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SCIENCE, TECNOLOGY AND SOCIETY INDUSTRIAL DESIGN THE ...

By Cynthia James,2014-08-13 06:01
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HIGH MODERNISM: THE IDEA OF 'HIGH MODERNISM' GOVERNED THE INDUSTRIAL DESIGN SECTOR BETWEEN THE 1930S AND 1960S. THREE TYPES OF DESIGN 'FRAMEWORKS' OR IDEAS ...

    SCIENCE, TECNOLOGY AND SOCIETY

    INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

    The art of enhancing the look and value of products, Industrial Design started developing in the 20th century. During the later half of the nineteenth century, the consumer goods industry grew rapidly which necessitated the creation of designer goods, owing to the competition in the market. Consumers were ready to spend more on luxury goods and lush interior decorations for homes. In those times, industrial design wasn't a well-defined professional activity. The craftsmen and artists were engaged in industrial designing activities by industrialists, who promoted the development of prototypes for their products.

    The bulk of industrial designing during the 1920s was carried out in the field of automobiles, electrical appliances and the new inventions. The engineers though, invented useful items for the public, but lacked the creativity needed to enhance the look of these products. Trained artists from different art schools, were hired for the creation of commercial art, in order to facilitate the designing of industrial products.

    The Great Depression of 1929, proved an opportunity in disguise for industrial designers to display their skills. Frederick W. Taylor, a mechanical engineer by profession, played an important role in improving industrial efficiency during this period.

    Streamlining: It was an important principle applied in the production of various goods. Basically a concept derived from the science of aerodynamics, streamlining was extensively used in the designing of products such as automobiles, radio, washing machines, etc. The overall effect of streamlining the product designs was so much, that the demand of consumer products increased heavily.

    The profession of industrial designing was institutionalized owing to the surge in demand for industrial designers. The institutions, like the American Designers Institute

    and the Society of Industrial Designers, were established in the years 1938 and 1944

    respectively. The two institutions were merged in 1965 to form the Industrial Designers Society of America.

    High Modernism: The idea of 'high modernism' governed the industrial design sector between the 1930s and 1960s. Three types of design 'frameworks' or ideas were brought to light by The Museum of Modern Art in America. These three ideas were the

    'machine art', 'organic design' and 'good design'. The machine art signified abstract designing while good design was considered to be of reformist ideology. Organic design was the term used for eco-friendly designs.

    The competitive markets of the 1980s and 1990s brought about a fundamental change in the field of industrial designing. Earlier, during the 1930s, the challenge before designers was to enhance the look of Machine Age products. However, in the '80s, the situation had changed a lot. The designers were expected to add value to the highly sophisticated hardware and software. The designers in this period, played an important role in deciding the corporate strategies for industries. Thus, from the inception of the concept of industrial designing in the 1900s till date, the field of Industrial Design has undergone a sea change.

Questions:

    1. Why did grow rapidly the consumer goods industry during the later half of the

    nineteenth century?

    2. What did the craftsmen and artists do during this historical moment?

    3. Who was Frederick W. Taylor?

    4. Which did the three ideas proposed by The Museum of Modern Art in America

    about design?

    5. What’s Streamlining?

    6. When was institutionalized the profession of industrial design?

    7. What did the industrials design do during the ‘80’s?

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