FOOD ESTABLISHMENT - State of Michigan

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FOOD ESTABLISHMENT - State of Michiganof,Of,Food,State,food,state

    Michigan Department of Agriculture

    and Rural Development

    Food Establishment

    Plan Review Manual

    Food & Dairy Division

    Michigan Department of Agriculture and

    Rural Development

    PO Box 30017

    Lansing, MI 48909

    Ph: (800) 292-3939

     Revised December 2013


    This manual is designed to assist in achieving greater uniformity in the plan review process by providing

    technical assistance for design professionals, owners and others in the preparation of food service plans

    and completion of the plan review worksheet. Individuals who have questions during the plan review

    process should call the local health department or Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development and Rural Development, depending on who will conduct the plan review. Agency contact

    information is available at:, Search: Determine agency.

    Plan review of food service establishments, retail food stores, and all other food operations, is a high priority for Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development and Michigan's local

    health departments.

A good review of plans helps to avoid future problems. By listing and locating equipment on floor plans

    and diagramming specifications for electrical, mechanical and plumbing systems, potential problems can

    be spotted while still on paper and modifications made before costly purchases, installation and construction.

Food establishment plan review is recognized as an important food program component that allows:

     Regulatory agencies to ensure that food establishments are built or renovated according to current regulations or rules

     Industry to establish an organized and efficient flow of food

     Regulatory agencies to eliminate code violations prior to construction

Who Must Submit Plans?

    An application for a food establishment license must be submitted to the appropriate regulatory agency at

    least thirty days before a new food business opens. An inspection must be conducted before a license

    can be issued.

When plans are required, these plans must be approved prior to construction or remodeling! The

    regulatory agency will review the plans and specifications as soon as practical to determine their

    completeness and adequacy. If a submission of complete plans and specifications is not reviewed within

    30 business days of receipt, the plans and specifications will be considered complete and adequate. Plan

    review fees vary among local health departments. The following establishments are required to submit

    plans for review and approval:

Food service establishment (local health departments - fees vary).

     Extended retail grocery (MDARD - $197).

     Special transitory food unit (local health departments or MDARD - fees vary).

     Mobile food establishment (local health departments or MDARD - fees vary).

     Other MDARD-licensed retail establishments are encouraged to avail themselves of MDARD for plan

    review services at no added cost. (These fees have already been built into the license fees.)

    The Food Law and the Michigan Modified FDA 2009 Food Code, which is adopted by reference and is a part of the Food Law, is used as a reference in completing this guide. To view the food

    code, food law and other fact sheets go to:, Search: Updated Food Law/Food Code 2012 or call 800-292-3939 to

    request free single copies.


    Table of Contents


    Introduction Who must submit plans? 2 Suggested Changes Form 4 Plan Submittal Documents Required 5 Plan Review Process Flow Chart 6 Part 1 Menu, Consumer Advisories, & Food Flow 7 Part 2 Handwashing 10 Part 3 Facilities to Maintain Product Temperature 11 Part 4 Facilities to Protect Food 15 Part 5 Water Supply, Sewage Disposal & Grease Traps 16 Part 6 Food Equipment & Installation 21 Part 7 Dry Storage 24 Part 8 Sinks & Warewashing Facilities 26 Part 9 Hot Water Supply Requirements 29 Part 10 Finish Schedule/ Floors, Walls & Ceilings 32 Part 11 Toilet Facilites 34 Part 12 Plumbing & Cross-Connection Control 34 Part 13 Insect & Rodent Control 44 Part 14 Lighting 45 Part 15 Ventilation 46 Part 16 Dressing & Locker Rooms 47 Part 17 Garbage & Refuse Storage 48 Part 18 Special Transitory Food Unit (STFU) 48 Part 19 Non-Smoking Area and Choking Poster Requirements 51

    Definitions (Defined words are italicized in the text) Part 20 51 References 56

    Acknowledgements 57


    Suggestion Sheet

    Food Establishment Plan Review Manual

    Suggestions for changes to this plan review manual are welcomed from all users (i.e. food service operators, architects, engineers and regulators, etc.). Revisions to documents are made periodically as needed. Thank you for taking the time to submit your ideas.

    Name: ______________________________ Phone: ___________________ Fax: _____________

Address: _____________________________________________________________

City, State, Zip: ________________________________________________________

E-mail: _______________________________________

Submit suggested changes to:

    Plan Review Specialist Fax: 517-373-3333

    Food Service Program E-mail:

    Food & Dairy Division

    Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural


    PO Box 30017

    Lansing, MI. 48909

    For suggested changes, please list section specific location in document. You may list your suggestions below or attach separate sheets. Please be specific and clear.













     Food Establishment Plan Submission Instructions

1. Plan review application and any necessary plan review fees: MDARD inspected establishments

    require a $197 mandatory plan review for retail food establishments with deli and seating, retail grocery with food service and special transitory food units that are predominately retail or wholesale. Most other plan reviews are voluntary and done at no charge. The Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development encourages all operators to submit remodeling or construction plans for review

    Mandatory plan review is required for all food service establishments, special transitory food units that are predominately food service and any other establishment inspected by a local health department. Contact your local health department for the applicable fee.

2. Completed Plan Review Worksheet: Worksheet and guidance manual copies are available from any

    health department, MDARD Regional Office or on the web at: Search:

    Plan Review.

    3. Menu: If your facility does not have a formal, set menu, such as a school with a rotating menu, submit representative sample menus or a list of foods offered for sale or service.

4. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's): SOP's appropriate to your operation shall be submitted

    prior to opening. See the Standard Operating Procedures Manual guidance document that is available from any health department, MDARD Regional Office or on the web at:

    Search: Plan Review.

5. Certified Manager Documentation: Beginning June 30, 2009, most food establishments will be

    required to employee at least one (1) full time certified manager employee who is certified under the American National Standards Institute accredited certification program (Food Law 2000 as amended, Section 289.2129). For further information, please contact your local health department, MDARD Regional Office or on the web at: Search: Manager Certification.

    6. One complete set of plans: Provide scaled plans (1/4” per foot is a normal, easy to read scale). Show:

     Proposed layout, with equipment identified.

     Label sinks and prep tables with their intended use.

     Include construction materials of such items as custom cabinets and any other built-in items. Mechanical plan (i.e. make-up air systems, air balance schedule and cooking ventilation systems:

    including hood, duct and exhaust fans).

     Plumbing plan (i.e. sinks for handwashing, food preparation and dishwashing, dishmachines, hot and

    cold water outlets, hot water equipment, water heater, sewer drains, grease traps and floor drains /


     Lighting plan, indicating which lights are shielded.

     Site Plan, including:

     Details of outside garbage storage area and containers, as well as exterior storage areas.

     On-site water well and sewage disposal system data

7. Specifications: Include manufacturer’s specifications or “cut” sheet for each piece of equipment.

    Minimum information for each piece of equipment includes the following:



     Model number


     Performance capacity

     Indicate how equipment will be installed (i.e. on leg or wheels, fixed or flexible utility connections)

     Indicate which items are used equipment and what equipment is NSF approved or equivalent.

     Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP’S): Include any available cleaning and

    maintenance instructions for food processing, cutting and grinding equipment.


    Plan Review Process Flow Chart

    New Food Establishment/Remodeling/Conversion

    Obtain plan review application package.

    Applicant contacts regulatory agency that will conduct inspections.

    This is either the local health department (LHD) or

    Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) regional office.

    Submit plans, equipment specification sheets, SOP's, menu & completed worksheet.

    Review conducted by LHD or MDA and other agencies.

    Also, obtain approvals for any on-site water supply or sewage disposal systems.

    Provide additional information, if requested.

    Plan Approval


    Approved plans kept on-site during construction.

    Revisions to approved plans must be

    submitted in writing and approved.

    Applicant applies for license 30 days prior to opening.When requested, complete and submit air balance test report,plus the mechanical department's approval of ventilation system.

    Make appointment for pre-opening inspection

    as required by the regulatory agency.

    Operational Approval


    Part I/ Menu, Consumer Advisories & Food Flow

    Worksheet Help

    Question # Food Code Guidance

    & Food Law*

    1. Identify all potentially hazardous foods 2 Thawing FC 3-501.13

    (time/temperature control for safety food) on the

    menu that must be thawed.

    2. List the foods in each thawing method to be used.

    Note: Thinner foods (<1" thick) may consist of sliced

    meats, individual hamburger patties, hot dogs, some

    seafood, etc., Thicker foods (>1"thick) may consist of

    roasts, a case of hamburger patties, chicken, frozen

    pasteurized eggs, etc.

    3 Cooking FC 3-401.11-14 1. List the name of all cooking and reheating

    equipment. Include tabletop equipment such as Reheating FC 3-403.10-11

    rice cookers and microwaves. Steam tables should

    not be used for reheating and should be listed

    under #4.

    2. Check whether each piece will be used for cooking

    and/or reheating, whether it is new or used, and

    whether it is listed by a third party testing

    organization such as the National Sanitation

    Foundation (NSF), ETL, etc. These firms test

    equipment to determine if recognized sanitation

    and construction standards are met.

    1. List the name of all hot and cold holding equipment. 4 Hot & Cold Holding FC 3-501.16

    Examples include: steam tables, electric hot boxes,

    insulated hot/cold boxes, salad bar units,

    refrigerators, etc.

    2. Check whether each piece will be used for hot

    and/or cold holding, whether it is new or used, and

    whether it is listed by a third party testing

    organization such as the National Sanitation

    Foundation (NSF), ETL, etc. These firms test

    equipment to determine if recognized sanitation

    and construction standards are met.

    3. Note any equipment listed under question 3 that

    will also be used for hot or cold holding.

    5Ice FC 3-202.16 Describe in as much detail as possible how, when and

    where ice will be used to hold potentially hazardous FC 3-303.11-12

    food (time/temperature control for safety food) cold.

    Use of ice off-site for catering can be answered under

    question 9D.

    6 Time as a Control FC 3-501.19 Under very specific and limited circumstances, time

    instead of temperature may be used to control bacterial

    growth. A careful reading of the relevant food code

    section is recommended before making a proposal.

    You must prepare and submit a standard operating

    procedure for each food item where time as a control is


    Cooling FC 3-501.14-15 1. Identify foods from the menu that will be cooled 7

    after cooking for later service. 2. Determine and list the cooling method(s) for each



8 Bare Hand Contact FL 289.6151 Unless a written alternative plan is developed and

     FC 3-301.11 implemented, there can be no bare hand contact with

    ready-to-eat foods. List the methods you will use to Washing Fruit/Veggies FC 3-302.15

    Date Marking FC 3-501.17 avoid bare-hand contact.

    9 Catering Numerous

    *FC =Michigan Modified FDA 2009 Food Code. *FL = Food Law

    To view the food code, food law and other fact sheets go to:, Search:

    Updated Food Law/Food Code 2012 or call 800-292-3939 to request single free copies.


    The menu is an integral part of the plan review process. The menu or a listing of all of the food and beverage items to be offered at the food establishment must be submitted by the applicant with the

    submission of all other plan review application documents. A facility, such as a school, that has a large rotating menu cycle, may provide a representative listing of the types of items served.

    As with the inspection process, the plan review process focuses on the food and what will happen to the food. The source and quantity of food to be served will be reviewed along with the preparation and post-preparation operations and the proposed storage practices.

    Food preparation processes will be evaluated to determine the types and volumes of foods to be prepared. Special attention is given to the review of complex food processes, which will involve:

     Multiple ingredients being assembled or mixed

     Potentially hazardous foods (time/temperature control for safety food)

     Foods that will be prepared or held for several hours prior to service

     Foods requiring cooling and reheating

     Multiple step processing (passing through the critical temperature zone, 135ºF to 41ºF more

    than once).

    The style of food service will also be reviewed. The style of food service may be cook-to-order (cook-serve), self-service (buffet or salad bar), service of pre-packaged foods, service of large volumes of food, food preparation requiring multiple steps and handling, etc.

    Menu evaluation involves the review of food sources, categories of foods and their required preparation, such as:

     Approved and inspected food source

     Thin meats such as poultry, fish, eggs, hamburgers, sliced meats, & fillets

     Thick meats and whole poultry (roast beef, whole turkey, whole chickens, & hams)

     Cold processed foods (salad, sandwiches, vegetables, etc.)

     Hot processed foods (soups, stews, casseroles, etc.)

     Bakery goods

    This system is useful since the critical control points for each process remain the same regardless of the individual menu ingredients. The menu for a food establishment dictates the space and equipment

    requirements for the safe preparation and service of various food items. The menu will determine if the proposed receiving and delivery areas, storage area, preparation and handling areas, and thawing, cooking, and reheating areas are available and adequate to handle the types and volumes of foods being served. With a proper understanding of the menu, the plans for food establishments can be reviewed to

    assure that the food items proposed can be protected during the service operation.

Consumer Advisories

    Consumer Advisories are required for food establishments serving undercooked raw animal products. View a guidance document at: Search: Updated Food Law/Food Code 2012

    or call your inspecting agency for a copy.


Food Flow

Why analyze flow?

    The flow of food through a kitchen can greatly affect food safety. Contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE)

    foods can occur with poor food flow, such as when raw meat and seafood are prepared on the same table that is used to assemble sandwiches. Soil and bacteria from a dirty dish or seafood processing area can also be moved to other areas when employees must routinely enter these areas. Your plan reviewer needs to understand how the menu will be prepared in the physical facilities proposed.

    Flow may be in a straight "assembly" line format or be organized to move food through departments that perform different functions. A well laid-out flow provides safer and more efficient food preparation. Mapping out your proposed flow may help you better identify problems with your layout.

What do I need to do?

    You are being asked to be ready to discuss the flow of food from delivery through service. Depending

    upon the complexity of your menu, your plan reviewer may schedule a consultation to discuss food flow with you.

Use your floor plan layout to think through your food production processes.

     Determine the flow from the receiving door, through storage, preparation, cooking, assembly

    and hot holding, ending with the customer. Also think through how solid waste and soiled

    dishes and utensils will move through the facility. Be ready to discuss such items as:

     Which sinks and preparation tables will be used for washing and prepping vegetables,

    meat and seafood?

     What items will be stored in working refrigeration units?

     Is there adequate separation between raw and ready-to-eat foods in storage and

    during preparation?

     How will cooks and preparation staff avoid contaminating ready-to-eat foods with

    juices and bacteria from raw meats and seafood?

     Do flow patterns change during different times of day?

How will this information be used in the review process?

    A plan reviewer not only reviews whether the physical facilities comply with the food code, but also

    visualizes the number and types of food being prepared, along with how food and people will move through the facility. The reviewer can help you determine food code violations that will or may be created by the proposed layout.

In analyzing food flow, the plan reviewer will:

     Try to gain an understanding of how food, dishes and solid waste will move through the facility. Look for points where cross-contamination of bacteria from raw to ready-to-eat foods may occur.

     Determine where soiled dishes, solid waste, outside dirt or mop water may contaminate ice, food or

    preparation areas.

When areas of concern are found, one of the following may occur:

     A change will be required.

     A change will be recommended.

     A standard operating procedure (SOP) will be required to address how contamination will be avoided

    using the existing plan.

     You may be given an option of either making a plan change or developing a SOP.


Part 2/ Handwashing

    The Centers for Disease Control has identified poor personal hygiene by food employees as a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Proper handwashing is a critical step in preventing bacterial and viral contamination of food. The number and placement of handsinks is a major focus of the plan review process. Giving careful thought to handsink locations can prepare your facility for enhanced food safety and prevent delays in the plan review process. Reading the following food code sections that relate to handwashing is highly recommended: 2-3, 5-202.12, 5-203.11, 5-204.11, 5-205.11, 6-301.11-20 and 6-501.18.

    Each handwashing sink shall be provided with hot and cold water tempered by means of a mixing valve or a combination faucet to provide water at a temperature of at least 100;F. Any self-closing, slow-closing or

    metering faucet shall be designed to provide a flow of water for at least 15 seconds without the need to reactivate the faucet.

    Handwashing sinks shall be of sufficient number and conveniently located for use by all employees in food preparation, food dispensing and utensil washing areas. Handwashing sinks shall be easily accessible and may not be used for purposes other than handwashing.

    Splashguard protection may be required if spacing to adjoining food, food preparation, food contact surfaces, and utensil washing area surfaces (drainboards) is within 18". Splashguards shall not hinder access to the lavatory, should extend from the front of the sink to 12" above the rim of the sink and be easily cleanable.

    Provide a separate handwashing sink; disposable towels;

    supply of hand cleaning agent; and waste receptacle for

    each food preparation area, utensil washing area, and

    toilet room (required number based on law). Sinks used

    for food preparation or for washing equipment or utensils

    shall not be used for handwashing.

    When locating handwashing sinks, follow

    these guides whenever possible:

     provide a sink close to each employee work station

     keep sinks within the employee's line of sight

     keep a handsink near the flow of food

     make sinks easily available for those handling both

    raw and ready-to-eat foods.

     provide a sink close to dishwashing areas

    A sign or poster that notifies food employees to wash their

    hands shall be provided at all handwashing sinks used by

    food employees and shall be clearly visible to

    food employees.


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