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GRADE LEVEL SPAN - Louisiana Department of Education

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GRADE LEVEL SPAN - Louisiana Department of Educationof,OF,Grade,Level,GRADE,LEVEL,grade,level,span

    CONTENT LITERACY STRATEGY DESCRIPTIONS

    For the

    LOUISIANA COMPREHENSIVE CURRICULUM

    (2008 & 2012 Revisions)

    Dr. William G. Brozo

     1

Anticipation Guide

Rationale

    The anticipation guide involves giving students a list of statements about the topic to be studied and asking them to respond to them before reading and learning, and then again after reading and learning. The anticipation guide strategy is suited to information that is verifiable. Anticipation guides can activate prior knowledge of text topics and help students set purposes for reading and learning (Duffelmeyer & Baum, 1992; Merkley, 1996/97).

    Sample Anticipation Guide Statements

    1. There are cases when two negative numbers multiplied together do not yield a positive number.

     True_____ False______

    2. Amelia Earhart was the first person to fly across the Atlantic Ocean from the United States to Europe.

     Yes_____ No______

Teaching Process

    1. Begin by looking over the content you will be covering related to a particular topic.

    Based on the content, craft statements that elicit reactions to their accuracy and decide on

    a response mode. Statements may require an ―agree‖ or ―disagree‖ a ―true‖ or ―false‖ or

    a ―yes‖ or ―no‖. Statements do not have to be factually accurate. Statements should

    focus students‘ attention on the important information and ideas in the content.

    2. Before exploring the new content, present students with the statements and response

    options. These can be given in handout form, written on the board, overhead, or

    projected. Tell students to respond individually to the statements and be prepared to

    explain their responses.

    3. Next, put students in pairs and have them compare and discuss their before reading and

    learning responses to the anticipation guide statements. Emphasize that there is no

    ―correct‖ answer at this stage of the lesson and that students should discuss freely.

    4. Open the discussion to the whole class so as multiple hunches about the accuracy of the

    statements are expressed.

    5. Transition from the discussion by telling students they‘re about to read and explore the

    topic (Any information source is amenable to the anticipation guide, such as a reading, a

    lecture, a PowerPoint presentation, a guest speaker, a lab experiment, etc.). Tell them to

    pay particular attention to content related to the statements.

    6. Stop periodically as content is covered to consider the statements from the anticipation

    guide and have students reconsider their pre-lesson responses. Students should revise

    their original responses to reflect their new learning.

    7. If necessary, once the lesson content has been presented, engage students in a discussion

    around the statements. This gives you an opportunity to clarify any lingering

    misconceptions about issues, information, and concepts.

    Sources

    Buehl, D. (2009). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE:

     International Reading Association.

    Duffelmeyer, R., & Baum, D. (1992). The extended anticipation guide revisited. Journal

     of Reading, 35, 654-656.

    Merkley, D. (1996/97). Modified anticipation guide. The Reading Teacher, 50, 365-368.

     2

Brainstorming

Rationale

    Brainstorming involves students working together to generate ideas quickly without stopping to judge their worth. In brainstorming, students in pairs or groups freely exchange ideas and lists in response to an open-ended question, statement, problem, or other prompt. Students try to generate as many ideas as possible, often building on a comment or idea from another participant. This supports creativity and leads to expanded possibilities. The process activates students‘

    relevant prior knowledge, allows them to benefit from the knowledge and experience of others, and creates an anticipatory mental set for new learning (Buehl, 2001; Dreher, 2000).

     Teaching Process

    1. Begin by posing a question, problem, or other prompt to students. For example, ―How

    many ways can you…‖ ―What would happen if…?‖ Frame the prompt in such a way as

    to generate ideas and input from as many students as possible. Make sure students

    understand the prompt being addressed and the purpose and background of the

    brainstorming activity.

    Brainstorm Prompt for a Geography Lesson on New Orleans

     We have been learning about how the unique geography of the New Orleans area

    contributed to the devastation caused by hurricane Katrina. With a partner, think of all

    the possible things that could be done to compensate for the areas geography that might

    help prevent another similar disaster. Be creative and remember no idea is too far-

    fetched. Work quickly, you have five minutes.

    2. Ask students to work with a partner or in designated groups to brainstorm responses to

    the prompt. State to the students in the very beginning that all ideas are welcome,

    including those that might be considered out of the ordinary. These often stimulate the

    best contributions from the group.

    3. After a set period of time, invite students to share their brainstormed ideas. Ideas should

    be listed on the board, overhead, or flipchart and should be in view of all students. Either

    designate a group spokesperson or encourage all students to call out ideas while you write

    them down. Avoid being judgmental about ideas as they are shared.

    4. Once an initial list is established, tell students to build on the suggested ideas and to

    connect ideas that are seemingly unrelated. Focus on quantity.

    5. Frequently, after an initial burst of ideas there will be a time of silence. Allow the group

    to be silent for a moment. Most of the time additional ideas will begin flowing and this

    will generate the eventual solution to the question.

    6. Connect the brainstormed ideas with the content and information to be learned in the

    upcoming lesson. This can be accomplished by making statements, such as ―We now

    have all these interesting ideas, let‘s see what the author says about…‖ or ―Now let‘s

    compare your brainstormed solutions to the problem with the process recommended on

    page…‖

    Sources

    Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE:

     International Reading Association.

    Dreher, M.J. (2000). Fostering reading for learning. In L. Baker, M.J. Dreher, & J.

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    Guthrie (Eds.), Engaging young readers: Promoting achievement and motivation (94-

    118). New York: Guilford Press.

Discussion

Rationale

Samuel Johnson once said ―The seeds of knowledge may be planted in solitude, but must be

    cultivated in public(Boswell, 1979, p. 121). The point is that students can improve learning and remembering when they participate in the dialog about class topics (Alvermann, O‘Brien, &

    Dillon, 1990). Class discussion can be used to promote deeper processing of content and rehearsal of newly learned content (Green, 2000; Larson, 1999). To be effective, discussion strategies should be identifiable, purposeful, planned, and adequately described (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

    Teaching Process

    ; Think-Pair-Square-Share. This discussion strategy is very similar to the one just

    described. After being given an issue, problem, or question, ask students to think alone

    for a short period of time, and then pair up with someone to share their thoughts. Then

    have pairs of students share with other pairs, forming, in effect, small groups of four

    students. Again, your role as teacher is to monitor the brief discussions and elicit

    responses afterward. Be sure to encourage student pairs not to automatically adopt the

    ideas and solutions of their partners. These short-term discussion strategies actually work

    best when a diversity of perspectives are expressed.

    ; Round Robin. After placing students in or forming groups of three to five, pose a

    problem or question and have each one go around the circle quickly sharing ideas or

    solutions. You can give students one opportunity to ―pass‖ on a response, but eventually

    every student must respond. This technique is used most effectively when, after initial

    clockwise sharing, students are asked to write down on a single piece of paper each of

    their responses. This allows all opinions and ideas of the groups to be brought to the

    teacher‘s and the rest of their classmates‘ attention. It also provides a record of the

    group‘s thinking, which might be used in grading.

    ; Inside-Outside Circles. We have immensely enjoyed participating in this discussion

    strategy, so much so that we use it often in our own university classes. It offers a novel

    format and can bring about face-to-face dialoging between students who might never

    have the opportunity otherwise.

    Students stand and face each other in two concentric circles. The inside circle faces out

    and the outside circle faces in. After posing a readiness problem or question, ask students

    to discuss ideas and answers with the person standing most directly in front of them. The

    interesting aspect of this technique is that at any time you can ask the inner or outer circle

    to rotate until you say ―stop.‖ Then the discussion can begin anew. After a few rotations,

    we randomly ask individual students to share their own ideas or those of the person(s)

    with whom they have been discussing. The advantage of this strategy is the variety of

    inputs possible through simply rotating the circles of students. Be sure to make enough

    space in the room for this discussion activity, and move about the circle to listen in on

    students‘ brainstorming.

     4

    ; Fishbowl Discussions. With this technique, a small group of students is asked to discuss

    an issue or problem while another group of students looks on. The idea of the fishbowl is

    that the outside group must listen but not contribute to the deliberations of the students

    ―in the fishbowl.‖ At some point during the discussion, those looking in should be given

    an opportunity to discuss among themselves their reactions to the conversation they

    observed. Then you can ask both groups to share with the entire class the nature of their

    discussions. This approach to discussion allows the outside group to assess and critique

    the ideas of the fishbowl discussants.

Sources

Alvermann, D., O‘Brien, D., & Dillon, D. (1990). What teachers do when they say

     they‘re having discussions of content area reading assignments: A qualitative

     analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 25, 296-322.

    Boswell, J. (1979). The life of Samuel Johnson. New York: Viking Press.

    Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Rothenberg, C. (2008). Content-area conversations: How to plan

     Discussion-based lessons for diverse language learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

    Green, T. (2000). Responding and sharing: Techniques for energizing classroom

    discussions. The Clearing House, 73, 331-334.

    Larson, B. (1999). Influences on social studies teachers‘ use of classroom discussion. The

     Social Studies, 90, 125-132.

DL-TA Directed Learning-Thinking Activity

Rationale

    DL-TA is an instructional approach that invites students to make predictions, and then check their predictions during and after the learning (Stauffer, 1980). DL-TA is an effective generic process applicable to any information source, such as text, video, lecture, lab experiment, and Web-based content. DL-TA teaches students how to self-monitor as they learn, which leads to an increase in attention, comprehension, and achievement (Duke & Pearson, 2002).

Teaching Process

    1. First, activate and build background knowledge for the content to be learned. This

    often takes the form of a discussion design to elicit information the students may

    already have prior to exposure to the new content. Also direct students‘ attention to

    any preliminary information, such as video titles, lesson names/topics. Students‘

    ideas and information should be recorded on the board or chart paper.

    2. Next, students are encouraged to make predictions about the content to be presented

    or experienced. Ask questions, such as ―What do you expect the main goal of this

    will be?‖ ―From the title of our guest speaker‘s talk, what do you expect the point will

    be?‖ ―Based on the introduction, what do you think will be the focus of this video?‖

    ―Looking at the lab materials on the table, what kinds of experiments do you think we

    will be conducting today?‖ Students are often asked to write their predictions, so as to

    preserve a record of them as they learn the actual content.

    3. Then guide students through a section or portion of the content, stopping at

    predetermined places to ask students to check and revise their predictions. This is a

    crucial step in DL-TA instruction. When a stopping point is reached, ask students to

    reread the predictions they wrote and change them, if necessary, in light of new

     5

    evidence that has influenced their thinking. Their new prediction and relevant

    evidence should be written down as well. This cycle get repeated several times

    throughout an exploration of the content. There are numerous opportunities for the

    teacher to model his/her predictions, revisions, and evidence. Also prod students‘

    growing understanding of the content with questions, such as ―What do you know so

    far from learning this material?‖ ―What evidence do you have to support what you

    know?‖ ―What do you expect to learn next?‖

    4. Once students exposure to the content is completed, students‘ predictions can be used

    as discussion tools. When students write and revise predictions throughout the

    learning, they have a great deal to say about the content. Ask ―What did you expect

    to learn before we began reading?‖ and ―What did you actually learn?‖

    5. Students should be guided to employ the DL-TA process on their own.

Sources

    Duke, N., & Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading

    comprehension. In A. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about

    reading instruction (205-242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

    Stauffer, R.B. (1980). Directing the reading-thinking process. New York: Harper & Row.

DR-TA Directed Reading-Thinking Activity

Rationale

    DR-TA is identical to the DL-TA process only focused exclusively on text reading. It includes the same goals and processes as DL-TA in that it is an instructional approach that invites students to make predictions, and then check their predictions, in this case, during and after the reading (Stauffer, 1980). The DR-TA teaches students how to self-monitor as they read and learn, which leads to an increase in attention, comprehension, and achievement (Duke & Pearson, 2002).

    Teaching Process

    6. First, activate and build background knowledge for the content to be read. This often

    takes the form of a discussion design to elicit information the students may already

    have, including personal experience, prior to reading. Also direct students‘ attention

    to title, subheadings, and other textual and format clues. Students‘ ideas and

    information should be recorded on the board or chart paper.

    7. Next, students are encouraged to make predictions about the text content. Ask

    questions, such as ―What do you expect the main idea of this text will be?‖ From the

    title, what do you expect the author to say in this piece?‖ Students are often asked to

    write their predictions, so as to preserve a record of them as they read the actual text.

    8. Then guide students through a section of text, stopping at predetermined places to ask

    students to check and revise their predictions. This is a crucial step in DR-TA

    instruction. When a stopping point is reached, ask students to reread the predictions

    they wrote and change them, if necessary, in light of new evidence that has influenced

    their thinking. Their new prediction and relevant evidence should be written down as

    well. This cycle get repeated several times throughout the course of the reading.

    There are numerous opportunities for the teacher to model his/her predictions,

    revisions, and evidence. Also prod students‘ growing understanding of the text with

     6

    questions, such as ―What do you know so far from this reading?‖ ―What evidence do

    you have to support what you know?‖ ―What do you expect to read next?‖

    9. Once the reading is completed, students‘ predictions can be used as discussion tools.

    When students write and revise predictions throughout the reading, they have a great

    deal to say about the text. Ask ―What did you expect to learn before we began

    reading?‖ and ―What did you actually learn?‖

    10. Students should be guided to employ the DR-TA process on their own when reading.

Sources

    Duke, N., & Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading

    comprehension. In A. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about

    reading instruction (205-242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Stauffer, R.B. (1980). Directing the reading-thinking process. New York: Harper & Row.

GISTing

Rationale

    The ability to summarize is perhaps the most important subskill involved in comprehension (Caccamise & Snyder, 2005; Friend, 2000). But it‘s a difficult skill to

    teach. Unskilled students are prone to say too little or too much in their summaries (Thiede & Anderson, 2003). GISTing is an excellent strategy for helping students paraphrase and summarize essential information. Students are required to limit the gist of a paragraph to a set number of words. Individual sentences from a paragraph are presented one at a time while students create a gist that must contain only the predetermined number of words. By limiting the total number of words students can use, this approach to summarizing forces them to think about only the most important information in a paragraph, which is the essence of comprehension (Brown & Day, 1983).

    Teaching Process

    1. For the first step in teaching GISTing select appropriate paragraphs on which to

    write gists. It‘s best to start with relatively short paragraphs of no more than three

    to five sentences that are easily understood.

    2. Next, establishes a limited number of spaces to represent the total number of

    words of the gist, say 15 or so.

    3. Students read the first sentence of the paragraph and using only the spaces

    allowed write a statement in those spaces capturing the essential information of

    the sentence. This is the beginning of their gist.

    4. Have students read the second sentence of the paragraph and using the

    information from the first and second sentences of the paragraph they rewrite their

    gist statement by combining information from the first sentence with information

    from the second. Again, the students‘ revised gist statement should be no more

    than the allotted number of spaces. This process continues with the remaining

    sentences of the paragraph.

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    5. As students read each succeeding sentence they should rework their gist statement

    by accommodating any new information from the sentence into the existing gist

    statement, while not using any more than the allotted number of spaces.

    6. Finally, students should share their gists for comment and critique.

    A GISTing Example

    A social studies teacher taught the GISTing strategy while his class was learning about ancient Rome. He selected sample three-sentence paragraph from the textbook to teach gist writing. He began by typing the first sentence of the paragraph on the computer and projected it on the screen for his class to see. He then directed students to write a summary of the first sentence using only 15 words. He allowed students to work in pairs. Afterward, he elicited the various first-sentence gists from several pairs of students and typed and projected a

    version the whole class could agree upon. The teacher and his social studies students went through the same process for the remaining two sentences of the paragraph. As they read the new sentences, they revised their original gist but kept it within the 12 word limit (See the paragraph and gist sentences below.) By

    conducting the GISTing lesson with his students, the teacher was able to model and clarify the process throughout, until a final acceptable gist was crafted for the entire paragraph.

     Paragraph from social studies text

     Julius Caesar was famous as a statesman, a general, and an author, but

    ancient traffic jams forced him to become a traffic engineer, too. These

     traffic snarls were so acute in the marketplace of Imperial Rome and

     around the Circus Maximus that all chariots and ox carts were banned

     for ten hours after sunrise. Only pedestrians were allowed into the streets

     and markets. Caesar also found it necessary to abolish downtown parking

     and establish one-way streets.

     Class gist statements for each sentence of paragraph

    1. Julius Caesar was famous for many things including traffic engineer.

    ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

    2. As traffic engineer Julius Caesar banned chariots and ox carts

    from Rome during the daytime.

    3. As traffic engineer Julius Caesar banned all but pedestrians from

    Rome during the daytime.

     4. As Rome‘s traffic engineer Julius Caesar allowed only

     pedestrians created one-way streets and banned parking

     8

     After several gisting activities using this approach, the teacher guided students in constructing summaries without having to gist each sentence of a paragraph. It is more important that students recognize that the gisting process is a mental one and not necessarily a written one. Eventually, the teacher was gathering overall gists for sections of text by having students combine essential information from summary statement made from several paragraphs.

Sources

    Brown, A., & Day, J. (1983). Macrorules for summarizing text: The development of

     expertise. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 1-14.

    Caccamise, D., & Snyder, L. (2005). Theory and pedagogical practices of text

    comprehension. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 5-20.

    Friend, R. (2000). Teaching summarization as a content area reading strategy. Journal

     of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44, 320-330.

    Thiede, K., & Anderson, M.C. (2003). Summarizing can improve metacomprehension

    accuracy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 129-161.

Graphic Organizers

Rationale

    Graphic organizers are visual displays teachers use to organize information in a manner that makes the information easier to understand and learn. Graphic organizers are effective in enabling students to assimilate new information by organizing it in visual and logical ways (Bromley, Irwin-Devitis, & Modlo, 1995). Flowcharts, semantic maps, t-charts, webs, KWL charts, and Venn diagrams are all examples of graphic organizers.

    Using graphic organizers is associated with improved reading comprehension for students (Robinson, Robinson, & Katayama, 1999). In addition, graphic organizers have been effectively

    applied across other content areas, such as science, math, and social studies (Guastello, Beasley, & Sinatra, 2000; Hanselman, 1996).

Teaching Process

    1. Select a graphic organizer that matches the concepts and information students will be

    reading and learning. For example, information that relates to steps in a process may be

    displayed in a flow chart; comparing and contrasting information is well suited to a Venn

    diagram; a branching, hierarchical chart can accurately display ideas supported by

    specific details.

    2. Decide whether you will give students the graphic organizer partially filled in or blank.

    3. Distribute the graphic organizer and review it with students. Make sure students are

    aware of the logic behind the particular visual format being used. Tell students the

    content they are about to learn can be organized in the format making it easier to

    understand, study, and remember.

    4. As content is covered, work with students to fill in the graphic organizer. It is useful to

    have students do this with a partner to create opportunities for oral language development.

    5. Once the graphic organizer is completed, demonstrate for students how it can be used as a

    study aid for recalling important ideas, supporting details, and processes. Be sure to base

     9

    assessments on visual displays to reinforce for students the value of organizing

    information and ideas in graphic formats.

Sources

Bromley, K., Irwin-Devitis, L., & Modlo, M. (1995). Graphic organizers: Visual

    strategies for active learning. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.

    Guastello, E. F., Beasley, T. M., & Sinatra, R. C. (2000). Concept mapping effects on

    science content comprehension of low-achieving inner-city seventh graders. Remedial

    and Special Education, 21, 356365.

    Hanselman, C. A. (1996). Using brainstorming webs in the mathematics classroom.

    Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 1, 766770.

    Robinson, D.H., Robinson, S.L., Katayama, A.D. (1999). When words are represented in

    memory like pictures: Evidence for spatial encoding of study materials. Contemporary

    Educational Psychology, 24, 38-54.

Learning Log

    Rationale

    A learning log is a notebook, binder, or some other repository that students maintain in order to record ideas, questions, reactions, and reflections, and to summarize newly learned content. Documenting ideas in a log about content being read and studied forces students to ―put into

    words‖ what they know or do not know (Audet, Hichman, & Dobrynina, 1996). This process

    offers a reflection of understanding that can lead to further study and alternative learning paths (Baker, 2003). It combines writing and reading with content learning (McIntosh & Draper, 2001; Sanders, 1985). Learning logs can become the place for virtually any kind of content-focused writing (Brozo & Simpson, 2007).

Teaching Process

    1. Begin by requesting students use a special notebook or binder for learning log entries.

    Students should be encouraged to personalize their logs by decorating the cover or in

    some other way to distinguish it as unique.

    2. Begin by requesting students use a special notebook or binder for learning log entries.

    Students should be encouraged to personalize their logs by decorating the cover or in

    some other way to distinguish it as unique.

    3. Give students prompts for short content-focused writing and allow them to practice

    writing entries, discussing strengths and areas needing further development. For example,

    at the start of class you might ask students to predict what will be covered in the next

    chapter, or at the conclusion of class have students write a reflection of what was learned

    in that day‘s lesson.

    Sample Learning Log Prompt and Entry

    Teacher Prompt: In your own words tell what you have learned about the human brain

    from today‘s reading and activities.

    Student Log Entry: I learned that the brain has a right and left half that are called cerebral

    hemispheres. But really the brain has four main partsthe cerebrum, the pons, the

    cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata. I also learned that when the arteries in the brain

    become blocked it can cause strokes. The brain doesn‘t get enough oxygen and is damaged.

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