Introducing Translation Studies
'Jeremy Munday's book presents a snapshot of a rapidly developing discipline in a clear, concise and graphic way. This is a book which raises strong awareness of current issues in the field and will be of interest to translation trainers and trainees alike.'
Basil Hatim, Heriot-Watt University
Introducing Translation Studies is an introductory textbook providing an accessible overview of the key contributions to translation studies.
Munday explores each theory chapter by chapter and tests the different approaches by applying them to texts. The texts discussed are taken from a broad range of languages - English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Punjabi, Portuguese and Spanish - and English translations are provided.
A wide variety of text types is analyzed, including a tourist brochure, a children's cookery book, a Harry Potter novel, the Bible, literary reviews and translators' prefaces, film translation, a technical text and a European Parliament speech.
Each chapter includes the following features:
• a table presenting the key concepts;
• an introduction outlining the translation theory or theories;
• illustrative texts with translations;
• a chapter summary;
• discussion points and exercises.
Including a general introduction, an extensive bibliography and internet sites for further information, this is a practical, user-friendly textbook that gives a balanced and comprehensive insight into translation studies.
Jeremy Munday is Lecturer in Spanish Studies at the University of Surrey and is a freelance translator, lexicographer and materials writer. He has a Doctorate in Translation Studies and his publications include a wide range of papers in the field, as well as translations of Latin American fiction.
Introducing Translation Studies Theories and applications
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First published 2001
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Munday, Jeremy.
Introducing translation studies /Jeremy Munday.
Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Translating and interpreting. I. Title. P306 .M865 2001
ISBN 0-415-22926-X (hbk)
ISBN 0-415-22927-8 (pbk)
que me ha hecho feliz.
List of figures and tables
List of abbreviations
1 Main issues of translation studies 4
1.1 The concept of translation 4
1.2 What is translation studies? 5
1.3 A brief history of the discipline 7
1.4 The Holmes/Toury 'map' 10
1.5 Developments since the 1970s 14
1.6 Aim of this book and a guide to chapters 15
2 Translation theory before the twentieth century 18 2.0 Introduction 18
2.1 'Word-for-word' or 'sense-for-sense'? 19 2.2 Martin Luther 22
2.3 Faithfulness, spirit and truth 23
2.4 Early attempts at systematic translation theory: Dryden,
Dolet and Tytler 24
2.5 Schleiermacher and the valorization of the foreign 27 2.6 Translation theory of the nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries in Britain 28
2.7 Towards contemporary translation theory 29
3 Equivalence and equivalent effect 35
3.0 Introduction 35
3.1 Roman Jakobson: the nature of linguistic meaning and
3.2 Nida and 'the science of translating' 37
3.3 Newmark: semantic and communicative translation 44 3.4 Koller: Korrespondenz and Äquivalenz 46
3.5 Later developments in equivalence 49
4 The translation shift approach 55
4.0 Introduction 55
4.1 Vinay and Darbelnet's model 56
4.2 Catford and translation 'shifts' 60
4.3 Czech writing on translation shifts 62
4.4 Van Leuven-Zwart's comparative—descriptive model of
translation shifts 63
5 Functional theories of translation 72
5.0 Introduction 73
5.1 Text type 73
5.2 Translational action 77
5.3 Skopos theory 78
5.4 Translation-oriented text analysis 81
6 Discourse and register analysis approaches 89 6.0 Introduction 89
6.1 The Hallidayan model of language and discourse 90 6.2 House's model of translation quality assessment 92 6.3 Baker's text and pragmatic level analysis: a coursebook
for translators 95
6.4 Hatim and Mason: the semiotic level of context and
6.5 Criticisms of discourse and register analysis approaches
to translation 101
7 Systems theories 108
7.0 Introduction 108
7.1 Polysystem theory 109
7.2 Toury and descriptive translation studies 111 7.3 Chesterman's translation norms 118
7.4 Other models of descriptive translation studies:
Lambert and van Gorp and the Manipulation School 119
8 Varieties of cultural studies 126
8.0 Introduction 127
8.1 Translation as rewriting 127
8.2 Translation and gender 131
8.3 Postcolonial translation theory 133
8.4 The ideologies of the theorists 138
9 Translating the foreign: the (in)visibility of translation 144
9.0 Introduction 144
9.1 Venuti: the cultural and political agenda of translation 145
9.2 Literary translators' accounts of their work 152 9.3 The power network of the publishing industry 153 9.4 Discussion of Venuti's work 155
9.5 The reception and reviewing of translations 156
10 Philosophical theories of translation 162 10.0 Introduction 162
10.1 Steiner's hermeneutic motion 163
10.2 Ezra Pound and the energy of language 168 10.3 The task of the translator: Walter Benjamin 169 10.4 Deconstruction 170
11 Translation studies as an interdiscipline 181 11.0 Introduction 181
11.1 Discipline, interdiscipline or sub-discipline? 182 11.2 Mary Snell-Hornby's 'integrated approach' 183 11.3 Interdisciplinary approaches 187
11.4 The future: co-operation or fragmentation? 190
Appendix: internet links 197
List of figures and tables
1.1 Holmes's 'map' of translation studies 10
1.2 The applied branch of translation studies 13 3.1 Nida's three-stage system of translation 40 5.1 Reiss's text types and text varieties 74
6.1 Relation of genre and register to language 90 6.2 Scheme for analyzing and comparing original and
translation texts 92
7.1 Toury's initial norm and the continuum of adequate and
acceptable translation 114
7.2 Preliminary norms 115
7.3 Operational norms 115
11.1 Text type and relevant criteria for translation 184
3.1 Comparison of Newmark's semantic and communicative
3.2 Differentiation of equivalence and correspondence 47 3.3 Characteristics of research foci for different equivalence types 48
4.1 Main categories of van Leuven-Zwart's comparative model 64 4.2 Segmentation of text into units of translation 67 5.1 Functional characteristics of text types and links to translation
I would like to thank the following copyright holders for giving permission to reproduce the following: Figure 1.1, reproduced from G. Toury, Descriptive Translation Studies - And Beyond, copyright 1995,
Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. Figure 3.1, reproduced from E. Nida and C. R. Taber, The Theory and Practice of Translation, copyright 1969, Leiden: E. J. Brill. Figure 5.1, reproduced from A. Chesterman (ed.), Readings in Translation Theory, copyright 1989, Helsinki: Finn Lectura; based on a
handout prepared by Roland Freihoff; permission kindly granted by the author. Table 5.1, adapted from K. Reiss, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Übersetzungskritik, Copyright 1971, Munich: M. Hueber. Figure
6.2, reproduced from J. House, Translation Quality Assessment: A Model Revisited, copyright 1997,
Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Figure 11.1, reproduced from M. Snell-Hornby, Translation Studies: An Integrated
Approach, copyright 1995, Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
The case study in chapter 8 is a revised and abridged version of an article of mine: 'The Caribbean conquers the world? An analysis of the reception of García Márquez in translation', published in Bulletin
of Hispanic Studies, 75.1: 137-44.
I am sincerely indebted to Professor Lawrence Venuti for his encouragement with this project and for his detailed comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of the book. He has assisted considerably in sharpening and strengthening the focus and in pointing out errors and inaccuracies. Responsibility for the final version is, of course, mine alone.
My thanks also go to Dr Rana Nayar (Reader, Department of English at Panjab University, Chandigarh, India) for his assistance with the case study in chapter 9, to my colleagues at the Universities of Bradford and Surrey for their support during the writing of this book, and to my students at Bradford, on whom some of the materials in this book have been 'tested'.
I would also like to express my gratitude to Louisa Semlyen and Katharine Jacobson at Routledge, who have been very supportive and professional both in the early stages of the project and throughout the writing and editing process.
Finally, warm thanks to my family and friends who have had to put up with me writing away on the computer instead of relaxing with them,
especially to my brother Chris in France and everyone in Madrid and Mallorca. Most of all, thanks to
Cristina, whose love and help were so important during the writing of this book.
Jeremy Munday London, September 2000