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Introducing Translation Studies

Introducing Translation Studies

    'Jeremy Munday's book presents a snapshot of a rapidly developing discipline in a clear, concise and graphic way. This is a book which raises strong awareness of current issues in the field and will be of interest to translation trainers and trainees alike.'

    Basil Hatim, Heriot-Watt University

    Introducing Translation Studies is an introductory textbook providing an accessible overview of the key contributions to translation studies.

    Munday explores each theory chapter by chapter and tests the different approaches by applying them to texts. The texts discussed are taken from a broad range of languages - English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Punjabi, Portuguese and Spanish - and English translations are provided.

    A wide variety of text types is analyzed, including a tourist brochure, a children's cookery book, a Harry Potter novel, the Bible, literary reviews and translators' prefaces, film translation, a technical text and a European Parliament speech.

    Each chapter includes the following features:

     a table presenting the key concepts;

     an introduction outlining the translation theory or theories;

     illustrative texts with translations;

     a chapter summary;

     discussion points and exercises.

    Including a general introduction, an extensive bibliography and internet sites for further information, this is a practical, user-friendly textbook that gives a balanced and comprehensive insight into translation studies.

    Jeremy Munday is Lecturer in Spanish Studies at the University of Surrey and is a freelance translator, lexicographer and materials writer. He has a Doctorate in Translation Studies and his publications include a wide range of papers in the field, as well as translations of Latin American fiction.

    Introducing Translation Studies Theories and applications

    Jeremy Munday

London and New York

First published 2001

    by Routledge

    11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE

    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada

    by Routledge

    29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001

    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Qroup

    ? 2001 Jeremy Munday

    The right of Jeremy Munday to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted by him in accordance with

    the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988

    Typeset in Gill Sans and Goudy Old Style by RefineCatch Limited, Bungay, Suffolk Printed and bound in Great Britain

    by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic,

    mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any

    information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Munday, Jeremy.

    Introducing translation studies /Jeremy Munday.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Translating and interpreting. I. Title. P306 .M865 2001

    418'.02-dc21 00-045935

    ISBN 0-415-22926-X (hbk)

    ISBN 0-415-22927-8 (pbk)

Para Cristina,

que me ha hecho feliz.


    List of figures and tables


    List of abbreviations


    1 Main issues of translation studies 4

    1.1 The concept of translation 4

    1.2 What is translation studies? 5

    1.3 A brief history of the discipline 7

    1.4 The Holmes/Toury 'map' 10

    1.5 Developments since the 1970s 14

    1.6 Aim of this book and a guide to chapters 15

    2 Translation theory before the twentieth century 18 2.0 Introduction 18

    2.1 'Word-for-word' or 'sense-for-sense'? 19 2.2 Martin Luther 22

    2.3 Faithfulness, spirit and truth 23

    2.4 Early attempts at systematic translation theory: Dryden,

     Dolet and Tytler 24

    2.5 Schleiermacher and the valorization of the foreign 27 2.6 Translation theory of the nineteenth and early twentieth

     centuries in Britain 28

    2.7 Towards contemporary translation theory 29

    3 Equivalence and equivalent effect 35

    3.0 Introduction 35

    3.1 Roman Jakobson: the nature of linguistic meaning and

     equivalence 36

    3.2 Nida and 'the science of translating' 37

    3.3 Newmark: semantic and communicative translation 44 3.4 Koller: Korrespondenz and Äquivalenz 46

    3.5 Later developments in equivalence 49

    4 The translation shift approach 55

    4.0 Introduction 55

    4.1 Vinay and Darbelnet's model 56

    4.2 Catford and translation 'shifts' 60

    4.3 Czech writing on translation shifts 62

    4.4 Van Leuven-Zwart's comparativedescriptive model of

     translation shifts 63

    5 Functional theories of translation 72

    5.0 Introduction 73

    5.1 Text type 73

    5.2 Translational action 77

    5.3 Skopos theory 78

    5.4 Translation-oriented text analysis 81

    6 Discourse and register analysis approaches 89 6.0 Introduction 89

    6.1 The Hallidayan model of language and discourse 90 6.2 House's model of translation quality assessment 92 6.3 Baker's text and pragmatic level analysis: a coursebook

     for translators 95

    6.4 Hatim and Mason: the semiotic level of context and

     discourse 99

    6.5 Criticisms of discourse and register analysis approaches

     to translation 101

    7 Systems theories 108

    7.0 Introduction 108

    7.1 Polysystem theory 109

    7.2 Toury and descriptive translation studies 111 7.3 Chesterman's translation norms 118

    7.4 Other models of descriptive translation studies:

     Lambert and van Gorp and the Manipulation School 119

    8 Varieties of cultural studies 126

    8.0 Introduction 127

    8.1 Translation as rewriting 127

    8.2 Translation and gender 131

    8.3 Postcolonial translation theory 133

    8.4 The ideologies of the theorists 138

    9 Translating the foreign: the (in)visibility of translation 144

    9.0 Introduction 144

    9.1 Venuti: the cultural and political agenda of translation 145

    9.2 Literary translators' accounts of their work 152 9.3 The power network of the publishing industry 153 9.4 Discussion of Venuti's work 155

    9.5 The reception and reviewing of translations 156

    10 Philosophical theories of translation 162 10.0 Introduction 162

    10.1 Steiner's hermeneutic motion 163

    10.2 Ezra Pound and the energy of language 168 10.3 The task of the translator: Walter Benjamin 169 10.4 Deconstruction 170

    11 Translation studies as an interdiscipline 181 11.0 Introduction 181

    11.1 Discipline, interdiscipline or sub-discipline? 182 11.2 Mary Snell-Hornby's 'integrated approach' 183 11.3 Interdisciplinary approaches 187

    11.4 The future: co-operation or fragmentation? 190

Appendix: internet links 197

    Notes 198

    Bibliography 203

    Index 213

    List of figures and tables


1.1 Holmes's 'map' of translation studies 10

    1.2 The applied branch of translation studies 13 3.1 Nida's three-stage system of translation 40 5.1 Reiss's text types and text varieties 74

    6.1 Relation of genre and register to language 90 6.2 Scheme for analyzing and comparing original and

    translation texts 92

    7.1 Toury's initial norm and the continuum of adequate and

    acceptable translation 114

    7.2 Preliminary norms 115

    7.3 Operational norms 115

    11.1 Text type and relevant criteria for translation 184


    3.1 Comparison of Newmark's semantic and communicative

    translation 45

    3.2 Differentiation of equivalence and correspondence 47 3.3 Characteristics of research foci for different equivalence types 48

    4.1 Main categories of van Leuven-Zwart's comparative model 64 4.2 Segmentation of text into units of translation 67 5.1 Functional characteristics of text types and links to translation

    methods 74


    I would like to thank the following copyright holders for giving permission to reproduce the following: Figure 1.1, reproduced from G. Toury, Descriptive Translation Studies - And Beyond, copyright 1995,

    Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. Figure 3.1, reproduced from E. Nida and C. R. Taber, The Theory and Practice of Translation, copyright 1969, Leiden: E. J. Brill. Figure 5.1, reproduced from A. Chesterman (ed.), Readings in Translation Theory, copyright 1989, Helsinki: Finn Lectura; based on a

    handout prepared by Roland Freihoff; permission kindly granted by the author. Table 5.1, adapted from K. Reiss, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Übersetzungskritik, Copyright 1971, Munich: M. Hueber. Figure

    6.2, reproduced from J. House, Translation Quality Assessment: A Model Revisited, copyright 1997,

    Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Figure 11.1, reproduced from M. Snell-Hornby, Translation Studies: An Integrated

    Approach, copyright 1995, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

    The case study in chapter 8 is a revised and abridged version of an article of mine: 'The Caribbean conquers the world? An analysis of the reception of García Márquez in translation', published in Bulletin

    of Hispanic Studies, 75.1: 137-44.

    I am sincerely indebted to Professor Lawrence Venuti for his encouragement with this project and for his detailed comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of the book. He has assisted considerably in sharpening and strengthening the focus and in pointing out errors and inaccuracies. Responsibility for the final version is, of course, mine alone.

    My thanks also go to Dr Rana Nayar (Reader, Department of English at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India) for his assistance with the case study in chapter 9, to my colleagues at the Universities of Bradford and Surrey for their support during the writing of this book, and to my students at Bradford, on whom some of the materials in this book have been 'tested'.

    I would also like to express my gratitude to Louisa Semlyen and Katharine Jacobson at Routledge, who have been very supportive and professional both in the early stages of the project and throughout the writing and editing process.

    Finally, warm thanks to my family and friends who have had to put up with me writing away on the computer instead of relaxing with them,

especially to my brother Chris in France and everyone in Madrid and Mallorca. Most of all, thanks to

Cristina, whose love and help were so important during the writing of this book.

Jeremy Munday London, September 2000

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