911 Measuring #%&A CLF911
- - AGRICULTURE CORE CURRICULUM - -
(CLF900) Core Area: AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS
(CLF910) Unit Title: MEASURING AND LAYOUT
________________________________________________________________________ (CLF911) Topic: MEASURING Time Taught in Year(s)
2 hours 1 ________________________________________________________________________
D.1 Measurement and Sketching
Students will be able to read and use a ruler or tape
measure, and perform calculations for problems involving
length, area, and volume. Students will produce and
Students will be able to:
1. Measure to within 1/16 of an inch.
2. Sketch an object showing dimensions.
3. Calculate area and volume when given dimensions
using Standard or metric measurements.
Special Material and Equipment:
Ruler or Yardstick
Sight Level or Transit
Cooper, E. L. (1987). AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.
Hokanson, C. M. (1984). APPLIED PROBLEMS IN MATHEMATICS FOR AGRICULTURE. Danville, IL: Interstate Printers & Publishers.
EVALUATION: Quiz by instructor.
TOPIC PRESENTATION: MEASURING
A. Measuring is essential to the design and construction of landscapes, facilities, buildings and equipment. Measuring is used to:
1. Create drawings, plans or models of projects to be built.
2. Measure and cut materials to size.
3. Place materials properly in construction.
4. Select proper size replacement parts for tools and equipment.
5. Determine quantity of materials needed for projects.
6. Calculate area and volume.
B. Common measuring tools and their uses:
1. Ruler or Yardstick - rigid measuring devices. Specialized rules or
scales are made for drawing or drafting. E.g. architects rule,
2. Tape Measure - flexible measuring device typically used in construction
and landscaping. Large tape measures are available for measuring large
areas such as field plots.
3. Framing Square - L shaped measuring device used in construction.
Useful for drawing right angles on materials to be cut.
4. Calipers - pincher like measuring devices used to measure the diameter
5. Micrometers - exceptionally accurate calipers for making very small
measurements. Often used in machinery repair and in the construction
of precision tools.
6. Surveyors rod - used with a sight level or transit to measure vertical
height. Important for leveling building sites, preparing forms for
concrete, grading roads and ditches, laying pipe.
C. Units of measurement:
1. English Fractional Rule - Inches are divided into 8, 16, 32 or 64
2. English Decimal rule - Inches are divided into 10 or 100 equal
3. Metric Rule - Basic unit of length is the meter. Each meter is divided
into 100 centimeters. Each centimeter is divided into 10 millimeters.
4. See Tables 1-3 for a comprehensive listing of units of linear, square
and cubic measurements for the English (Table 1) and Metric (Table 2)
systems. Table 3 lists equivalencies of Metric and English units
useful for converting measurements between systems.
See the Advanced Core Curriculum in Agricultural Mechanics for liquid
measures and weights.
D. Understanding Metric Measurements
1. The metric system has the advantage of being a completely decimal
2. The units of measure in the metric system relate to one another by
multiples of ten. This makes the metric system mathematically logical
and easy to use.
3. Instead of working with complicated division and multiplication to
change from one measurement unit to another, the decimal point is
a. To change sizes of metric units, multiply or divide by 10, 100,
1,000 or 1,000,000, which is as simple as moving a decimal point.
b. For example, to change 357 centimeters to meters, divide by 100.
The answer is obvious without figuring--3.57 meters. Metric
measures make calibration of instruments and equipment much easier.
4. Below is a table of metric prefixes whose meaning indicates whether to
multiply or divide when changing measurement:
a. Mega- = 1,000,000 times the basic unit (meter, liter, grams).
b. Kilo- = 1,000 times the basic unit.
c. Hecto- = 100 times the basic unit.
d. Deca- = 10 times the basic unit.
e. Deci- = 1/10 times the basic unit.
f. Centi- = 1/100 times the basic unit.
g. Milli- = 1/1000 times the basic unit.
h. Micro- = 1/1,000,000 times the basic unit.
1. Add and subtract both English and metric units of measure; then discuss
the use of common fractions in English unit manipulation and the use of
decimals in metric unit manipulation.
2. Perform English-to-metric and metric-to-English conversions.
3. Compare U.S. standard measure and metric measure tools and identify
engines and machinery which require metric measure tools. ________________________________________________________________________________
Table 1. English Units of Measure
Linear Units (Length)
12 inches (in. or ") = 1 foot (ft or ')
3 feet = 1 yard (yd)
16 1/2 feet = 1 rod (rd)
5 1/2 yards = 1 rod
320 rods = 1 mile (mi)
5,280 feet = 1 mile
1,760 yards = 1 mile
1 furlong (fur) = 1/8 mile or 660 feet
Square Units (Area)
144 square inches (sq. in. or in.2 ) = 1 square foot (sq. ft or ft 2)
9 square feet = 1 square yard (sq. yd or yd2)
30 1/4 square yards = 1 square rod (sq. rd or rd2)
160 square rods = 1 acre (A)
43,560 square feet = 1 acre
640 acre = 1 square mile (sq. mi or mi2 )
Cubic Units (Volume)
1,728 cubic inches (cu in. or in.3 ) = 1 cubic foot (cu ft or ft 3 )
27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu yd or yd3 )
128 cubic feet = 1 cord (cd) - meas. of fire wood