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Chapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior

By Carol Marshall,2014-05-16 23:03
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Chapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior

    Chapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Biographical Characteristics

1. The biographical characteristic that will grow in importance during the next decade is:

     a. sex.

     b. marital status.

     c. age.

     d. length of service.

    (c; Moderate; p. 37)

2. All of the following are examples of biographical characteristics except:

     a. sexual orientation.

     b. age.

     c. sex.

     d. marital status.

    (a; Moderate; p. 37)

    3. The age of a worker seems to have a direct relationship to:

     a. productivity.

     b. turnover.

     c. absenteeism.

     d. vacation taken.

    (b; Challenging; p. 38)

4. Which of the following statements is not true?

    a. In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees.

    b. Older employees have higher rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers probably due to

    their poorer health.

    c. The older you get, the more likely you are to quit your job.

    d. Older workers are perceived as lacking flexibility. (c; Moderate, p. 38)

5. Which of the following is true concerning the relationship between age and job satisfaction?

    a. Most studies found a negative association between age and satisfaction.

    b. There is a U-shaped relationship.

    c. Satisfaction decreases among professionals as they age.

    d. Satisfaction increases among nonprofessionals during middle age. (b; Challenging; p. 39)

6. Studies have found that all of the following are true except:

     a. women are more willing to conform to authority than men.

     b. men are more aggressive than women.

     c. women tend to be more productive at work than men.

     d. men are more likely to have expectations of success.

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(c; Moderate; p. 39)

    7. In comparing men and women in the workplace, it was found that:

     a. men are more productive.

     b. women are more productive.

     c. women have more absences.

     d. men are more prone to resign.

    (c; Moderate; p. 39)

8. According to your text, a likely explanation for the higher absentee rate for women is that:

     a. women tend to have more illnesses that keep them from work than do men.

     b. traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family.

     c. women tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than men and are consequently absent more often.

     d. women generally have jobs for which a temporary replacement can be hired so absences are more

    permissible.

    (b; Challenging; p. 39)

9. All of the following are true about married employees except:

     a. they are more productive than single employees.

     b. they have fewer absences than single employees.

     c. they undergo less turnover than single employees.

     d. they are more satisfied with their jobs than single employees. (a; Moderate; pp. 39-40)

10. Which of the following statements concerning tenure is not true?

    a. The most recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job

    productivity.

    b. Tenure does not appear to be a good predictor of employee productivity.

    c. Tenure is a potent variable in explaining turnover.

    d. Tenure and satisfaction are positively related.

    (b; Moderate; p. 40)

11. Studies indicate that employees with more tenure:

     a. are generally less satisfied than newer employees.

     b. are generally less productive than newer employees.

     c. are generally absent less than newer employees.

     d. are generally absent more than newer employees.

    (c; Moderate; p. 40)

Ability

12. As used in the text, the term ―ability:‖

     a. refers to an individual’s willingness to perform the various tasks in a job.

     b. is a current assessment of what one can do.

     c. is made up of only intellectual skills.

     d. is made up of people skills.

    (b; Moderate; p. 40)

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13. Which one of the following is the best synonym for ―ability?‖

     a. motivation

     b. capacity

     c. experience

     d. intellect

    (b; Moderate; p. 40)

    14. Which of the following is not a dimension of intellectual ability as discussed in your text?

     a. number aptitude

     b. perceptual speed

     c. spatial visualization

     d. dynamic strength

    (d; Moderate; Exh. 2-1; p. 41)

15. Tests that measure specific dimensions of intelligence have been found to be strong predictors of:

     a. job satisfaction.

     b. turnover.

     c. job performance.

     d. ability to work with others.

    (c; Moderate; p. 41)

16. A major problem resulting from the use of ability tests for selection and promotion of personnel is:

     a. the low reliability of the tests.

     b. the tests fail to take into account the personality of the individual.

     c. the adverse impact the tests have on racial and ethnic groups.

     d. some individuals with high intelligence are poor test takers. (c; Moderate; p. 41)

17. Recent evidence suggests that intelligence can be better understood by breaking it down into four

    sub-parts. Which one of the following is not one of those sub-parts?

    a. cognitive

    b. social

    c. emotional

    d. physical strength

    (d; Moderate; pp. 41-42)

18. ______ encompasses the aptitudes that have long been tapped by traditional intelligence tests.

    a. Cognitive intelligence

    b. Social intelligence

    c. Emotional intelligence

    d. Physical strength

    (a; Easy; p. 42)

19. _______ intelligence is a person’s ability to relate effectively to others.

    a. Cognitive

    b. Social

    c. Emotional

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    d. Cultural

    (b; Easy; p. 42)

20. _______ intelligence is awareness of cross-cultural differences and the ability to successfully

    function in cross-cultural situations.

    a. Cognitive

    b. Social

    c. Emotional

    d. Cultural

    (d; Easy; p. 42)

21. ______ intelligence is the ability to identify, understand, and manage emotions.

    a. Cognitive

    b. Social

    c. Emotional

    d. Cultural

    (c; Easy; p. 42)

22. Multiple intelligences may help explain why so-called ―smart people‖ don’t:

    a. necessarily adapt well to everyday life.

    b. work well with others.

    c. succeed when placed in leadership roles.

    d. all of the above

    (d; Moderate; p. 42)

    23. Which of the following is not a characteristic of physical ability?

    a. stamina

    b. strength

    c. looks

    d. dexterity

    (c; Moderate; p. 42)

24. Research indicates that there are nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tests.

    Which of the following is not a correct description of the ability listed?

     a. dynamic strengthability to exert muscular force repeatedly

     b. dynamic flexibilityability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible

     c. balanceability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance

     d. staminaability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time

    (b; Challenging; Exh. 2-2; p. 42)

Learning

    25. According to a psychologist’s definition, _____ indicates that learning has taken place.

     a. ability to perform well on exams

     b. change in attitude

     c. change in behavior

     d. a high IQ score

    (c; Easy; p. 43)

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26. Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience is termed:

     a. learning.

     b. classical conditioning.

     c. operant conditioning.

     d. social learning theory.

    (a; Moderate; p. 43)

27. All of the following are true about learning except:

     a. it involves change.

     b. the change can be permanent or temporary.

     c. it requires a change in actions of behavior.

     d. it requires some form of experience. (b; Moderate; p. 44)

28. Experience may be acquired:

    a. directly through observation or practice.

    b. directly through reading.

    c. but is not necessary for learning.

    d. but is meaningless.

    (a; Moderate; p. 44)

29. The classical conditioning theory of learning grew out of:

     a. experiments performed by Ivan Pavlov.

     b. the need for better managers.

     c. experiments performed by B. F. Skinner.

     d. advances in technology.

    (a; Moderate; p. 44)

30. In Pavlov’s experiment, the meat was:

    a. an unconditioned stimulus.

    b. an unconditioned response.

    c. a conditioned stimulus.

    d. a conditioned response.

    (a; Easy; p. 44)

    31. Which of the following is not a conditioned response?

     a. wincing when you stub your toe

     b. driving on the right side of the road

     c. feeling hunger around noon time

     d. looking for shelter when the sky turns gray (a; Moderate; p. 44)

32. In Pavlov’s experiment, the bell was:

    a. an unconditioned stimulus.

    b. an unconditioned response.

    c. a conditioned stimulus.

    d. a conditioned response.

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(c; Easy; p. 44)

    33. Which of the following is not true of classical conditioning?

    a. Classical conditioning is passive.

    b. Classical conditioning can explain simple reflexive behaviors.

    c. Learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned

    stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.

    d. The neutral stimulus takes on the properties of the conditioned stimulus.

    (d; Moderate; pp. 44-45)

34. A smell that brings back memories of a certain time and place is an example of:

     a. classical conditioning.

     b. operant conditioning.

     c. sensory conditioning.

     d. association conditioning.

    (a; Easy; p. 44)

    35. Most behavior of individuals in organizations is:

     a elicited.

     b. emitted.

     c. reflexive.

     d. uncontrollable.

    (b; Moderate; p. 45)

36. Operant conditioning argues that:

     a. behavior is reflexive.

     b. behavior is unlearned.

     c. behavior is a function of its consequences.

     d. the tendency to repeat a behavior is very strong. (c; Moderate; p. 45)

37. Reinforcement is the major tenet of:

     a. Pavlov.

     b. Fayol.

     c. Skinner.

     d. Deming.

    (c; Challenging; p. 46)

38. What _____ did for classical conditioning, _____ did for operant conditioning.

     a. Pavlov; Skinner

     b. Herzberg; Deming

     c. Fayol; Mintzberg

     d. McGregor; Maslow

    (a; Challenging; p. 46)

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39. Your boss does not follow through on his/her promise to pay you double for overtime hours worked.

    When asked again to work overtime, you decline. This is an application of

     a. employer/employee relations.

     b. operant conditioning.

     c. lack of commitment.

     d. social learning.

    (b; Moderate; p. 46)

40. According to operant conditioning, if a behavior fails to be positively reinforced, the probability that

    behavior will be repeated:

    a. increases.

    b. declines.

    c. remains unchanged.

    d. is not impacted.

    (b; Moderate; p. 46)

41. The view that we can learn both through observation and direct experience is called:

     a. situational learning theory.

     b. classical learning.

     c. social learning theory.

     d. hands-on learning experience.

    (c; Easy; p. 46)

42. Social learning theory is an extension of:

    a. classical conditioning.

    b. operant conditioning.

    c. shaping.

    d. extinction.

    (b; Challenging; p. 46)

43. Four processes have been found to determine the influence that a model will have on an individual.

    Which of the following is not one of the processes?

     a. shaping processes

     b. attentional processes

     c. motor reproduction processes

     d. reinforcement processes

    (a; Challenging; pp. 46-47)

44. Using ____ processes in creating employee training programs recognizes that models’ influence will

    depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer readily

    available.

    a. attentional

    b. retention

    c. motor reproduction

    d. reinforcement

    (b; Moderate; pp. 46-47)

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45. The learning concept of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired new behavior is

    called:

     a. modeling.

     b. shaping.

     c. classical conditioning.

     d. social learning.

    (b; Easy; p. 47)

46. Individual-difference factors found to significantly influence learning and training actions include all

    of the following except:

    a. ability.

    b. motivational level.

    c. personality.

    d. age.

    (d; Moderate; p. 47)

    47. All of the following are ways in which to shape learning except:

     a. positive reinforcement.

     b. punishment.

     c. extinction.

     d. manipulation.

    (d; Moderate; pp. 47-48)

48. When a response is followed by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant, it is called:

     a. negative reinforcement.

     b. positive reinforcement.

     c. manipulation.

     d. elimination.

    (a; Easy; p. 47)

49. Suspending an employee who shows up for work drunk is an example of:

     a. extinction.

     b. negative reinforcement.

     c. punishment.

     d. poor planning.

    (c; Moderate; p. 48)

50. An example of _____ is when an employee receives a one-week suspension from work and is fined

    $200 for stealing company property.

     a. penalization

     b. punishment

     c. extinction

     d. negative reinforcement (b; Easy; p. 48)

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    51. Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behavior is called:

     a. extinction.

     b. punishment.

     c. negative reinforcement.

     d. positive reinforcement.

    (a; Easy; p. 48)

52. All of the following are true about both positive and negative reinforcement except:

     a. both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning.

     b. both positive and negative reinforcement strengthen a response and increase the probability of

    repetition.

     c. both positive and negative reinforcement tend to weaken behavior and decrease its subsequent

    frequency.

     d. both positive and negative reinforcement are effective shaping tools. (c; Challenging; pp. 48-49)

53. In a case where an employee is frequently late for work and every time he/she is not tardy the

    manager compliments him/her for being on time, the manager is using:

     a. continuous schedule reinforcement.

     b. negative reinforcement.

     c. an intermittent schedule of reinforcement.

     d. a repetitious schedule of reinforcement.

    (a; Moderate; p. 49)

54. According to research, the _____ form of reinforcement tends to promote more resistance to

    extinction than does the _____ form.

     a. varied; repetitious

     b. repetitious; intermittent

     c. intermittent; continuous

     d. continuous; varied

    (c; Moderate; p. 49)

55. In a ____ reinforcement schedule, after a constant number of responses are given, a reward is

    initiated.

    a. variable-ratio

    b. fixed-ratio

    c. variable-interval

    d. fixed-interval

    (b; Moderate; pp. 49-50)

56. In general, _____ reinforcement schedules tend to lead to higher performance than _____

    reinforcement schedules.

     a. variable; fixed

     b. fixed; intermittent

     c. fixed; variable

     d. variable; occasional

    (a; Moderate; pp. 49-50)

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57. A series of randomly timed, unannounced visits to a company office by the corporate audit staff is an

    example of:

     a. surprise tactic.

     b. variable-interval reinforcement schedule.

     c. continuous reinforcement schedule.

     d. fixed reinforcement schedule.

    (b; Moderate; p. 50)

58. The now-classic study at Emery Air Freight illustrates the use of:

     a. classical conditioning.

     b. self-management.

     c. reengineering.

     d. behavior modification.

    (d; Moderate; p. 51)

59. The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as:

     a. classical conditioning.

     b. self-management.

     c. reengineering.

     d. OB Mod.

    (d; Moderate; p. 51)

60. Which of the following is not one of the steps of the problem-solving model followed by the typical

    OB Mod program?

    a. identifying critical behaviors

    b. avoiding evaluation and performance

    c. developing baseline data

    d. developing and implementing an intervention strategy (b; Challenging; p. 52)

61. Examples of how managers can use learning theory include all the following except:

     a. using lotteries to reduce absenteeism.

     b. disciplining employees.

     c. developing training programs.

     d. using radio advertisements for recruiting. (d; Moderate; pp. 53-54)

    62. Which of the following does not describe the effect of discipline on employees?

     a. It tells employees what not to do.

     b. It tells employees what to do in the future.

     c. It produces fast results in the short run.

     d. It leads to employee frustration, fear of the manager, and increases in absenteeism and turnover.

    (b; Moderate; p. 53)

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