ?那些单将你单单的单单。?

    单单的每一单单考单单单你断并怎;

    单的单去单单?然后单的它你Planning单的单述可以用以下一单

    或单方法?In this stage, you create a blueprint to follow in the writing 单述单的单单)例如)真数

    stage. It is easier to experiment with different formats

    单人或事单行描述。when ideas are in rough, abbreviated form than when they 单一篇文章或一本单单行容

    are fully developed in sentences and paragraphs. This is no 要。

    引用或单单单单。small concern in situations (such as in the applications in

    承某单单的单单展的单程。this book) in which you are dealing with a large number of 单事例的单述或单假单

    complex ideas and a number of different perspectives. 事的引

    提出定单性容)字面These are the steps you should follow in planning your

    解单或形象描述可。

    compositions:单单程或步单的单述。

    比单或单比)解单其相点或

    1.不同点。

    析原或单果。List your ideas. There’s no need for complete sentences

    单人的单单)提出其单here or for concern about neatness and correctness. This 或不之单。

    list is not a draft of your paper, just a gathering of its

    起草ingredients, and it is for your eyes only.

    在单单个你将你划)按照的单完成文2.章的稿。完成稿单程尽断)

    Choose the arrangement. Decide what arrangement of

    气尽成。做到字斟)用完

    的句子表)且自然的达并段落your ideas will be easiest for your readers to follow and

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    也要单单做定。在个决草稿单)一employ two or more of these organizational patterns.)定不要单了单单单、、以及一些单法单确拼写

    单而。单些然重要)不单那是Conclusion-to-evidence order, in which the conclusion is 以后的程序。以上单)如得单)单

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    This is easy to follow, saying in effect, “This is what I

    修改

    believe, and here is why I believe it.”单单的目的是要将你稿改单单一篇推

    后的文作。可以单着批判

    Evidence-to-conclusion order, in which you lead your 去单的你声稿)最好是大单)

    单看相单听与比单单是看更容易单单单单。readers to your conclusion step by step. This is the

    接下单自己以下单单)在单得需来几个并preferred pattern whenever you are disputing a popular 要修改的地方注下旁批?

    and well-entrenched view.单有有其他的方式可以用表我没来达

    的中心思想?其中一部分需要更单

    Cause-to-effect order, in which the causes of a 的单述以便单者的理解?

    单可以单强文章的单理性怎怎条?单于一phenomenon, such as the Great Depression, are discussed

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    添加?单接单?单单者单点的cause, may also be used.)

    ?

    Order of importance, in which the supporting arguments 我的些单点需要强单)些不需要哪哪?

    如何最好地单单重点的单移?are presented in ascending order from the least to the most 单于些单点我有提供有力的单哪没

    important. A variation of this is modified order of ?提供单支持单用何单技巧佳?

    importance, in which the second most important argument

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    勘校)而不要一次单单地单行?单一)

    体来几单单单行改正)接下的单容When you have decided how you will arrange your ideas,

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    number them accordingly, so that you can follow your 必要的单)单单字典以及作手单行写册确

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    强文章可单性3.

    作单一有相的单个当写学水平的大生)

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    各单文单格)其中有的其极懂单单)readers for your central idea and its development. How 受打单的反而希望自己目不单)

    can you do that best? Here are some effective ways to 而有的单单上去那单你声服)单近尾单单

    犹尽你将写。或单是作单格单单单单单introduce a composition:

    单程度上单是事单?单)一些人

    确达单在单表上有特的才能)就Ask a salient question and discuss possible answers.

    像有人有着不工科单单。但作单究Tell a brief anecdote that will illustrate the problem or 是一单后单)如单)单单比

    issue you are addressing.更具有意单。如果在单作的不你写断

    与仿坏你模的单程中单成了单单)那单Use a quotation from a respected person, one that leads

    将个单的作者。反之)如果那些是

    into your central idea,好单单)是一单你会个的作者。注意下

    一些指单有助于单成好的作单单将你写?Concede a point to the opposing side of the issue; in other

    words, cite a point that those who differ with you have ?使的文章单起自然。你来多人1

    made and that you agree with, and use that as a lean-in to 笔来下功夫不行)上单起却

    单单是道。事单上)一些人单单your disagreement.

    )于属你属单者。如果于单

    单人)可以通单用文章表你来Here are some effective ways to conclude a composition:

    达你写滔滔言单的方法提

    水平。然)单不意当并着单文Recommend an action consistent with the argument

    章也单上单单单的小毛病)比如)presented in the body.“单”、“”单些单单、—啊—气

    或是不重单。指的是单文章断它Elaborate on something mentioned in your introduction; in

    单有单单的单感。单了到单一other words, answer a question raised there or comment on 点)得大你声你单出的稿)

    an anecdote or a quotation. Use another quotation that 把起不自然的听来部分单注出

    。单单些地方单行修改)reinforces your central idea or a main point. Present a new

    把文章大“单”出单单得你声来anecdote, being sure that it reinforces your central idea but 自然服单

    avoids raising issues not covered earlier.?单单。在单单的单文或者需要单2

    单点单行展单单单单)力单单单一点State the benefits that will result if your ideas are

    与并。但事单上

    implemented or the harmful consequences that are likely if 。一篇单文可能单无会很

    单里有太多不必要的your ideas are not implemented.

    单句或者它很你涵盖了多单点。State briefly and stirringly, why your audience should 完全可以单地去展单单单的单尽你

    endorse the argument you have presented.点而同单单的文章保持单单。只

    要能单单所想要表的意达你达

    4.思、单出单单者所理解的单)

    每一单的单点的单述都单单单单Note which ideas need support and how you will

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