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FOREWORD - OS Sveti Sava CItluk

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FOREWORD - OS Sveti Sava CItluksava,Sava,SAVA

ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    FOREWORD

    Idiomatic expressions have long played an important role in the English language. In fact, the use of idioms is so widespread that an understanding of these expressions is essential to successful communication, whether in listening, speaking, reading, or writing.

    The student may learn grammar and, with time, acquire adequate vocabulary, but without a working knowledge of such idioms as above all, to get along, on the whole, to look up, etc., even the best student's speech will remain awkward and ordinary.

    Of course, the idioms selected for study should have practical value and be within the student's ability to comprehend. Such expressions as to set the

    world on fire or to wash one's dirty laundry in public may be very colorful,

    but they do little to help the student achieve fluency in English.Teachers of English have long recognized that idiomatic expressions add grace and exactness to the language. The alert teacher will make their study an integral part of the teaching process. However, learning such expressions is never an easy task for the student learning English as a second or foreign language. Attempts to translate literally from the student's native tongue usually lead to roundabout expression of meaning and, more often, to confusion.

    For this reason, only basic idioms have been included in this book, appropriately named Essential Idioms in English, New Edition. Furthermore,

    it was decided not to burden the student with discussion of the origins of idioms. There is no need to define the exact nature of an idiom except to assume that it is a phrase that has a meaning different from the meanings of its individual parts. This helps to explain why it is often difficult to translate an idiom from one language to another without incurring some change in meaning or usage.

    For the purposes of this book, two-word verbs are included in the general category of idioms. A two-word verb is a verb whose meaning is altered by he addition of a particle (a preposition used with a verb to form an idiomatic expression.) to look, for example, may become to look up or to look over, each having its own special meaning. When a two-word verb can be separated by a noun or pronoun, the symbol (S) for separable is inserted in the definition.

    Sentences illustrating both separable and nonseparable forms are included in the examples.

    Experienced ESL and EFL teachers will agree, for the most part, with the selection of idioms in this text. However, it should be recognized that any selection is somewhat arbitrary because the range is so great. Some teachers might prefer to omit certain idioms and to add others not included, but all should appreciate the attempt to make Essential idioms in English, New

    Edition as representative as possible.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 1 -

ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    Mention should be made of a unique feature that adds to the usefulness of this book: Appendix II is a listing of the idioms in the text with their equivalents in Spanish, French, and German. Having these equivalents should give the student a surer grasp of the meaning of the English idioms and greater confidence in using them.

    This fourth revision of Essential Idioms in English, New Edition has

    undergone several important changes. The text has been restored to the original three-section format: Elementary (lessons 1-13), Intermediate (lesion 14-27), and Advanced (lessons 28-39). As would be expected, new idioms have been included and outdated idioms have been removed. Lessons in all sections review and build upon idioms introduced in earlier lessons. In some cases, notes that explain special usage or meaning are provided after the definitions, and related idiomatic forms are listed. New types of exercises provide greater variety in activity from one section to another. Finally, there is an answer key in the back of the book for all multiple-choice, matching, true-false, and fill-in-the-blank exercises.

    SECTION ONE --- ELEMENTARY

    LESSON 1

    to get in/to get on: to enter or to board a vehicle

    To get in is used for cars; to get on is used for all other forms of

    transportation.

    oIt's easiest to get in the car from the driver's side. The door on the other

    side doesn't work well.thoI always get on the bus to work at 34 Street.

    to get out of/to get off: to leave or to descend from a vehicle.

    To get out of is used for cars; to get off is used for all other forms of

    transportation.

    oWhy don't we stop and get out of the car for a while?ndoHelen got off the train at the 42 Street terminal.

    to put on: to place on oneself (usually said of clothes) (S)

    oMary put on her coat and left the room.

    oPut your hat on before you leave the house.

    to take off: to remove (usually said of clothes) (S)

    oJohn took off his jacket as he entered the office.

    oTake your sweater off. The room is very warm.

    to call up: to telephone (also: to give some one a call) (S)

    To call can be used instead of to call up, as in the first example below.

    oI forgot to call up Mr. Jones yesterday. I'd better call him now.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 2 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oCall me up tomorrow, Jane. We'll arrange a time to have lunch

    together.

    oI promise to give you a call as soon as I arrive in New York.to turn on: to start or cause to function (also: to switch on) (S)

    oPlease turn on the light; it's too dark in here.

    oDo you know who turned the air conditioning on?

    to turn off: to cause to stop functioning (also: to switch off, to shut off) (S)

    Turn on and turn off, as well as their related forms, are used for things that

    flow, such as electricity, water, gas, etc.

    oPlease turn off the light when you leave the room.

    oAre you really listening to the radio, or should I turn it off?

    right away: very soon; immediately (also: at once)

    oDad says that dinner will be ready right away, so we'd better wash our

    hands and set the table.

    oTell Will to come to my office right away. I must see him immediately.

    oStop playing that loud music at once!

    to pick up: to lift form the floor, table, etc., with one's fingers (S)

    oHarry picked up the newspaper that was on the front doorstep.

    oCould you pick your toy up before someone falls over it?sooner or later: eventually, after a period of time

    oIf you study English seriously, sooner or later you'll become fluent.

    oI'm too tired to do my homework now; I'm sure I'll do it sooner or

    later.

    to get up: to arise, to rise from a bed; to make someone arise (S)

    For the last definition a noun phrase must separate the verb and particle.

    oCarla gets up at seven o'clock every morning.

    oAt what time should we get the children up tomorrow?

    at first: in the beginning, originally

    oAt first English was difficult for him, but later he made great progress.

    oI thought at first that it was Sheila calling, but then I realized that it

    was Betty.

    LESSON 2

    to dress up: to wear formal clothes, to dress very nicely

    oWe should definitely dress up to go to the theater.

    oYou don't have to dress up for Mike's party.

    at last: finally, after a long time.

    oWe waited for hours and then the train arrived at last.

    oNow that I am sixteen, at last I can drive my parents' car.as usual: as is the general case, as is typicalPRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 3 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oGeorge is late for class as usual. This seems to happen every day.

    oAs usual, Dora received first prize in the swimming contest. It's the

    third consecutive year that she has won.

    to find out: get information about, to determine (S)

    This idiom is separable only when a pronoun is used, as in the second example.

    oWill you please try to find out what time the airplane arrives?

    oI'll call right now to find it out.

    to look at: give one's attention to; to watch

    oThe teacher told us to look at the blackboard and not at our books.

    oI like to walk along a country road at night and look at the stars.to look for: to try to find, to search for

    An adverb phrase such as all over can be put between the verb and preposition, as in the second example, however, the idiom cannot be separated by a noun or pronoun.

    oHe's spent over an hour looking for the pen that he lost.

    oSo there you are! We've looked allover for you.

    all right: acceptable, fine; yes, okay

    This idiom can also be spelled alright in informal usage.

    oHe said that it would be all right to wait in her office until she returned.

    oDo you want me to turn off the TV? Alright, if you insist.

    all along: all the time, from the beginning (without change)

    oShe knew all along that we'd never agree with his plan.

    oYou're smiling! Did you know all along that I'd give you a birthday

    present?

    little by little: gradually, slowly (also: step by step)

    oKaren's health seems to be improving little by little.

    oIf you study regularly each day, step by step your vocabulary will

    increase.

    to tire out: to make very weary due to difficult conditions or hard effort (also: to wear out) (S)

    oThe hot weather tired out the runners in the marathon.

    oDoes studying for final exams wear you out? It makes me feel worn

    out!

    to call on: to ask for a response from; to visit (also: to drop in on)

    oJose didn't know the answer when the teacher called on him.

    oLast night several friends called on us at our home.

    oShy don't we drop in on Sally a little later?

    never mind: don't be concerned about it; ignore what was just said

    oWhen he spilled his drink on my coat, I said, "Never mind. It needs to

    be cleaned anyway."

    oSo you weren't listening to me again. Never mind; it wasn't important.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 4 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSONLESSON 3

    to pick out: to choose, to select (S)

    oAnn picked out a good book to give to her brother as a graduation gift.

    oJohnny, if you want me to buy you a toy, then pick one out now.

    to take one's time: to do without rush, not to hurryThis idiom is often used in the imperative form. (See the first example)

    oThere's no need to hurry doing those exercises. Take your time.

    oWilliam never works rapidly. He always takes his time in every thing

    that he does.

    to talk over: to discuss or consider a situation with others (S)

    oWe talked over Carla's plan to install an air conditioner in the room,

    but we couldn't reach a decision.

    oBefore I accepted the new job offer, I talked the matter over with my

    life.

    to life down: to place oneself in a flat position, to recline

    oIf you are tired, why don't you lie down for an hour or so?

    oThe doctor says that Grace must lie down and rest for a short time

    every afternoon.

    to stand up: to rise from a sitting or lying position (also: to get up)

    oWhen the president entered the room, everyone stood up.

    oSuzy, stop rolling around on the floor; get up now.

    to sit down: to be seated (also: take a seat)

    oWe sat down on the park bench and watched the children play.

    oThere aren't any more chairs, but you can take a seat on the floor.

    all (day, week, month, year) long: the entire day, week, month, year

    oI've been working on my income tax forms all day long. I've hardly had

    time to eat.

    oIt's been raining all week long. We haven't seen the sun since last

    Monday.

    by oneself: alone, without assistance

    oFrancis translated that French novel by himself. No one helped him.

    oPaula likes to walk through the woods by herself, but her brother

    prefers to walk with a companion.

    on purpose: for a reason, deliberately

    This idiom is usually used when someone does something wrong or unfair.

    oDo you think that she didn't come to the meeting on purpose?

    oIt was no accident that he broke my glasses. He did it on purpose.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 5 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSONto get along with: to associate or work well with; to succeed or manage in

    doing (also: to get on with)

    oTerry isn't getting along with her new roommate; they argue

    constantly.

    oHow are you getting on with your students?

    to make a difference (to): to be of importance (to), to affectThis idiom is often used with adjectives to show the degree of importance.

    oIt makes a big difference to me whether he likes the food I serve.

    oDoes it make any difference to you where we go for dinner?

    oNo, it doesn't make any difference.

    oIt makes no difference to Lisa either.

    to take out: to remove, to extract (S); to go on a date with (S) (also to go

    out with)

    oStudent, take out your books and open them to page twelve.

    oDid you take Sue out last night?

    oNo, she couldn't go out with me.

    LESSON 4

    to take part in: to be involved in, to participate in (also: to be in on)

    oMartin was sick and could not take part in the meeting yesterday.

    oI didn't want to be in on their argument, so I remained silent.at all: to any degree (also: in the least)

    oLarry isn't at all shy about expressing his opinions.

    oWhen I asked Donna whether she was tired, she said, "Not in the least.

    I'm full of energy."

    to look up: to locate information in a directory, dictionary, book, etc. (S)

    oEllen suggested that we look up Lee's telephone number in the

    directory.

    oStudents should try to understand the meaning of a new word from

    context before looking the word up in the dictionary.

    to wait on: to serve in a store or restaurant

    oA very pleasant young clerk waited on me in that shop.

    oThe restaurant waitress asked us, "Has anyone waited on you yet?

    at least: a minimum of, no fewer (or less) than

    oI spend at least two hours every night on my studies.

    oMike claims that he drinks at least a quart of water every day.so far: until now, until the present time (also: up to now, as of yet)

    This idiom is usually used with the present perfect tense.

    oSo far, this year has been excellent for business. I hope that the good

    luck continues.

    oHow many idioms have we studied in this book up to now?

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 6 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oAs of yet, we have not had an answer from him.

    to take a walk, stroll, hike, etc.: to go for a walk, stroll, hike, etc.A stroll involves slow, easy walking; a hike involves serious, strenuous walking.

    oLast evening we took a walk around the park.

    oIt's a fine day. Would you like to take a stroll along Mason Boulevard?

    oLet's take a hike up Cowles Mountain this afternoon.

    to take a trip: to go on a journey, to travel

    oI'm so busy at work that I have no time to take a trip.

    oDuring the summer holidays, the Thompsons took a trip to Europe.

    to try on: to wear clothes to check the style or fit before buying (S)

    oHe tried on several suits before he picked out a blue one.

    oWhy don't you try these shoes on next?

    to think over: to consider carefully before deciding (S)

    oI'd like to think over your offer first. Then can we talk it over

    tomorrow?

    oYou don't have to give me your decision now. Think it over for a while.

    to take place: to occur, to happen according to plan

    oThe regular meetings of the committee take place in Constitution Hall.

    oI thought that the celebration was taking place at John's house.

    to put away: to remove from slight, to put in the proper place (S)

    oPlease put away your papers before you open the test booklet.

    oJohn put the notepad away in his desk when he was finished with it.LESSON 5

    to look out: to be careful or cautious (also: to watch out)

    Both of these idioms can occur with the preposition for.

    o"Look out!" Jeffrey cried as his friend almost stepped in a big hole in

    the ground.

    oLook out for reckless drivers whenever you cross the street.

    oSmall children should always watch out for strangers offering candy.to shake hands: to exchange greetings by clasping hands

    oWhen people meet for the first time, they usually shake hands.

    oThe student warmly shook hands with his old professor.

    to get back: to return (S)

    oMr. Harris got back from his business trip to Chicago this morning.

    oCould you get the children back home by five o'clock?

    to catch cold: to become sick with a cold of the nose for throat

    oIf you go out in this rain, you will surely catch cold.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 7 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oHow did she ever catch cold in such warm weather?

    to get over: to recover from an illness; to accept a loss or sorrow

    oIt took me over a month to get over my cold, but I'm finally well now.

    oIt seems that Mr. Mason will never get over the death of his wife.to make up one's mind: to reach a decision, to decide finally

    oSally is considering several colleges to attend, but she hasn't made up

    her mind yet.

    oWhen are you going to make up your mind about your vacation plans?to change one's mind: to alter one's decision or opinion

    oWe have changed our minds and are going to Canada instead of

    California this summer.

    oMatthew has changed his mind several times about buying a new cat.for the time being: temporarily (also: for now)

    oFor the time being, Janet is working as a waitress, but she really hopes

    to become an actress soon.

    oWe're living in an apartment for now, but soon we'll be looking for a

    house to buy.

    for good: permanently, forever

    oRuth has returned to Canada for good. She won't ever live in the United

    States again.

    oAre you finished with school for good, or will you continue your studies

    some day?

    to call off: to cancel (S)

    oThe referee called off the soccer game because of the darkness.

    oThe president called the meeting off because she had to leave town.to put off: to postpone (S)

    oMany student's put off doing their assignments until the last minute.

    oLet's put the party off until next weekend, okay?

    in a hurry: hurried, rushed (also: in a rush)

    oAlex seems in a hurry; he must be late for his train again.

    oShe's always in a rush in the morning to get the kids to school.LESSON 6

    under the weather: not feeling well, sick

    oJohn stayed home from work because he was feeling under the

    weather.

    oWhen you cat cold, you feel under the weather.

    to hang up: to place clothes on a hook or hanger (S); to replace the receiver on the phone at the end of a conversation (S)

    oWould you like me to hang up your coat for you in the closet?PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 8 -

ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oThe operator told me to hang the phone up and call the number again.to count on: to trust someone in time of need (also: to depend on)

    oI can count on my parents to help me in an emergency.

    oDon't depend on Frank to lend you any money; he doesn't have any.to make friends: to become friendly with others

    oPatricia is a shy girl and doesn't make friends easily.

    oDuring the cruise Ronald made friends with almost everyone on the

    ship.

    out of order: not in working condition

    oThe elevator was out or order, so we had to walk to the tenth floor of

    the building.

    oWe couldn't use the soft drink machine because it was out of order.

    to get to: to be able to do something special; to arrive at a place, such as

    home, work, etc. for the second definition, do not use the preposition to with

    the words home or there.

    oThe children got to stay up late and watch a good movie for the family.

    oI missed the bus and couldn't get to the office until ten o'clock.

    oWhen are you planning to get home tonight?

    few and far between: not frequent, unusual, rare

    oThe times that our children get to stay up late are few and far between.

    oAirplane travel is very safe because accidents are few and far between.

    to look over: to examine, to inspect closely (also: to go over, to read over,

    to check over) (S)

    Go over is different from the other forms because it is not separable.

    oI want to look my homework over again before I give it to the teacher.

    oThe politician went over his speech before the important presentation.

    oYou should never sign any legal paper without checking it over first.

    to have (time) off: to have free time, not to have to work (also: to take

    time off (S))

    The related form (S) to take time off is used when someone makes a decision to have free time, sometimes when others might not agree with the decision.

    oEvery morning the company workers have time off for a coffee break.

    oSeveral workers took the afternoon off to go to a baseball game.

    to go on: to happen; to resume, to continue (also: to keep on)

    oMany people gathered near the accident to see what was going on.

    oI didn't mean to interrupt you. Please go on.

    oThe speaker kept on talking even though most of the audience had left.to put out: extinguish, to cause to stop functioning (S)

    To put out has the same meaning as to turn off (Lesson 1) for a light fixture.

    oNo smoking is allowed in here. Please put out your cigarette.

    oThe fire fighters worked hard to put the brush fire out.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 9 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oPlease put out the light before you leave. Okay, I'll put it out.

    all of a sudden: suddenly, without warning (also: all at once)

    oAll of a sudden Ed appeared at the door. We weren't expecting him to

    drop by.

    oAll at once Millie got up and left the house without any explanation.LESSON 7

    to point out: to show, to indicate, to bring to one's attention (S)

    oWhat important buildings did the tour guide point out to you?

    oThe teacher pointed out the mistakes in my composition.

    oA friend pointed the famous actor out to me.

    to be up: to expire, to be finished

    This idiom is used only with the word time as the subject.

    o"The time is up," the teacher said at the end of the test period.

    oWe have to leave the tennis court because our hour is up; some other

    people want to use it now.

    to be over: to be finished, to end (also: to be through)

    This idiom is used for activities and events.

    oAfter the dance was over, we all went to a restaurant.

    oThe meeting was through ten minutes earlier than everyone expected.on time: exactly at the correct time, punctually

    oI thought that Margaret would arrive late, but she was right on time.

    oDid you get to work on time this morning, or did rush hour traffic delay

    you?

    in time to: before the time necessary to do something

    oWe entered the theater just in time to see the beginning of the movie.

    oThe truck was not able to stop in time to prevent an accident.

    to get better, worse, etc.: to become better, worse, etc.

    oHeather has been sick for a month, but now she is getting better.

    oThis medicine isn't helping me. Instead of getting better, I'm getting

    worse.

    to get sick, well, tired, busy, wet, etc.: to become sick, well, tired, busy, wet, etc.

    This idiom consists of a combination of get and various adjectives.

    oGerald got sick last week and has been in bed since that time.

    oEvery afternoon I get very hungry, so I eat a snack.

    had better: should, ought to, be advisable to

    This idiom is most often used in contracted form (I'd better).

    oI think you'd better speak to Mr. White right away about this matter.

    oThe doctor told the patient that he'd better go home and rest.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 10

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