A hot dog (also known as a frankfurter, frank, wiener, or weenie) is a
moist sausage of soft, even texture and flavor, often made from advanced
meat recovery or meat slurry. Most types are fully cooked, cured or smoked.
When served, it is usually hot, and is placed in a special purpose soft, sliced hot dog bun, although it is possible for them to be eaten alone. It may be garnished with mustard, ketchup, onion, mayonnaise, relish, cheese, chili or sauerkraut. The flavor can be similar to a range of meat products from bland bologna to spicy German bockwurst varieties. Hot dogs
made from a range of meats are on the market, but Kosher or Halal hot dogs
must be made from beef, chicken or turkey. Vegetarian hot dogs made from
meat analogue are available.
Unlike other sausages which may be sold uncooked, hot dogs are precooked before packaging. Hot dogs can be eaten without additional cooking, although they are usually warmed before serving. Since even the unopened packaged hot dog can have bacteria it is safer to reheat them (especially important for pregnant women and those with suppressed immune systems). Contents
; 1 History
; 2 Etymology
; 3 General description
o 3.1 Ingredients
; 3.1.1 Condiments
o 3.2 Commercial preparation
; 3.2.1 Natural casing hot dogs
; 3.2.2 Skinless hot dogs
o 3.3 Final preparation
; 4 Health effects
; 5 Hot dogs in the United States
o 5.1 Hot dog restaurants
; 6 Hot dogs outside the United States
; 7 See also
; 8 Notes
; 9 References
; 10 External links
A "home-cooked" hot dog with mayonnaise, onion, and pickle-relish
Claims about hot dog invention are difficult to assess, as stories assert the creation of the sausage, the placing of the sausage (or another kind of sausage) on bread or a bun as finger food, the popularization of the existing dish, or the application of the name "hot dog" to a sausage and bun combination most commonly used with ketchup or mustard and sometimes relesh.
The word frankfurter comes from Frankfurt, Germany, where pork sausages served a bun similar to hot dogs originated. Wiener refers to Vienna,
Austria, whose German name is "Wien", home to a sausage made of a mixture of pork and beef (cf. Hamburger, whose name also derives from a
German-speaking city). In German speaking countries, except Austria, hot
dog sausages are called Wiener or Wiener Würstchen (Würstchen means
"little sausage"). In Swiss German, it is called Wienerli, while in
Austria the terms Frankfurter or Frankfurter Würstel are used.
The city of Vienna traces the lineage of the hot dog to the Wienerwurst
or Viennese sausage, the city of Frankfurt to the Frankfurter Wurst, which
it claims was invented in the 1480s and given to the people on the event of imperial coronations, starting with the coronation of Maximilian II,
Holy Roman Emperor as King; the hot dog has also been attributed to Johann Georg Lahner, a 18th/19th century butcher from the Bavarian city of Coburg
who is said to have invented the "dachshund" or "little-dog" sausage and brought it from Frankfurt to Vienna.
Around 1870, on Coney Island, German immigrant Charles Feltman began selling sausages in rolls.
Others have supposedly invented the hot dog. The idea of a hot dog on a bun is ascribed to the wife of a German named Antonoine Feuchtwanger, who sold hot dogs on the streets of St. Louis, Missouri, in 1880, because his
customers kept taking the white gloves handed to them for eating without burning their hands. Anton Ludwig Feuchtwanger, a Bavarian sausage
seller, is said to have served sausages in rolls at the World's
Fair–either the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago or the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St Louis–again allegedly because the
white gloves he gave to customers so that they could eat his hot sausages in comfort began to disappear as souvenirs.
The association between hot dogs and baseball began as early as 1893 with Chris von der Ahe, a German immigrant who owned not only the St. Louis Browns, but also an amusement park.
Harry M Stevens Inc., founded in 1889, serviced major sports venues with hot dogs and other refreshments, making Stevens known as the "King of Sports Concessions" in the US.
In 1916, an employee of Feltman's named Nathan Handwerker was encouraged
by celebrity clients Eddie Cantor and Jimmy Durante to go into business in competition with his former employer. Handwerker undercut Feltman's
by charging five cents for a hot dog when his former employer was charging ten. At an earlier time in food regulation the hot dog suspect, Handwerker made sure that men wearing surgeon's smocks were seen eating at Nathan's Famous to reassure potential customers.
Hot dog vendor in Amsterdam
The term "dog" has been used as a synonym for sausage since 1884 and accusations that sausage makers used dog meat date to at least 1845.
According to a myth, the use of the complete phrase "hot dog" in reference
to sausage was coined by the newspaper cartoonist Thomas Aloysius "TAD"
Dorgan around 1900 in a cartoon recording the sale of hot dogs during a New York Giants baseball game at the Polo Grounds. However, TAD's
earliest usage of "hot dog" was not in reference to a baseball game at the Polo Grounds, but to a bicycle race at Madison Square Garden, in the
The New York Evening Journal December 12, 1906, by which time the term
"hot dog" in reference to sausage was already in use. In addition, no copy of the apocryphal cartoon has ever been found.
The earliest usage of hot dog in clear reference to sausage found by Barry Popik appeared in the 28 September 1893 The Knoxville Journal.
It was so cool last night that the appearance of overcoats was common, and stoves and grates were again brought into comfortable use. Even the weinerwurst men began preparing to get the "hot dogs" ready for sale Saturday night.
—28 September 1893, Knoxville (TN) Journal, "The [sic] Wore
Overcoats," pg. 5
Another early use of the complete phrase "hot dog" in reference to sausage appeared on page 4 of the October 19, 1895 issue of The Yale Record: "they contentedly munched hot dogs during the whole service."
 General description
Grilled hot dogs
Common hot dog ingredients:
; Meat (or MSM) and fat
; Flavorings, such as salt, garlic, and paprika
; Preservatives (cure) - typically sodium erythorbate and sodium
In the US, if variety meats, cereal or soy fillers are used, the product name must be changed to "links" or the presence must be declared as a qualifier.
Pork and beef are the traditional meats used in hot dogs. Less expensive hot dogs are often made from chicken or turkey, using low cost mechanically
separated poultry. Hot dogs often have high sodium, fat and nitrite
content, ingredients linked to health problems. Changes in meat technology and dietary preferences have led manufacturers to use turkey, chicken, vegetarian meat substitutes, and to lower the salt content.
If a manufacturer produces two types of hot dogs, "wieners" tend to contain pork and are blander, while "franks" tend to be all beef and more strongly seasoned.
A Detroit Coney Island hot dog with chili, onion and mustard.
Common hot dog condiments include mustard, ketchup, pickle relish, cole slaw, sauerkraut, onion, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato, cheese and chili peppers. They are served in a bun.
The National Sausage and Hot Dog Council US in 2005 found mustard to be the most popular condiment (32 percent). "Twenty-three percent of Americans said they preferred ketchup....Chili (chili con carne) came in
third at 17 percent, followed by relish (9 percent) and onions (7 percent). Southerners showed the strongest preference for chili, while Midwesterners showed the greatest affinity for ketchup."
 Commercial preparation
Hot dogs are prepared commercially by mixing the ingredients (meats, spices, binders and fillers) in vats where rapidly moving blades grind and mix the ingredients in the same operation. This mixture is forced through tubes into casings for cooking. Most hot dogs sold in the US are "skinless" as opposed to more expensive "natural casing" hot dogs.
 Natural casing hot dogs
As with most sausages, hot dogs must be in a casing to be cooked. Casing is made from the small intestines of sheep. The products are known as "natural casing" hot dogs or frankfurters. These hot dogs have firmer
texture and a "snap" that releases juices and flavor when the product is bitten.
Kosher casings are expensive in commercial quantities in the US, so kosher hot dogs are usually skinless or made with reconstituted collagen casings.
 Skinless hot dogs
One of the more recent developments in hot dog preparation: The hot dog toaster.
"Skinless" hot dogs must use a casing in the cooking process when the product is manufactured, but the casing is usually a long tube of thin cellulose that is removed between cooking and packaging. Skinless hot dogs vary in the texture of the product surface but have a softer "bite" than natural casing hot dogs. Skinless hot dogs are more uniform in shape and size than natural casing hot dogs and less expensive.
 Final preparation
For a list of regional differences in hot dog preparation and condiments,
see Hot dog variations.
Hot dogs may be grilled, steamed, boiled, barbecued, pan fried, deep fried, broiled, or microwaved. While hot dogs are cooked before packaging, they should not be eaten cold from the package. Hot dogs and their packaging fluid are sometimes contaminated with the bacterium Listeria , which causes listeriosis, a serious foodborne illness. monocytogenes
 Health effects
An American Institute for Cancer Research report found that consuming one
50-gram serving of processed meat — about one hot dog — every day increases risk of colorectal cancer by 20 percent. The Cancer Project
group filed a class-action lawsuit demanding warning labels on packages and at sporting events. Hot dogs are high in fat and salt and have preservatives sodium nitrate and nitrite, believed to cause cancer.
According to the AICR, the average risk of colorectal cancer is 5.8 percent, but 7 percent when a hot dog is consumed daily over years.
Hot dogs present a choking risk: 17% of food-related asphyxiations are caused by hot dogs. It is suggested that redesign of size, shape and texture would reduce the risk.
 Hot dogs in the United States
A roadside hot dog stand near Huntington, West Virginia
 Hot dog restaurants
Restaurants may have hot dogs on children's menu that are not on the regular menu. Hot dog stands and trucks sell hot dogs at street and highway locations. At convenience stores hot dogs are kept heated on rotating grills. Wandering hot dog vendors sell in baseball parks. Some parks have signature hot dogs, such as Fenway Franks at Fenway Park in Boston,
Massachusetts and Dodger Dogs at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles, California.
The Fenway signature is that the hot dog is boiled and grilled Fenway-style, and then served on a New England-style bun, covered with mustard and relish. Often during Red Sox games, vendors traverse the stadium selling the hot [citation dogs plain, giving customers the choice of adding the condiments.]needed
The World's Longest Hot Dog created was 60 m (196.85 ft), and rested
within a 60.3 m bun. The hot dog was prepared by Shizuoka Meat Producers for the All-Japan Bread Association, which baked the bun and coordinated
the event, including official measurement for the world record. The hot dog and bun were the center of a media event in celebration of the Association's 50th anniversary on August 4, 2006, at the Akasaka Prince Hotel, Tokyo, Japan.
7-Eleven sells the most grilled hot dogs in North America, 100 million yearly.
 Hot dogs outside the United States In most of the world the term "hot dog" is recognized as referring to some sort of sausage in a bun, but the type can vary considerably. In some cases the name is applied to something that would not be described as a hot dog in the United States; for example in New Zealand it refers to a battered
sausage, often on a stick, and the version in a bun is called an "American hot dog".
For a list of international differences in hot dogs, see Hot dog