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# 911 Measuring#%&A CLF911

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911 Measuring #%&A CLF911 - - AGRICULTURE CORE CURRICULUM - - (CLF900) Core Area: AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS (CLF910) Unit Title: MEASURING AND LAYOUT ________________________________________________________________________ (CLF911) Topic: MEASURING Time Taught in Year(s) ..

911 Measuring #%&A CLF911

- - AGRICULTURE CORE CURRICULUM - -

(CLF900) Core Area: AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS

(CLF910) Unit Title: MEASURING AND LAYOUT

________________________________________________________________________ (CLF911) Topic: MEASURING Time Taught in Year(s)

2 hours 1 ________________________________________________________________________

Performance Standards:

D.1 Measurement and Sketching

Students will be able to read and use a ruler or tape

measure, and perform calculations for problems involving

length, area, and volume. Students will produce and

interpret sketches.

Students will be able to:

1. Measure to within 1/16 of an inch.

2. Sketch an object showing dimensions.

3. Calculate area and volume when given dimensions

using Standard or metric measurements.

Special Material and Equipment:

Ruler or Yardstick

Tape Measure

Framing Square

Calipers

Micrometer

Surveyors Rod

Sight Level or Transit

REFERENCES

Cooper, E. L. (1987). AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.

Hokanson, C. M. (1984). APPLIED PROBLEMS IN MATHEMATICS FOR AGRICULTURE. Danville, IL: Interstate Printers & Publishers.

EVALUATION: Quiz by instructor.

911.1

TOPIC PRESENTATION: MEASURING

A. Measuring is essential to the design and construction of landscapes, facilities, buildings and equipment. Measuring is used to:

1. Create drawings, plans or models of projects to be built.

2. Measure and cut materials to size.

3. Place materials properly in construction.

4. Select proper size replacement parts for tools and equipment.

5. Determine quantity of materials needed for projects.

6. Calculate area and volume.

B. Common measuring tools and their uses:

1. Ruler or Yardstick - rigid measuring devices. Specialized rules or

scales are made for drawing or drafting. E.g. architects rule,

engineers rule.

2. Tape Measure - flexible measuring device typically used in construction

and landscaping. Large tape measures are available for measuring large

areas such as field plots.

3. Framing Square - L shaped measuring device used in construction.

Useful for drawing right angles on materials to be cut.

4. Calipers - pincher like measuring devices used to measure the diameter

of objects.

5. Micrometers - exceptionally accurate calipers for making very small

measurements. Often used in machinery repair and in the construction

of precision tools.

6. Surveyors rod - used with a sight level or transit to measure vertical

height. Important for leveling building sites, preparing forms for

C. Units of measurement:

1. English Fractional Rule - Inches are divided into 8, 16, 32 or 64

equal segments.

2. English Decimal rule - Inches are divided into 10 or 100 equal

segments.

3. Metric Rule - Basic unit of length is the meter. Each meter is divided

into 100 centimeters. Each centimeter is divided into 10 millimeters.

4. See Tables 1-3 for a comprehensive listing of units of linear, square

and cubic measurements for the English (Table 1) and Metric (Table 2)

systems. Table 3 lists equivalencies of Metric and English units

useful for converting measurements between systems.

911.2

See the Advanced Core Curriculum in Agricultural Mechanics for liquid

measures and weights.

D. Understanding Metric Measurements

1. The metric system has the advantage of being a completely decimal

system.

2. The units of measure in the metric system relate to one another by

multiples of ten. This makes the metric system mathematically logical

and easy to use.

3. Instead of working with complicated division and multiplication to

change from one measurement unit to another, the decimal point is

merely moved.

a. To change sizes of metric units, multiply or divide by 10, 100,

1,000 or 1,000,000, which is as simple as moving a decimal point.

b. For example, to change 357 centimeters to meters, divide by 100.

The answer is obvious without figuring--3.57 meters. Metric

measures make calibration of instruments and equipment much easier.

4. Below is a table of metric prefixes whose meaning indicates whether to

multiply or divide when changing measurement:

a. Mega- = 1,000,000 times the basic unit (meter, liter, grams).

b. Kilo- = 1,000 times the basic unit.

c. Hecto- = 100 times the basic unit.

d. Deca- = 10 times the basic unit.

e. Deci- = 1/10 times the basic unit.

f. Centi- = 1/100 times the basic unit.

g. Milli- = 1/1000 times the basic unit.

h. Micro- = 1/1,000,000 times the basic unit.

________________________________________________________________________________ ACTIVITY:

1. Add and subtract both English and metric units of measure; then discuss

the use of common fractions in English unit manipulation and the use of

decimals in metric unit manipulation.

2. Perform English-to-metric and metric-to-English conversions.

3. Compare U.S. standard measure and metric measure tools and identify

engines and machinery which require metric measure tools. ________________________________________________________________________________

911.3

Table 1. English Units of Measure

Linear Units (Length)

12 inches (in. or ") = 1 foot (ft or ')

3 feet = 1 yard (yd)

16 1/2 feet = 1 rod (rd)

5 1/2 yards = 1 rod

320 rods = 1 mile (mi)

5,280 feet = 1 mile

1,760 yards = 1 mile

1 furlong (fur) = 1/8 mile or 660 feet

Square Units (Area)

144 square inches (sq. in. or in.2 ) = 1 square foot (sq. ft or ft 2)

9 square feet = 1 square yard (sq. yd or yd2)

30 1/4 square yards = 1 square rod (sq. rd or rd2)

160 square rods = 1 acre (A)

43,560 square feet = 1 acre

640 acre = 1 square mile (sq. mi or mi2 )

Cubic Units (Volume)

1,728 cubic inches (cu in. or in.3 ) = 1 cubic foot (cu ft or ft 3 )

27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu yd or yd3 )

128 cubic feet = 1 cord (cd) - meas. of fire wood

911.4

Table 2. Metric Units of Measure

Linear Units (Length)

1 kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters

1 hectometer (hm) = 100 meters

1 decameter (dkm) = 10 meters

1 decimeter (dm) = 0.1 m

1 m = 10 dm

1 centimeter (cm) = 0.01 m

1 m = 100 cm

1 millimeter (mm) = 0.001 m

1 m = 1,000 mm

Square Units (Area)

1 square centimeter (cm2 ) = 100 square millimeters (mm2 )

1 square decimeter (dm2 ) = 100 square centimeters (cm2 )

1 square meter (m2 ) = 10,000 square centimeters (cm2 )

10,000 square meters = 1 hectare

Cubic Units (Volume)

1 cubic centimeter (cm3) = 1,000 cubic millimeters (mm3 )

1 cubic meter (m 3) = 1,000,000 cubic centimeters (cm3)

1,000 cubic centimeters = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3)

1,000 cubic centimeters = 1 liter (l)

1 cubic centimeter (cc) = 1 milliliter (ml)

911.5

Table 3. English to Metric Conversions

Linear Units (Length)

1 in = 25.4 mm or 1 mm = 0.03937 in

1 in = 2.54 cm or 1 cm = 0.3937 in

1 ft = 30.48 cm or 1 m = 39.37 in

1 ft = 0.3048 m or 1 m = 3.281 ft

1 yd = 0.9144 m or 1 m = 1.0936 yd

1 mi = 1.6093 km or 1 km = 0.6214 mi

Square Units (Area)

1 in2 = 6.452 cm2 or 1 cm2 = 0.1549 in2

1 ft2 = 0.0929 m or 1 m2 = 10.76 ft2

1 yd2 = 0.8361 m2 or 1 m2 = 1.196 yd2

1 mi2 = 259 ha

1 mi2 = 2.589 km2

1 acre = 0.4047 ha

1 ha = 2.471 acres

Cubic Units (Volume)

1 in3 = 16.387 cm or 1 cm = 0.06102 in3

1 ft3 = 0.0283 m or 1 m = 35.32 ft3

1 yd3 = 0.7646 m3 or 1 m3 = 1.208 yd3

To convert units, multiply unit on left by conversion factor on right. (e.g. 10 in x 25.4 mm/in = 254 mm)

911.6

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