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Unit 1.doc

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Unit 1.doc

    第一单元 作指南

    我单能单不单表我单的看法想事情)Unit 1

    却无法不思考而出好的单西。思考不

    A Guide to Composition单成一篇文章的基单)而且在我单行

    文单指引我单)单我单能单在单安排和文Although we can think without expressing our ideas, we

    章单格等重要单单上做定。单篇附单决会帮cannot write well without thinking. Not only does thinking 助了解是什单特征使一篇文章有力)

    provide the substance of a composition; it also guides us 并个且提供一如何具有单些特征的策

    略。as we proceed, enabling us to make important decisions about arrangement and style. This appendix will help you 四重要的特征

    一篇文章要单得有力必单有一致to understand what characteristics make a composition

    性、单单性、单重性和深入性。effective. It will also provide an efficient strategy for achieving those characteristics in your writing.要单的文章具有一致性)

    你你并要单展出的中心思想在文章

    Four Important Characteristics单单点明。有中心思想)文章有力便

    无单起。中心思想支配着文章要包含

    To be effective, a composition must display unity, 什单)不包含什单)一点单始、从哪从哪

    一点单束)以及单最好地安排单点的coherence, emphasis, and development.

    次序。在单始之前)就必单楚你写你清

    中心思想是什单)才能单起单些指单作To Give Your Composition Unity, Develop a Central

    用。如果单了省单单而急急忙忙单)你笔Idea, and State It Early in the Composition. Without a 想在的单程中单单一中心思想)那单写个

    central idea, you have no basis for making your 半小单后)单单单单搔首、单眉不解)个你

    会你单单单完全失去了方向或者已单走单了composition effective. A central idea provides control over

    死胡同单单子不省单单。——并永单不要假单

    what to include in the composition and what to exclude, 你你写两知道想什单。把中心思想用一

    个达来句子表出?如果需要的单)修where to begin and where to end, and what arrangement of

    改次以定那就是想表的?在几确你达thoughts is best. If it is to provide this guidance, the 你写它的单候回单以保持方向。

    central idea should be clear to you before you begin

    要单的文章具有单单性)writing. It saves no time to rush headlong into a

    必单单单一单容易辨单的单单模式)然后

    composition expecting find an idea somewhere along the 用单单文章的单。它来构不是成熟的

    作者单单全世界的人都迫不及待地想way and then, half an hour later, after much head

    看到他的作品。他单的单度是?“如果单scratching and eyebrow furrowing, to decide that you are 我单篇文章的人在理解文章上有困单)

    hopelessly lost or at an dead end. Never assume you know 就单他单那单好了?我的思想单得他单努

    力去理解。”单单单度是幼稚的。单文章what you want to say. Put it down in a clear sentence or

    的人单不单单的文章的反单和单到单人你你two; change it several times, if necessary, to be sure it is 的不单单的文章单的反单是一单的。单句单单what you want to say; and refer back to it for direction 他单单单想?“单作者的思路不会个清晰?

    如果自己都无法把的单点弄楚她她清)while you are writing.

    我是不浪单我单的单单去推单的。”然会宝

    后他单把的文章在一单。会你扔To Give Your Composition Coherence, Choose a

    要避免单者有单单的反单)要单的Recognizable Pattern of Organization and Follow it.

    文章有单单性)必单保单的单点的单次你你Immature writers have the idea that the world is waiting 是容易被感知的。只要有可能)就单

    breathlessly to hear from them. Their attitude is “If readers 单在单束一单点后才单到下一单点个个?单

    单单者就不用不必要地在单点之单回跳have trouble figuring out my meaning, let them struggle to

    单着看?)用适的单接单或短单提示当来do so; my thoughts are worth the effort.” That attitude is 单者单点之单重要的推单。

    naïve. Readers of your writing will react to incoherence

    要单的文章具有单重性)just as you do when you encounter in others. In other

    要单予的单点相单的单著性程度。

    words, they’ll think to themselves, “This person is 单候一篇文章的每一单点有完全一单

    的重要程度。但是单单的例子是其罕单confused; if she couldn’t make her meaning clear, I’m not

    的。大多情下)各单点的重要性之数况going to waste my valuable time trying to figure it out.” 单有单著单。要考单单点的中心思区你与你

    Then they’ll throw it aside.想的单单单系定在一篇文章中相单来决它

    的重要程度。单在单单中心思想的单程To avoid such a reaction and make your writing coherent,

    中单越大)单就越重要。要强单他单份它you must be sure that the order of your ideas is sensible. 的重要性)可以用一下单些方法?

    Whenever possible, you must also finish one idea before

     单一重要单点更多的篇幅?1.moving on to the next (so that your readers don’t have to 也就是单)比其单点单)它来

    jump back and forth between ideas unnecessarily) and 提供更多信息)更深入探

    究。provide helpful connecting words or phrases to signal

    只要有可能)单予重要单点2.significant shifts from one idea to another.有强单作用的位置。单尾是最

    具强单作用的)其次是单单。To Give Your Composition Emphasis, Give Each of 所以)如果文章正文有

    Your Ideas the Degree of Prominence It Deserves. 四单点或单点)最好把个你

    最重要的那放在最后)There may be occasions when every idea in a composition

    其次的放在单单)其他的放

    has exactly the same degree of importance as every other. 中单。

    有单候重单使用单单单)或者使3.But those occasions are extremely rare. Much more often,

    用回单。后者不重单单单单)the ideas differ significantly in their importance. To 但单的意思单单单单像)它与很

    determine the relative importance of the ideas in a piece of 能单单者单生单想。在一篇单于单

    的文章里)像尊敬、奉、writing, consider their exact relationship to your central

    深情单单的单就是回单。但是ideas in a piece of writing. The larger the role they play in 要注意的是?重单和回单

    都要单使用)不然单单慎会犹communicating that idea, the more important they are. Use

    不及。these approaches to give greater emphasis to more

    要单的文章具有深入性)important ideas:

    要在重要的单点上多下功1.夫。不是

    Assign an important idea more space; that is, provide more 所有的单点都需要单篇大单。遵循使用强

    单的原单)得通单必要的深入掘懂挖来information about it and develop it further than other

    从你你的单者那得到想要的反单)然后ideas.提供那单掘例如)通单使用单的挖——扣

    2.例子)描述)定单)解单和其他手法

    深入单述。如果的目的是单服的单者你你)Whenever possible, give important ideas the positions of

    你很当的多单点都要有适的深入性。

    greatest emphasis. The end is the most emphatic position,

    作策略and the beginning is the next most emphatic. Thus, if you

    基本的策略单单?通单五步单很个had four points or arguments in the body of your 来写并真个完成作单做好每单步单。单单始

    composition, you’d put your most important point last, 写来作的人常常想着他单可以抄近路单

    省单单)但往往单果是不幸的。他单或者your next most important point first, and the others in the

    写没出了一篇破单不堪的、有单服力的

    middle.缺少好文章所具有的一或特征个几个

    的作文)或者单了次单都不好以致花3.

    单太多不必要的单单。而我要提出的五Repeat key words occasionally, or use echo words. The 步单是腹稿)单)草稿)修改和单单划写

    latter are words that do not repeat the key words but

    腹稿whose sense is similar enough to call them to mind. In a

    单步单是一单新思单和辨单思单个个composition about love, words like respect, devotion and 的单程)解了单单、单理了事件)它决从

    affection would be echo words. One caution, though: Both 而提供了一篇解析性的?单服性的?

    文章的基单。单一步单单单上包含了本单repetition and echo words must be used judiciously, or

    五章单的全个内当你容。然)可以在

    they will make your composition seem inflated.本单之前使用单附单作单指南)单单

    一单于腹稿的思单单程的单单就可以单始

    To Give Your Composition Development, Elaborate on 了。单思单个你单始于单单单和事件的单心

    即当把单些单单和事件作使人单单的Important Ideas. Not every idea warrants extended

    单)作单展的理解和了解当你内treatment. To honor the principle of emphasis, be sensitive 会你了单单的感知到的单些

    to the development necessary to elicit the response your )单单单单地通单近你极单的单

    它来找它单出、单单的不完之单、提want from your readers, and then provide that

    出自己和其他人不单意的地方、搜索development – for example, by using cases in point, 其原以及单其示容保持感。

    当你找你到想要单单的单单或事件单descriptions, definitions, explanations, and so on. When

    你当尽要使用的单句、通单可能多的your purpose is to persuade your readers, many of your 方式把表出。单于单单)使用“我它达来

    ideas may require considerable development.单单才能怎呢……?”单单的单句?单于事

    件)使用“是……?”或者“单单

    ?”单单的单句。单你达使用的表方A Strategy for Composing法越多)单的思路就越多)单你启会你

    也就更有可能看到正的真内The basis strategy can be stated very simply: Approach 下一步)单单那单单或事件)个从

    你你自己或单单的人的单单单始)然后通单composing as a five-stage process and give careful

    单和单单的方式了解相单单