A REPORT ON
PARTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE RESEARCH PROJECT
The Kharif 2000-2001 report on the Participatory Adaptive Research Project, an IFAD assisted project of the Andhra Pradesh Tribal Welfare Department, Hyderabad is submitted for kind perusal and information. This report is in continuation to status report submitted on July st31 2000 and the mid term progress report submitted to the Commissioner Tribal Welfare in the month of October 2000.
The centre wise action plans for kharif 2000-2001, focusing the major components like crop component research, farming system approach and natural resource management were implemented and the results obtained with regard to the different activities are discussed in detail.
CROP COMPONENT RESEARCH : Under the crop component research
for assessing and refining the technologies different varietal trials, fertilisers trials were taken up with the 32 selected farmers in four villages viz., D.N.Palem, Kutrawada, Cheruvupalem and P.M. kota.
Paddy: Paddy is generally grown under rainfed conditions and as well under irrigation sources like streams, check dams and tanks. The situations in which the paddy is grown are Normal sown-blackloamy soils- rainfed/ irrigated, Normal sown- redsandy soils-rainfed/ irrigated. The situations were analysed to identify the gaps in adoption of technological package and
the following gaps emerged as critical gaps to be addressed through adaptive research. The gaps like in selection of variety, seed rate, seed treatment, planting, fertilisation etc,..To address the gaps a total number of 25 varietal trials were taken up for Paddy in which 19 for dry paddy and 6 wet paddy trials were grounded. The varieties like MTU-1001, MTU-9993,MTU-1006 and Pushkala were tried to replace the local and the un recommended varieties grown by the farmers. The same number of fertiliser trials were taken up to demonstrate the fertiliser dosage after assessing the gap in adoption with each and every farmer. The gaps with regard to different package of practices are as follows:
LAND PREPARATION: 25 farmers are preparing their lands by deep ploughing 5-6 times. Only 3 farmers have full gap and the remaining 4 farmers have partial gap. This gap is existing with resource poor farmers mainly because of lack of plough bullocks farmers are using a hand implement called ‘GOBBAM’ and ploughing the land.
To fill this gap an awareness was created on the importance of land preparation among the resource poor farmers and tie up was made with the other resource poor farmers for hiring the drought power to plough the land. VARIETY: All the 32 farmers are not growing recommended varieties of paddy. Some farmers are using high yielding varieties which are not recommended to this area. Farmers from Kutravada village have not used high yielding varieties yet. To bridge the gap scientists of Horticultural Research Station, Pandirimamidi and Regional Agricultural Research
Station, Chintapally were copntacted to recommend the suitable varieties to this area. MTU-1001, MTU-9993, MTU-1006 and Pushkala are taken up in 25 adaptive trials. Before giving seeds an orientation taining programme was also conducted at the village level by inviting the scientist to explain about the importance of these varieties.
SEED RATE: Only 9 farmers are using correct quantity of seed. 18 farmers (including both resource rich and resource poor) are using more seed rate (50 kgs) due to fear of germination and 5 resource poor farmers are using low seed rate (20kgs) due to lack of awareness
To full fill this gap an awareness programme was conducted on seed rate and explained about the disadvantages of high and low seed rate. Demonstration were conducted at village level on germination test and based on germination percentage, calculation of required quantity of seed was explained to the farmers. The required quantity of 30 kgs. seed per acre was given to the farmers in the trial plots.
TIME OF SOWING : There is no gap with regard to the time of sowing. All the farmers are strictly following sowing time as the farmers are aware of reduction in yields if sowings are delayed.
SPACING : Except 4 farmers this gap is existing with all the resource rich and resource poor farmers. Full gap is existing with 9 resource rich and 9 resource poor farmers. Partial gap is existing with 5 resource rich and 5 resource poor farmers. Farmers are not aware of the spacing and optimum
plant population (33 plants / sq.m ) and practising zig-zag method of planting.
SEED TREATMENT : All the 32 adopted farmers in four villages donot practice seed treatment. Majority 27 farmers are not aware of the seed treatment. Only 5 farmers are aware of the benefits of seed treatment. This activity was carried out by creating awareness through posters and charts and by method demonstration.
ORGANIC MANURES : This gap is existing with all the resource rich and resource poor farmers. Full gap is existing with 10 resource rich farmers and 11 resource poor farmers for application of organic manures. Partial gap is existing with 6 resource rich farmers and 5 resource poor farmers. This is because of the reasons that stall feeding is not done, resource poor farmers do not have cattle and those who have cattle composting of dung and waste material is also not followed. But the farmers are aware of the benefits of composting.
To fill the gap and to reinforce the importance of composting and use of organic manures training programs were organized at the village level. As a preliminary step cattle penning was done in all the trial plots. FERTILISER USE:
NITROGEN : Full gap is existing with 7 resource rich and 10 resource poor farmers. Partial gap was observed with 7 resource rich and 6 resource poor farmers and with two farmers no gap was found. The gap in fertilisation was
observed because of the reason that some farmers lack in awareness and some do not have the money.
To narrow down the gap exposure visit to Horticultural Research Station, Pandirimamidi was organised to all the 32 farmers for showing the advantages of split application of Nitrogen fertiliser. And 25 trials were taken up with the selected farmers with 25 kgs of Nitrogen per acre in three split doses. First dose as a basal application ( last ploughing), second at tillering stage and third dose at panicle initiation stage. PHOSPHOROUS AND POTASH : All the 32 farmers are not applying
potassic and phosphatic fertilisers. Full gap is existing with all the resource rich and resource poor farmers. Only 8 farmers were aware of the importance of potassic and phosphatic fertilisers but they are not applying because of lack of money.
This gap was taken based on soil testing recommendations. The soil samples were collected from paddy fields and the samples were analysed at soil testing laboratory, Pandirimamidi. Training was given to the farmers for taking soil samples. The results were indicating that all the soils were low in ‘P’ and ‘K’ contents. For fulfilling this gap awareness program was organised to educate the advantages of these fertilisers like improvement in grain filling, weight and quality, development of resistance to pests and diseases. As such 12 kgs/acre of phosphorus was applied at puddling in wet paddy and last ploughing in dry paddy and 16 kgs/acre of potash in two split
applications were applied one at last ploughing in dry paddy or at puddling in wet paddy and another one at panicle initiation stage.
ZINC : Zinc deficiency in soils was observed based on soil test results. Full gap is existing with all the 32 farmers and they were not aware of the zinc application. To bridge this gap the importance of application of ‘Zn’ was explained to all the farmers like decrease in growth and yield of the crop and because of cool climate there is a possibility of ‘Zn’ deficiency in
paddy and trials were laid on application of ‘Zn’ @ 20 kgs per acre in farmer’s field.
WEED CONTROL: The findings of the Horticultural Research Station, Pandirimamidi has showing that the 25 % yield reduction in the agency area is due to the losses caused by the weeds. Partial gap was existing with all the 32 farmers. The reasons being the practices and climatic factors like no summer plouging, chikku method of transplanting, lack of implements to remove the weeds, poor economic status of the farmers, non availability of labour( only family labour) and due to high rainfall the weeds grow faster. To bridge the gap line sowing of paddy was taken up in trial plots. This will facilitate the farmers for not only for removal of weeds in between rows but also application of fertilisers and pesticides along the rows and easy to make ways at later stages to reduce the incidence of brown plant hopper. PLANT PROTECTION MEASURES : Gap is existing with all the 32
farmers. Full gap is existing with 8 resource rich farmers and 11 resource poor farmers. Partial gap is existing with 8 resource rich farmers and 5
resource poor farmers. This is because of lack of awareness of plant protection measures, poor economic status etc,. To bridge the gap awareness camps were organised to explain the importance of plant protection and different methods of plant protection like introduction of resistant varieties (MTU-1001 for BPH control), clipping the edges of the plants before transplanting to destroy the stem borer egg deposits, split application of nitrogenous fertiliser to reduce the pest incidence, control of leaf folder and Hispa by chloropyriphos 2 ml / lit of water etc,.
The Associate Director of Research Chintapalli also visited during the crop season and appreciated the technologies tried in the adaptive research trials. The advantages of the interventions of adaptive research in comparison to the farmers practices have been realised by the farmers. The results obtained in the paddy trials are shown in the table -x.
Jowar : The Jowar is grown mostly in Podu(shift) cultivation. under rain fed conditions as a solo and mixed crop. On analysing the situations of Jowar it was found that the farmers practice is to go for local strain which are long duration, tall growing and low yielding. The major gaps in adoption of technologies were found to be lack of awareness about suitable varieties to suit to this area. The tall growing local strain generally lodge and yields low, since the farmers practice is to grown in podu, farmers are not aware of fertilisation in jowar. In order to address these gaps ICSV-745 a short duration ICRISAT variety, was tried in 4 trials by extending the sowing time i.e., instead of June - July the sowings were delayed to
August September. The delayed sowing helped in avoiding the lodging of crop during heavy rains and also avoids the bird infestation as the crop comes to maturity along with other crops. Farmers have compared their local jowar with this ICSV-745 in several aspects like duration, crop stand, sweetness of the stem, panicle size, grain yield, color and taste and are convinced that this high yielding variety is much better than their local strain and suitable to their situation for transplanting and also broadcasting in podu.
Ragi: The critical analysis of the situations in Ragi revealed that the gaps exists in the technological package with respect to land preparation, variety, seed treatment spacing, fertilisation and also in control of pest and diseases. Ragi is a traditionally grown crop with local strains in podu and it is the staple food for tribals in summer. In order to address these gaps 5 trials were taken up. The farmers were motivated to go for high yielding variety like Ratnagiri in plane lands by taking up nursery and transplanting in main field. Fertilisers like 12 kgs/acre Nitrogen, 12kgs/acre Phosphorous and 8 kgs/acre of Potash was given to bridge the gap. For controlling the pest and diseases like stem borers and blast monocrotophos and carbondizium were sprayed.
Bajra:- Bajra is not a common millet, mostly taken up as a mixed crop in podu, the crop is rarely grown as an intercrop without following any technological package. The farmers were motivated to take up Bajra as an intercrop in the existing orchard of Cashew by following all the practices.
To demonstrate and address the gaps 4 trials were taken with the variety WCC-75.
Generally farmers are growing long duration local redgram as a mixed crop in podu. Farmers are getting low yields because of podu cultivation, lack of high yielding varieties, fertilisers, pesticides and management practices like weeding, spacing etc. This gap was addressed by taking 8 trials of ICRISAT varieties like Asha, Maruthi and ICPL-8702 as an inter crop in mango existing orchard in Podu, as an inter crop in dry paddy and as a mixed crop with cowpea and blackgram in plain lands.. These 3 varieties were performed better both in Podu and as well in plain lands
Cotton :- Cotton in Utnoor is generally grown in different farming situations like(a) Normal sown black soils-rainfed; (b) Normal sown black soils under irrigation (open well); (c) Normal sown, black soils under stream irrigation (d) Normal sown chalka soils under irrigation(open wells) (e) Normal sown chalka soils under stream irrigation and (e) Normal sown chalka soils, rainfed. A critical analysis of farmers practices in technology adoption in each of the situations revealed that the gaps exist with respect to variety, seed rate, use of organic manures, fertilisers, etc,. The practice of the farmers is to go for hybrids like NHH-44, Jk-2, 468, and others. Cultivation of these hybrids instead of varieties forcing the farmers to invest
more in the inputs under rainfed conditions. In fertilisers the practice of the farmers is to go for 100kgs-150/ha Urea, 125kgs/ha DAP and 0-60kgs/ha MOP. A gap of 100-125kgs in Urea and 0-60 kgs of MOP is found in all the situations in selected villages on an average.
To address the above gaps 32 trials were taken up to assess and refine the technologies, keeping in view the situations in which the crop is grown, farmers existing practices and the socio-economic factors. Narsimha a pure line strain is introduced to replace the hybrids. NARSIMHA a variety of ANGRAU is high yielding, with high response to organic manures and resistant to many of the pests. The variety Narsimha's performance was outstanding and has outperformed the hybrids grown in this area. The tribal farmers specially the small farmers who cannot not offered to go for high cost of cultivation towards the inputs are highly convinced. By addressing the gaps in trial plots the farmers experienced an increase in yield ranging from 97 - 150 percent. The results of the 32 trials have been shown in the table-
Jowar :- Kharif Jowar is mostly grown in black soils and red chalka soils under rainfed conditions in this area. Critical analysis of the situations revealed that a number of gaps exists in the technology adoption of the farmers. The common gaps that exists are a. Hybrids like JK-22, CSH-9 are generally grown instead of a variety b. Lack of top dressing of urea c. Plant Population is not maintained . Farmers in most of the occasions are deceived by spurious seeds from traders. The farmers gamble with the