2 DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
2.2 Limitations of use
2.3 Manufacturers Guarantee 3 PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS
4 SETTING OPTIONS
5 FLIGHT OPERATIONS
5.1 Pre-flight inspection
5.4 Special flight conditions
5.5 Reducing altitude
6 MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE
6.2 Maintenance and repairs
6.3 Periodic inspection
6.4 Packing and care of your paraglider
8.1 Material characteristics
8.2 Line layout diagram
8.3 Line lengths
8.4 Material characteristics
8.5 Flight log sheets
8.6 Glider registration form
Congratulations on your excellent choice of the EDEL Prime tandem paraglider.
These operating instructions are to help you to become as familiar as possible
with your glider. If you have any further questions or would like to obtain
further information, please do not hesitate to contact the Edel distributor or
your approved Edel dealer.
With proper care, your new Prime will provide you with hundreds of hours of safe and enjoyable flying.
We wish you many happy flights and as many good landings!
This equipment should only be used by trained and competent persons or the user should be under the direct supervision of a qualified instructor. Paragliding is potentially hazardous, even correct selection, maintenance and use of equipment cannot eliminate the risk of injury or death.
It is the users responsibility at all times to ensure that they understand the correct and safe use of this equipment and use it only for the purpose/s for which it is designed, and practise all proper safety procedures. Neither the manufacturer nor the supplier will accept any responsibility for damage, injury or death resulting from misuse.
Paragliding pilots must have a well-developed sense of responsibility, discipline and theoretical knowledge. Even the best equipment can not compensate for careless mistakes by the pilot.
As a tandem pilot you are also responsible for your passenger. Even greater care should be taken in your decisions and assessment of conditions, site and whether or not to fly.
Edel attaches great importance to the safety factor in paragliding. We hope that you will always take the same care when making your choice of flying site and conditions each day you fly, as we took when testing our newly-developed paragliders in order to reduce the risks of accidents or injury.
2. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT
The Prime has been designed for both the experienced amateur and the professional tandem pilot. Suspension lines have been optimised to ensure a high factor of safety and profile stability while keeping parasitic drag to a minimum and maximising performance. High-strength and low-stretch Aramid lines protected by polyester sheathing are used. The canopy material is ripstop nylon from Toray which has been greatly reinforced at the leading edge and suspension points. The Prime has special tandem risers, with the A lines split to two seperate risers to allow easy big earing. Also, the Afnor version is certified with a trim system that allows you to increase the speed of the glider for gliding into headwinds etc..
2.2 Limitations of use
Paragliding is a dangerous sport, but you can reduce the inherent risks involved. It is imperative that any person expecting to use this equipment should have had adequate training at a recognised paragliding school.
Edel paragliders are designed for foot launch from hills and towing from a certified winch system only.
Like all other paragliders, the Prime is not designed or permitted to be used for aerobatics. Do not exceed bank angles of more than 45 degrees to the horizon. The Prime should not be flown with auxiliary power.
2.3 Manufacturers Guarantee
A lifetime guarantee covering replacement parts and labour only against all manufacturing defects.
It does not cover normal wear and tear or incorrect use.
To qualify for this guarantee you must complete and return the registration form to the Edel distributor. You must also keep a glider flight log recording inspections and all flights.
3. PERSONAL REQUIREMENTS
The EDEL Prime has been certified by DHV in category 2 and by Afnor in Bi-place (Tandem) category. This means that the glider is suitable for experienced intermediate pilots and above. You must hold a tandem license.
4. SETTING OPTIONS
Our factory has produced high precision lines of tested length for the Prime, and every paraglider is checked again before it leaves the factory. This means you already have the optimum line lengths.
Any other alterations to the equipment will result in the ACPUL and DHV certification becoming invalid, and may lead to dangerous flying characteristics.
The Prime is certified by Afnor with a trim system. You can trim off to a maximum of 7 cm, this is the different between the AB and D risers ( 3.5 cm between AB and C ). This provides you with increased speed ( Max. 45 km/hour ). You can use this trim system when you want to fly faster, for example into a strong head wind. Make sure the trimmers are on neutral position (trim on stitched red line mark) for normal flying. DHV version has no trim system.
5. FLIGHT OPERATIONS
This booklet is for information only, and is not intended to be a "learn to fly" manual. All technical advice and demonstrations on manoeuvres should be sought from your local school or instructor.
5.1 Pre-flight inspection
Before launch, inspect your glider carefully, A thorough pre-flight procedure is mandatory with all aircraft and is the basis for safe flight. If the terrain and weather are suitable, take the paraglider out of its pack and roll it out completely so that the leading edge forms an arc. From the risers spread the lines and make sure that they are free and untangled. Take the time to check the following before launch:
Check for damage. The leading edge, cell openings and the suspension points are often places where trouble can start.
The maillons must be secure, check the threaded sleeve lock for any corrosion. Check the webbing and stitching for fraying or damage.
Check the lines for tangles and damage.
Control handle (Brake handle):
Check that the brake lines run freely and that the knots to the handle are secure.
Harness and reserve:
These should also be checked. Fastenings, webbing, karabiners, etc. The attachment of the risers to the harness must be secure, trapezoidal 6mm stainless steel maillons or suitable locking karabiners should be used.
It is always safer to have a competent helper when launching tandem gliders. Put on your helmet before getting into your harness.
Connect tandem bridle to yourself, passenger and Prime properly. The Prime is easily inflated without much force by pulling smoothly on the A risers. The cells fill evenly from the middle. The speed of inflation can be
controlled by the amount of input force. For nil wind launches, centre yourself and passenger, walk forwards until the lines are just taught. Smoothly pull the A risers while moving forwards.
After a visual inspection to check that the canopy is really fully inflated, a few accelerating steps and a little bit of controlled braking (depends upon the wind strength and the gradient of the slope) are sufficient to lift you off the ground. Before committing to launch, make sure your wing is well formed. If not, launch should be aborted or small deflations can be pumped out (see below). In stronger winds, a good reverse launch technique is recommended, have assistance to help hold you if necessary.
To pump out a deflation, a little opposite brake should be applied to counter any turning tendency, and a long smooth pull should be given on the side of the deflation. If the canopy does not reinflate another pump should be given. Whenever dealing with deflations, always counter any tendency to turn before, or at the same time as pumping with the control line to the deflated side. Pumping is a deliberate, smooth action. Pumping in a fast and furious manner does little to help reinflation and should not be practised! This applies equally if the glider is on the ground, or in the air.
Best gliding results with the Prime are achieved with the brakes off (in still air). The best sink rate is produced with the brakes applied about 20-30cm on both sides
Ensure that there is always enough clearance between yourself and the ground, natural obstacles and between other aircraft flying in the same air space. Avoid the risk of collision by constant vigilance, know and follow the rules of the air.
Do not let go of the control handles at any time during the flight.
Flying in turbulence:
When flying through severe turbulence, the canopy should be stabilised by applying a little brake to both sides. Flying normally with a little brake applied will also help to prevent deflations and allow you to receive feedback from your glider.
An experienced pilot may also increase the overall stability of his wing by adopting an "active" flying style. This includes proper surge control through the use of the brakes. Also, if reduced pressure is felt through the brakes, indicating the beginning of a collapse, an increase in the amount of brake on that side can help prevent the collapse. Before flying in strong thermic conditions, you should be familiar with these techniques as well as the more
basic canopy control techniques.
Turning and thermal soaring:
The Prime is straight forward to turn, even at low air speeds. However, to obtain the best handling characteristics and a fast roll rate, first reduce the amount of brake for a higher air speed. Enter the turn by pulling the brake on the inside of the desired turn direction. Immediately weight shifting into the turn along with the application of a little outside brake will greatly help produce a more efficient, flatter turn. The glider will maintain a turn of a certain radius and bank angle until the control is removed.
When you have found suitable lift, centre yourself by turning towards the lift using the inside brake applied approximately 10-30cm . The aim is to fly within the area of maximum lift. The radius and angle of bank should be varied between 10 and 30 degrees, according to the size and strength of the thermal. When leaving thermals or strong lift a little brake may be needed to stop surging or prevent deflation. The handling characteristics of the Prime have been designed to give the performance required for cross country flights. Weight shifting is a way to help the glider turn more efficiently by moving your weight onto the side you want to turn into, or simply leaning over in the direction of turn, ask your passenger to lean into the turn as well. Your passenger may feel more comfortable and can help your turn by holding the spreader bars and using these to help them lean into the turns.
5.4 SPECIAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS
It does not matter what kind of canopy you fly or what level of certification it has, in the wrong conditions you may experience a tuck, collapse or spin. The best way to learn how to control your glider is through your instructor. The wrong action at the wrong time can make a simple problem a lot worse.
Frontal collapse of the canopy:
If, for example, you fly out of a strong thermal without brakes, the canopy may dive forwards and suffer a symmetrical frontal collapse. No turning corrections are usually needed, and the canopy should recover almost instantly. Opening may be assisted by carefully applying the brakes on both sides in a strong pumping action. As the deflation comes out release the brakes steadily to avoid stalling. If the canopy is still deflated, then repeat the pumping action until it reinflates. Beware of holding the brakes down too long or releasing too quickly, this may cause the canopy to dive and cause another front tuck !
Collapse of one side of the sail:
In turbulence, one part of the canopy may collapse. The Prime usually does not tend to turn off course and will reinflate itself quickly. However, if this does
not happen, the pilot should concentrate on stabilising the wing. Stop any tendency to turn by applying the opposite brake. Try to keep your weight on the fully inflated side and give a strong pull of the control lines on the collapsed side to pump out the deflation. In extreme cases, this procedure may need to be repeated in order to reinflate the collapse. Remember, be careful to maintain your flight direction by counter-steering, and frenzied pumping of the brakes is emphatically not recommended. Be careful to let up the brake as the canopy re-inflates, to avoid stalling.
Deep stall or parachutal stall:
This occurs where the canopy is slowed down and the angle of attack of the wing is increased to such an extent that the air flow over the wing becomes disrupted. The forward speed reduces and the sink rate increases greatly but the canopy profile appears normal. The greatest risk of a stall is when the paraglider is flown too slowly, especially in turbulent conditions or when flying through a wind gradient. To escape from the stall, release both control lines. If, under exceptional conditions, this is ineffective, depress both controls until the canopy starts to move back, then release them symmetrically to cause the canopy to start to move forward again.
This is a manoeuvre that has to be deliberately initiated, it is always erratic and should therefore not be deliberately provoked because of the inherent risks involved. If the control lines are pulled down far enough past the point where deep stall is initiated then the canopy will enter a full stall. The wing tips move backwards and in to form a horseshoe shape, at the same time forward speed is reduced to almost nothing. Because of the pilots momentum the canopy appears to drop backwards, the pilot will pendulum underneath and descend quickly under the fully stalled canopy.
Recovery from full stall:
Firstly wait! Releasing the controls while the canopy is behind the pilot will cause the wing to dive strongly in front of the pilot. It is important to hold the stall until the pilot has swung back below the stalled canopy. Then the brakes should be gently and smoothly released together. The canopy will surge forwards, this must be damped to avoid frontal deflations. It is also important to do this symmetrically because it is easy to enter a spin or suffer an asymmetric deflation while recovering from the full stall.
One sided stall - this usually happens when the pilot brakes too hard on one side of the canopy causing that side to stall. The stalled side then falls back,
the pilot pendulums underneath and the wing and pilot spin around each other. A spin can also occur when the canopy is being flown slowly and the pilot initiates a turn by further pressure on one brake. The canopy may quickly enter a spin, rotating about its yaw axis, quickly twisting the lines. Spins can occur when inexperienced pilots are trying too hard to soar in marginal conditions, they may be tempted to fly with a lot of brake on in an attempt to optimise their sink rate. Then to turn they further depress one brake without compensating on the opposite brake, causing a spin. Spins also commonly occur when flying through a wind gradient close to landing, with the pilot making final approach steering adjustments.
Because you can feel one side of the Prime drop back before it starts to spin, you can normally prevent or stop it quickly by immediately letting up on the side that is braked hard (the side that is stalled) then releasing both brakes smoothly together. The canopy should recover quickly, any subsequent surging can be damped out.
Damping out surges:
Surging is where the canopy accelerates and dives in front of the pilot, then the pilot will pendulum underneath the canopy. The canopy will normally regain normal flight itself, without any input from the pilot. However the canopy can be stopped from diving by applying both brakes equally as it surges forward and then letting off both brakes smoothly as the canopy reaches its most forward position and starts to move back in relation to the pilot. In other words: slow the canopy down as it tries to surge forward and allow it to speed up as it moves back.
Caution: Deliberately invoking any manoeuvres can be dangerous and the excessive forces involved may cause damage to your glider. All manoeuvres are harder to perform on a tandem wing.
5.5 REDUCING ALTITUDE
The Prime's low sink rate means that, if there is a very strong uplift or the pilot has estimated the weather development incorrectly, there may be problems getting down in normal trim flight. In such cases there are three methods for achieving a rapid descent rate:
Initiate a spiral dive by gradually increasing the angle of bank on a 360 degrees turn. Be aware that if you pull too much brake at first, you can enter a spin although this is very unlikely! If you detect the beginning of a spin, simply release the brake and start again.
As the angle of bank increases, so will your descent rate and the forces acting
on you and your glider. To exit the spiral dive, slowly reduce the amount of inside brake, In extreme spirals, you may need to apply a little brake on the outer side to gently steer out of the dive. A spiral dive can produce a very high descent rate (easily more than 10 m/s) and should not be performed close to the ground, exiting at more than 100 meters above ground level. It is possible for the Prime to stay in the spiral if you perform spiral dives with descent rate of more than 16 m/s. If this happens, move your weight to the outside of the turn and gradually increase outer brake pressure until the glider starts to pull out of the dive. You have to take care on exiting steep spiral dives The glider will have a great amount of energy and exiting quickly will produce a big surge which must be controlled.
Extended spiral dives in turbulent conditions should be avoided.
Because of the high wing loading and internal pressure, it may be very difficult or impossible to B line.
During normal flight, grasp the B-lines at the maillon and pull down 15-45cm. As this is done a crease is formed running spanwise along the canopy (a concertina effect), reducing the effective area. The sink rate can be varied by the degree to which the B-lines are pulled down. The brakes should be held in the hand, or looped over the wrists during this manoeuvre. A large amount of force is needed to initiate the B-line stall. Normal flight is regained by releasing the risers smoothly, the last 10cm more quickly. An initial slight surge may occur as the canopy accelerates again. The B-line stall should be released at least 100 metres above the ground.
This is a technique that increases the sink rate while maintaining forward speed by the controlled deflating of the wing tips. The ears are pulled in by reaching up and taking hold of the thinner front A risers (with single outer A lines) and pulling them down. In this way the wing tips are folded under the canopy reducing the effective area. The risers may have to be held down to keep the tips under. You should not let go of the brakes - there should be enough free movement to allow this. It is possible to steer by weight shifting. To recover from big-ears, let go of the A risers and pump the brakes symmetrically to help re-inflation.
Use of the spiral dive, B-line stall and big-ears:
The spiral dive is the quickest method of descent. Spiral dives should be built up slowly and controlled carefully. Once mastered it can be exhilarating, though great care must be taken. It exposes the pilot and glider to extreme
forces, and should only be used with plenty of clearance.
B-lining should also be used with plenty of height above ground. It should not be used where there is a danger of being blown back however as the glider will lose its airspeed while in the B line stall. Sink rates of up to 10 metres per second can be achieved.
Big-ears is an easier technique to master, is less "radical" and maintains airspeed. Weight shifting can be used to steer the glider. Experienced pilots can even use the technique to top land in strong conditions.
Big-ears is the only method of rapid height reduction to use when soaring in dynamic lift in front of a ridge. Attempting to B-line stall or spiral dive will result in a backward track over the ground, and the possibility of being blown into very turbulent air in the lee of the ridge. It is possible to use the trim off with the ears pulled in to increase forward and descent speeds.
Steering without brakes:
Occasionally, due to bad knots or inadequate equipment checks, a pilot suddenly finds himself without use of the brakes. The same thing can happen if the brake handle has become knotted around the pulley block. In such a situation, you should keep calm, the Prime is easily steered without brakes. All you need to do is pull down the D-lines on the side in question, not too much as this may cause a stall or spin. Small steering adjustments can also be made by weight shifting.
Never perform a spiral dive with big ears pulled in.
These descent methods should be used sparingly as they put higher loads on the canopy and may after time cause damage.
In nil or light winds, make your final approach into wind at best glide speed with little or no brakes. Smoothly and evenly pull on both brakes as far as possible and hold them until you touch down and stop. Avoid striking the leading edge on the ground.
In higher winds, use only enough brake to slow your forward speed and land with no ground speed. Be prepared to turn around and reverse control your glider by collapsing it with the C risers or B risers.
If you fly with trim off position, It is recommended you to trim on neutral position before landing. It may be useful in stronger winds to have a competent helper who can hold your glider once deflated to avoid the possiblilty of you and your passenger being dragged.
6. MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE