The skeletal system

By Dolores Edwards,2014-02-25 07:15
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These review questions are for the Skeletal system lecture topic. The questions were adapted from several sources, including 1700+ Review Questions for Anatomy and Physiology II (3rd edition) by R. Michael Anson, Ph.D. Questions marked with an asterisk (*) are questions from the laboratory, not the lecture, portion of the class. You are required to know and understand all t..

    These review questions are for the Skeletal system lecture topic. The questions were adapted from several sources, including 1700+ Review Questions for Anatomy and Physiology II (3rd edition) by R. Michael Anson, Ph.D. Questions marked with an asterisk (*) are questions from the laboratory, not the lecture, portion of the class.

    You are required to know and understand all the material on the skeletal system that is covered in the lecture and the laboratory. To aid in your review of skeletal system anatomy, a list of bones and bone features is given below. For each of the bones or bone features listed below, be able to (a) find its location on a skeleton, (b) state if it is part of the axial or appendicular

    skeleton, (c) state what bones it articulates with, and (d) describe its function.

Acetablum Medial malleolus

    Acromion Metacarpal

    Body (of sternum) Metatarsal

    Carpal Nasal

    Cervical vertebrae Nasal cavity

    Clavicle Obturator foramen

    Coccyx Occipital

    Costal cartilage Palatine

    Coxal Paranasal sinuses

    Ethmoid Parietal

    External auditory meatus Patella

    Eye orbit Pelvic girdle

    False pelvis Pelvis

    False rib Phalanges

    Femur Pubis

    Fibula Radius

    Floating rib Sacrum

    Fontanels Scapula

    Foramen magnum Shoulder girdle

    Frontal Sphenoid

    Glenoid cavity Spine (of scapula)

    Humerus Sternum

    Ilium Sutures

    Inferior nasal concha Tarsal

    Ischeum Temporal

    Lacrimal Thoracic cage

    Lateral malleolus Thoracic vertebrae

    Lumbar vertebrae Tibia

    Mandible True pelvis

    Manubrium True rib

    Mastoid process Ulna

    Maxillary Vomer

    Xiphoid process Zygomatic

     Zygomatic Process

Multiple choice questions:

    1) Which is not a function of bones?

     a) Protect organs

     b) Cause movement

     c) Anchor organs

     d) Support the weight

    2) Which is not part of bone tissue?

     a) Keratin protein

     b) Calcium phosphate

     c) Bone cells

     d) Collagen

3) The hollow space in the center of a bone is called the

     a) Osseous space

     b) Medullary cavity

     c) Bone gaps

     d) Skeletal canaliculi

4) During fetal development, the skeleton is made of _____ tissue, not bone tissue

     a) Epithelial

     b) Dense connective

     c) Muscle

     d) Cartilage

5) The bone cells that convert cartilage tissue to bone tissue are called

     a) Osteoblasts

     b) Osteoclasts

     c) Osteocytes

     d) Skelacytes

6) The tissue that fills the medullary cavity of adult bones is called

     a) Cartilage

     b) Marrow

     c) Compact bone

     d) Spongy bone

    7) Marrow comes in two types:

     a) Red and Yellow

     b) Cartilage and Bone

     c) Liquid and solid

     d) Humerus and radius

    8) The long shaft of a long bone is called its

     a) Epiphysis

     b) Head

     c) Diaphysis

     d) Foremen

9) The round knob-like ends of a long bone are called its

     a) Epiphysis

     b) Medulla

     c) Diaphysis

     d) Foremen

10) The growth centers of bone are a zone of cartilage tissue between the epiphysis and the

    diaphysis, called the

     a) Cartilagenous accretion zone

     b) Osseogenous region

     c) Epiphyseal growth plate

     d) Mitotic cavity

11) A(n) _______ is where bones meet (two answers)

     a) Epiphysis

     b) Joint

     c) Articulation

     d) Cartilage bridge

     e) Osseous connection

     f) Bone bar

12) The protective tissue at the ends of bones in joints is (two answers)

     a) Hyaline cartilage

     b) Fibrocartilage

     c) Synovial cartilage

     d) Articular cartilage

     e) Cartilage discs

     f) Epihyseal plate

13) The microscopic circular structures of bone tissue are called (two answers)

     a) Bone processes

     b) Foremen

     c) Osseous canals

     d) Bone rings

     e) Osteons

     f) Haversean systems

    14) The medical term for a broken bone is a

     a) Rupture

     b) Splint

     c) Fracture

     d) Dislocation

15) A disease of thin or fragile bones often seen in senior citizens

     a) Rickets

     b) Osteoporosis

     c) Compound decay

     d) Arthritis

16) A disease of soft and flexible bones seen in children with calcium deficiency

     a) Rickets

     b) Osteoporosis

     c) Compound decay

     d) Arthritis

17) Any part of a bone that projects outward from the main body of the bone

     a) Process

     b) Foremen

     c) Head

     d) Papillus

    `18) How many bones are there in the human skeleton?

     a) 206

     b) 124

     c) 105

     d) 103

19) The _____ skeleton are the bones of the head, spine, and thorax

     a) Central

     b) Appendicular

     c) Axial

     d) Medullary

20) The bones of the limbs are bones of the _____ skeleton

     a) Distal

     b) Appendicular

     c) Axial

     d) Lateral

21) The cranial bone under the forehead is the _____ bone

     a) Mental

     b) Orbital

     c) Superior

     d) Frontal

22) The cranial bone at the back (posterior) of the skull is the ____ bone

     a) Occipital

     b) Postoid

     c) Trailing

     d) Metacarpal

23) The zig-zag lines on the cranium are the joints between cranial bones, called ______.

     a) Sutures

     b) Fibrocytes

     c) Articular cranium

     d) Osocephalic joints

    24) The facial bone(s) of the upper jaw:

     a) Mandible

     b) Zygomatic

     c) Maxillary

     d) Mastoid

    25) The facial bone(s) of the front of the cheeks:

     a) Cheechous

     b) Zygomatic

     c) Mastoid

     d) Temporal

26) The ______ of each vertebra is a solid disc of bone to support the body weight

     a) Base

     b) Body

     c) Process

     d) Foremen

27) The ______ of each vertebra is a ring-shaped area where the spinal cord passes through

     a) Vertebral arch

     b) Spinous process

     c) Neuroforemen

     d) Osteon (Haversean system)

28) How many vertebrae are there in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions of the spine?

     a) 12, 18, and 17

     b) 8, 8, and 10

     c) 7, 12, and 5

     d) 5, 5, and 14

29) Inferior to the lumbar vertebrae is a bone made of 5 fused vertebrae called the _____

     a) Coccyx

     b) Sacrum

     c) Coxal

     d) Pelvis

30) The inferior-most bone of the spine is the

     a) Coccyx

     b) Sacrum

     c) Lumbar vertebrae

     d) L5

31) The breastbone

     a) Sternum

     b) Thoracic plate

     c) Cardial plate

     d) Cardial process

    32) There are _____ pairs of ribs

     a) 7

     b) 12

     c) 18

     d) 18 plus two floating ribs

33) The two bones of the shoulder girdle: (two answers)

     a) Deltoid

     b) Humerus

     c) Trapezius

     d) Clavicle

     e) Cervical

     f) Scapula

34) The bone of the arm (remember that the arm is from the shoulder to the elbow)

     a) Humerus

     b) Femur

     c) Radius

     d) Clavicle

35) The two bones of the forearm (two answers)

     a) Ulna

     b) Radius

     c) Tibia

     d) Carpal

     e) Tarsal

     f) Metacarpal

    36) Wrist bones

     a) Acromions

     b) Radii

     c) Carpals

     d) Phalanges

    37) Palm bones

     a) Metacarpals

     b) Metatarsals

     c) Osteons

     d) Manus bones

    38) Finger bones

     a) Digital bones

     b) Distal bones

     c) Phalanges

     d) Manipules

39) The two hip bones are called the _____ bones

     a) Pelvic

     b) Coxal

     c) Pubic

     d) Gluteal

40) Which is not a region of the coxal bones?

     a) Magnum

     b) Ileum

     c) Ischeum

     d) Pubis

    41) The thigh bone

     a) Femur

     b) Humerus

     c) Lumbar

     d) Brachial

    42) The knee cap bone

     a) Orthogonal

     b) Orthostatic

     c) Patella

     d) Rodilla

43) The two bones of the leg (remember the leg is from the knee to the ankle) (two answers)

     a) Fibula

     b) Tarsals

     c) Humerus


     e) Xiphoid

     f) Maxillary

    44) The ankle bones

     a) Anchula

     b) Carpals

     c) Achilles

     d) Tarsals

45) The bones of the sole of the foot

     a) Achilles

     b) Metatarsals

     c) Plantar

     d) Soleus

    46) The bones of the toes

     a) Dedoes

     b) Tibial bones

     c) Phalanges

     d) Pedallar bones

    47) Which is not a type of joint?

     a) Rotary

     b) Cartilaginous

     c) Fibrous

     d) Synovial

48) When a bone is out of its normal position in a joint

     a) Strain

     b) Fracture

     c) Dislocation

     d) Discontinual articulation

49) When the ligaments of a joint are torn

     a) Rupture

     b) Splints

     c) Sprain

     d) Arthritis

50) When joints become painful and inflamed

     a) Synovitis

     b) Arthritis

     c) Paralysis

     d) Chondrosis

51) Which type of arthritis is an autoimmune disease?

     a) Rheumatoid arthritis

     b) Osteoarthritis

     c) Gout

     d) Cartilolytic arthritis

Answers to multiple choice questions:

    1 = B 18 = A 35 = A and B 2 = A 19 = C 36 = C 3 = B 20 = B 37 = A 4 = D 21 = D 38 = C 5 = A 22 = A 39 = B 6 = B 23 = A 40 = A 7 = A 24 = C 41 = A 8 = C 25 = B 42 = C 9 = A 26 = B 43 = A and D 10 = C 27 = A 44 = D 11 = B and C 28 = C 45 = B 12 = A and D 29 = B 46 = C 13 = E and F 30 = A 47 = A 14 = C 31 = A 48 = C 15 = B 32 = B 49 = C 16 = A 33 = D and F 50 = B 17 = A 34 = A 51 = A

Fill-in-the-blank questions:

1) Two major functions of the skeleton are ______ and _______.

    2) Bone tissue is one of the connective tissues. Like most connective tissues, the cells of bone tissue are embedded in an extracellular matrix. The major mineral (rock like substance) of bone matrix is ______.

    3) Calcium phosphate is made of two ions, calcium and phosphate. Write the correct molecular formulas for these two ions, including their correct ionic charges: _________ & _________

    4) In addition to calcium phosphate, the bone extracellular matrix contains large amounts of _____, a protein that serves several purposes: it reinforces the calcium phosphate ground substance. It also increases bone flexibility.

5) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate bone terms:

    The process where cartilage is converted to bone: _______________

     The cells that convert cartilage to bone: ______________

     Bone tissue with many small holes: ________________

    6) During the fetal stage, the skeleton is not made of bone tissue. It is instead made of _____ tissue.

    7) The term _______ means when cartilage is converted to bone. It occurs during fetal development.

8) Cells that build bone by ossifying cartilage are called _______ cells.

    9) The ______ is a hollow space inside a bone where the cartilage bone of the fetus existed before being covered with bone tissue.

    10) By the time a person is born, the medullary cavities of their bones are filled with a substance called _______.

    11) _____ is the marrow that fills most medullary cavities in an adult's bones, and is composed

     of adipose tissue.

    12) _____ is the marrow that fills the medullary cavities of children’s bones (it also is found in a few bones in adults). It is the type of marrow where blood cells are made.

    13) List at least three bones in adults that contain red marrow: ______, _______, and _______.

    14) Bones with a long tubular shape (such as the bones of the arms and legs) are called _____ bones.

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