911 Measuring#%&A CLF911

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911 Measuring #%&A CLF911 - - AGRICULTURE CORE CURRICULUM - - (CLF900) Core Area: AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS (CLF910) Unit Title: MEASURING AND LAYOUT ________________________________________________________________________ (CLF911) Topic: MEASURING Time Taught in Year(s) ..

911 Measuring #%&A CLF911



     (CLF910) Unit Title: MEASURING AND LAYOUT

    ________________________________________________________________________ (CLF911) Topic: MEASURING Time Taught in Year(s)

     2 hours 1 ________________________________________________________________________

     Performance Standards:

     D.1 Measurement and Sketching

     Students will be able to read and use a ruler or tape

     measure, and perform calculations for problems involving

     length, area, and volume. Students will produce and

     interpret sketches.

Students will be able to:

     1. Measure to within 1/16 of an inch.

     2. Sketch an object showing dimensions.

     3. Calculate area and volume when given dimensions

     using Standard or metric measurements.

Special Material and Equipment:

     Ruler or Yardstick

     Tape Measure

     Framing Square



     Surveyors Rod

     Sight Level or Transit



    Hokanson, C. M. (1984). APPLIED PROBLEMS IN MATHEMATICS FOR AGRICULTURE. Danville, IL: Interstate Printers & Publishers.

     EVALUATION: Quiz by instructor.



    A. Measuring is essential to the design and construction of landscapes, facilities, buildings and equipment. Measuring is used to:

     1. Create drawings, plans or models of projects to be built.

     2. Measure and cut materials to size.

     3. Place materials properly in construction.

     4. Select proper size replacement parts for tools and equipment.

     5. Determine quantity of materials needed for projects.

     6. Calculate area and volume.

B. Common measuring tools and their uses:

     1. Ruler or Yardstick - rigid measuring devices. Specialized rules or

     scales are made for drawing or drafting. E.g. architects rule,

     engineers rule.

     2. Tape Measure - flexible measuring device typically used in construction

     and landscaping. Large tape measures are available for measuring large

     areas such as field plots.

     3. Framing Square - L shaped measuring device used in construction.

     Useful for drawing right angles on materials to be cut.

     4. Calipers - pincher like measuring devices used to measure the diameter

     of objects.

     5. Micrometers - exceptionally accurate calipers for making very small

     measurements. Often used in machinery repair and in the construction

     of precision tools.

     6. Surveyors rod - used with a sight level or transit to measure vertical

     height. Important for leveling building sites, preparing forms for

     concrete, grading roads and ditches, laying pipe.

C. Units of measurement:

     1. English Fractional Rule - Inches are divided into 8, 16, 32 or 64

     equal segments.

     2. English Decimal rule - Inches are divided into 10 or 100 equal


     3. Metric Rule - Basic unit of length is the meter. Each meter is divided

     into 100 centimeters. Each centimeter is divided into 10 millimeters.

     4. See Tables 1-3 for a comprehensive listing of units of linear, square

     and cubic measurements for the English (Table 1) and Metric (Table 2)

     systems. Table 3 lists equivalencies of Metric and English units

     useful for converting measurements between systems.


    See the Advanced Core Curriculum in Agricultural Mechanics for liquid

    measures and weights.

D. Understanding Metric Measurements

     1. The metric system has the advantage of being a completely decimal


     2. The units of measure in the metric system relate to one another by

     multiples of ten. This makes the metric system mathematically logical

     and easy to use.

     3. Instead of working with complicated division and multiplication to

     change from one measurement unit to another, the decimal point is

     merely moved.

     a. To change sizes of metric units, multiply or divide by 10, 100,

     1,000 or 1,000,000, which is as simple as moving a decimal point.

     b. For example, to change 357 centimeters to meters, divide by 100.

     The answer is obvious without figuring--3.57 meters. Metric

     measures make calibration of instruments and equipment much easier.

     4. Below is a table of metric prefixes whose meaning indicates whether to

     multiply or divide when changing measurement:

     a. Mega- = 1,000,000 times the basic unit (meter, liter, grams).

     b. Kilo- = 1,000 times the basic unit.

     c. Hecto- = 100 times the basic unit.

     d. Deca- = 10 times the basic unit.

     e. Deci- = 1/10 times the basic unit.

     f. Centi- = 1/100 times the basic unit.

     g. Milli- = 1/1000 times the basic unit.

     h. Micro- = 1/1,000,000 times the basic unit.

    ________________________________________________________________________________ ACTIVITY:

     1. Add and subtract both English and metric units of measure; then discuss

     the use of common fractions in English unit manipulation and the use of

     decimals in metric unit manipulation.

     2. Perform English-to-metric and metric-to-English conversions.

     3. Compare U.S. standard measure and metric measure tools and identify

     engines and machinery which require metric measure tools. ________________________________________________________________________________


Table 1. English Units of Measure

    Linear Units (Length)

     12 inches (in. or ") = 1 foot (ft or ')

     3 feet = 1 yard (yd)

     16 1/2 feet = 1 rod (rd)

     5 1/2 yards = 1 rod

     320 rods = 1 mile (mi)

     5,280 feet = 1 mile

     1,760 yards = 1 mile

     1 furlong (fur) = 1/8 mile or 660 feet

    Square Units (Area)

    144 square inches (sq. in. or in.2 ) = 1 square foot (sq. ft or ft 2)

    9 square feet = 1 square yard (sq. yd or yd2)

    30 1/4 square yards = 1 square rod (sq. rd or rd2)

160 square rods = 1 acre (A)

43,560 square feet = 1 acre

    640 acre = 1 square mile (sq. mi or mi2 )

    Cubic Units (Volume)

    1,728 cubic inches (cu in. or in.3 ) = 1 cubic foot (cu ft or ft 3 )

    27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard (cu yd or yd3 )

    128 cubic feet = 1 cord (cd) - meas. of fire wood