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FOREWORD - OS Sveti Sava CItluk

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FOREWORD - OS Sveti Sava CItluksava,Sava,SAVA

ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    FOREWORD

    Idiomatic expressions have long played an important role in the English language. In fact, the use of idioms is so widespread that an understanding of these expressions is essential to successful communication, whether in listening, speaking, reading, or writing.

    The student may learn grammar and, with time, acquire adequate vocabulary, but without a working knowledge of such idioms as above all, to get along, on the whole, to look up, etc., even the best student's speech will remain awkward and ordinary.

    Of course, the idioms selected for study should have practical value and be within the student's ability to comprehend. Such expressions as to set the

    world on fire or to wash one's dirty laundry in public may be very colorful,

    but they do little to help the student achieve fluency in English.Teachers of English have long recognized that idiomatic expressions add grace and exactness to the language. The alert teacher will make their study an integral part of the teaching process. However, learning such expressions is never an easy task for the student learning English as a second or foreign language. Attempts to translate literally from the student's native tongue usually lead to roundabout expression of meaning and, more often, to confusion.

    For this reason, only basic idioms have been included in this book, appropriately named Essential Idioms in English, New Edition. Furthermore,

    it was decided not to burden the student with discussion of the origins of idioms. There is no need to define the exact nature of an idiom except to assume that it is a phrase that has a meaning different from the meanings of its individual parts. This helps to explain why it is often difficult to translate an idiom from one language to another without incurring some change in meaning or usage.

    For the purposes of this book, two-word verbs are included in the general category of idioms. A two-word verb is a verb whose meaning is altered by he addition of a particle (a preposition used with a verb to form an idiomatic expression.) to look, for example, may become to look up or to look over, each having its own special meaning. When a two-word verb can be separated by a noun or pronoun, the symbol (S) for separable is inserted in the definition.

    Sentences illustrating both separable and nonseparable forms are included in the examples.

    Experienced ESL and EFL teachers will agree, for the most part, with the selection of idioms in this text. However, it should be recognized that any selection is somewhat arbitrary because the range is so great. Some teachers might prefer to omit certain idioms and to add others not included, but all should appreciate the attempt to make Essential idioms in English, New

    Edition as representative as possible.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 1 -

ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    Mention should be made of a unique feature that adds to the usefulness of this book: Appendix II is a listing of the idioms in the text with their equivalents in Spanish, French, and German. Having these equivalents should give the student a surer grasp of the meaning of the English idioms and greater confidence in using them.

    This fourth revision of Essential Idioms in English, New Edition has

    undergone several important changes. The text has been restored to the original three-section format: Elementary (lessons 1-13), Intermediate (lesion 14-27), and Advanced (lessons 28-39). As would be expected, new idioms have been included and outdated idioms have been removed. Lessons in all sections review and build upon idioms introduced in earlier lessons. In some cases, notes that explain special usage or meaning are provided after the definitions, and related idiomatic forms are listed. New types of exercises provide greater variety in activity from one section to another. Finally, there is an answer key in the back of the book for all multiple-choice, matching, true-false, and fill-in-the-blank exercises.

    SECTION ONE --- ELEMENTARY

    LESSON 1

    to get in/to get on: to enter or to board a vehicle

    To get in is used for cars; to get on is used for all other forms of

    transportation.

    oIt's easiest to get in the car from the driver's side. The door on the other

    side doesn't work well.thoI always get on the bus to work at 34 Street.

    to get out of/to get off: to leave or to descend from a vehicle.

    To get out of is used for cars; to get off is used for all other forms of

    transportation.

    oWhy don't we stop and get out of the car for a while?ndoHelen got off the train at the 42 Street terminal.

    to put on: to place on oneself (usually said of clothes) (S)

    oMary put on her coat and left the room.

    oPut your hat on before you leave the house.

    to take off: to remove (usually said of clothes) (S)

    oJohn took off his jacket as he entered the office.

    oTake your sweater off. The room is very warm.

    to call up: to telephone (also: to give some one a call) (S)

    To call can be used instead of to call up, as in the first example below.

    oI forgot to call up Mr. Jones yesterday. I'd better call him now.

    PRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 2 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oCall me up tomorrow, Jane. We'll arrange a time to have lunch

    together.

    oI promise to give you a call as soon as I arrive in New York.to turn on: to start or cause to function (also: to switch on) (S)

    oPlease turn on the light; it's too dark in here.

    oDo you know who turned the air conditioning on?

    to turn off: to cause to stop functioning (also: to switch off, to shut off) (S)

    Turn on and turn off, as well as their related forms, are used for things that

    flow, such as electricity, water, gas, etc.

    oPlease turn off the light when you leave the room.

    oAre you really listening to the radio, or should I turn it off?

    right away: very soon; immediately (also: at once)

    oDad says that dinner will be ready right away, so we'd better wash our

    hands and set the table.

    oTell Will to come to my office right away. I must see him immediately.

    oStop playing that loud music at once!

    to pick up: to lift form the floor, table, etc., with one's fingers (S)

    oHarry picked up the newspaper that was on the front doorstep.

    oCould you pick your toy up before someone falls over it?sooner or later: eventually, after a period of time

    oIf you study English seriously, sooner or later you'll become fluent.

    oI'm too tired to do my homework now; I'm sure I'll do it sooner or

    later.

    to get up: to arise, to rise from a bed; to make someone arise (S)

    For the last definition a noun phrase must separate the verb and particle.

    oCarla gets up at seven o'clock every morning.

    oAt what time should we get the children up tomorrow?

    at first: in the beginning, originally

    oAt first English was difficult for him, but later he made great progress.

    oI thought at first that it was Sheila calling, but then I realized that it

    was Betty.

    LESSON 2

    to dress up: to wear formal clothes, to dress very nicely

    oWe should definitely dress up to go to the theater.

    oYou don't have to dress up for Mike's party.

    at last: finally, after a long time.

    oWe waited for hours and then the train arrived at last.

    oNow that I am sixteen, at last I can drive my parents' car.as usual: as is the general case, as is typicalPRENTICE HALL REGENTS Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632- 3 -

    ESSENTIAL IDIOMS IN ENGLISH by ROBERT J. DIXSON

    oGeorge is late for class as usual. This seems to happen every day.

    oAs usual, Dora received first prize in the swimming contest. It's the

    third consecutive year that she has won.

    to find out: get information about, to determine (S)

    This idiom is separable only when a pronoun is used, as in the second example.

    oWill you please try to find out what time the airplane arrives?

    oI'll call right now to find it out.

    to look at: give one's attention to; to watch

    oThe teacher told us to look at the blackboard and not at our books.

    oI like to walk along a country road at night and look at the stars.to look for: to try to find, to search for

    An adverb phrase such as all over can be put between the verb and preposition, as in the second example, however, the idiom cannot be separated by a noun or pronoun.

    oHe's spent over an hour looking for the pen that he lost.

    oSo there you are! We've looked allover for you.

    all right: acceptable, fine; yes, okay

    This idiom can also be spelled alright in informal usage.

    oHe said that it would be all right to wait in her office until she returned.

    oDo you want me to turn off the TV? Alright, if you insist.

    all along: all the time, from the beginning (without change)

    oShe knew all along that we'd never agree with his plan.

    oYou're smiling! Did you know all along that I'd give you a birthday

    present?

    little by little: gradually, slowly (also: step by step)

    oKaren's health seems to be improving little by little.

    oIf you study regularly each day, step by step your vocabulary will

    increase.

    to tire out: to make very weary due to difficult conditions or hard effort (also: to wear out) (S)

    oThe hot weather tired out the runners in the marathon.

    oDoes studying for final exams wear you out? It makes me feel worn

    out!

    to call on: to ask for a response from; to visit (also: to drop in on)

    oJose didn't know the answer when the teacher called on him.

    oLast night several friends called on us at our home.

    oShy don't we drop in on