Electro-Optical Systems Forecast
Kollmorgen Non-Penetrating Periscopes
Outlook 10 Year Unit Production Forecast2004 - 2013
； Through 2013, an estimated 31 shipsets are expected to be Units5produced
4； U.S. Navy’s Virginia-class submarine will be the likeliest platform 3base for the next several years 2
02004200520062007200820092010201120122013 1233334444Kollmorgen NPPsYears
Description. Non-penetrating two-stage periscopes for Total Produced. Ten production models are believed to
have been built through 2003. submarines, consisting of a sensor unit, a modular mast unit, and a display and control unit. Application. Above-water imaging of submarines. Sponsor Platform. The Model 86 non-penetrating periscope will U.S. Navy be used on the U.S. Navy’s SSN-21 Seawolf and New Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Attack Submarines (NSSN), operating in all-optronic 2531 Jefferson Davis Hwy configuration. Export sales opportunities for the system Arlington, Virginia (VA) 22242-5160 include all potential new construction submarine USA programs. Tel: +1 703 602 6920
Web site: http://www.navsea.navy.mil Price Range. Based on contract averaging, a possible
unit cost of US$3.7 million was derived. Licensees. No production licenses have been granted.
Status. In production and service.
Kollmorgen Corp, http://www.eo.kollmorgen.com, 347 King Street, Northampton, MA 01060-2330 United States, Tel: 1 (413) 586-2330, Fax: 1 (413) 586-1324, Email: email@example.com, Prime
Characteristics Thermal Imaging Function
Fields of View NFOV: 4.4?, WFOV: 10?H x 7.5?V
Closed Cycle Cooler MTBF > 2,500 hours
Elevation Range -10? to +55?
Color Resolution >500 lines
Fields of View NFOV: 4.4?H x 3.3?V; MFOV: 10?H x 7.5?V
Kollmorgen Non-Penetrating Periscopes, Page 2Electro-Optical Systems Forecast
Characteristics Thermal Imaging Function
Pressure Resistance 68 bar (hydrostatic)
Operating Speed 12 knots
Data Interference with Submarine RS422 (other formats available)
Power Requirements 115 V-60 Hz (2000 W)
Design Features. The Model 86 is a non-penetrating, environment without a lengthy stay on the surface. It is two-stage, modular, electro-optical sensor system, capable of a sector scan in less than two seconds, and a developed by Kollmorgen to replace conventional full circular scan in five to six seconds, when using a periscopes. The U.S. Navy version uses a modular hoist black-and-white camera. Automatic modes are mast, developed in cooperation with Italy’s Riva provided for programmed horizon and hemisphere Calzoni. The system’s main components are the Sensor search, also contributing to the short above-surface time Unit, Rotation Unit, Mast Unit, Interface Electronics needed to establish a view of the area. Rack Units, and the Display and Control Console. The optical path includes an electronic zoom feature in The Universal Modular Mast System being developed a fully reconfigurable Windows environment. The for the U.S. Navy has been derived from the one-stage electronic transmittal of the data means that the image unit, previously built by Riva Calzoni. can be enhanced in real time; information can be
recorded for later retrieval, further analysis, and The Model 86 system offers thermal imaging for day interpretation. Electronic processing and storage of the and night viewing, and color television for daylight information make the use of the data more flexible in viewing. It has a built-in two-axis stabilization feature, terms of time and place, and the information can be intended to eliminate effects of the ship’s motion and enhanced for improved observation of details, if mast vibration. A unique, statically sealed rotating necessary. sensor package is also incorporated in the system.
Kollmorgen’s Model 86 non-penetrating optronic The optronic head itself (Sensor Unit) contains two periscope had already gone from its second generation windows arranged vertically. The oval-shaped top to its third between 1995 and 1997. The features window contains two visual cameras: a black-and-described above apply primarily to the first-generation white HDTV camera, and a high-resolution color CCD. versions, which have had color, black-and-white, and Three alternately selectable fields of view are available LWIR (8-12µm) cameras; HMI; ESM; and a Rotational (22.8?, 10?, or 4.4?). Unit and a Modular Mast. The Rotational Unit features
pressure compensation, slip ring, data transmission, and Video connections are completed by both a coaxial
a rotary drive motor. The Modular Mast, including cable and a rotary fiber-optics joint; there is no
pressure-proof cable belt, also had no recorded failures waveguide connector to the Electronic Support
as of that time. Measures (ESM) array. The ESM system can be
customer-specified. The ESM array had used copper The second-generation system has improved color, cable, which was expected to be replaced by a system in B&W, and MWIR (3-5µm) cameras and X-Windows which the ESM equipment digitizes the data at the (Motif HMI). It also features a state-of-the-art masthead and sends it down in optical form. The ESM workstation, with image processor and system housing can also optionally accommodate a global processor, and support electronics. A third-generation positioning system (GPS) facility. version was delivered in 1997.
Operational Characteristics. The Model 86 periscope
head allows the submarine a quick look at the operating
Electro-Optical Systems Forecast Kollmorgen Non-Penetrating Periscopes, Page 3
Kollmorgen M86 Periscope
The following are options to the basic Model 86 mast multifunction consoles. Optional Optronic Mast control hardware and/or software and functions. software and display software can be supplied, for
porting to multifunction consoles. ESM. The Model 86 Optronic Mast has been designed
to accept several different variations of ESM systems. Additional optional features include the following: Exact configurations will depend on customer ； Monochrome or Intensified Monochrome Television requirements. A system capable of integration with the Camera Model 86 typically has a frequency coverage of 2-18 ； Micron Thermal Camera GHz, and a -65 dBmi sensitivity. Omni directional
warning or alternative direction finding can be ； Laser Rangefinder/Video Rangefinder
implemented in the ESM as desired. ； Automatic Video Tracking
Communications/Navigation. The Model 86 Optronic ； Image Recording
Mast Series is capable of being fitted with several ； Image Processing variations of radio frequency transmit and/or receive Further alternative configurations of periscope shipsets antennas, including VPA. The antennas can also be can be provided by the manufacturer, to meet any selected to provide a GPS navigation capability. specific operational requirements. For instance, one of Standard Console Interface. The system can be the series of Model 86 Optronic Masts can be integrated interfaced to the submarine’s existing or planned with a Model 76 Attack Periscope.
Background. While submarines’ above-water imaging satisfy selected visual requirements. These optronic requirements were traditionally met by optical periscopes (thus called for combining optics and periscopes from the early part of the 20thcentury until electronics) offer additional benefits, such as Image the 1970s, significant changes have taken place and Intensifiers, Low Light Level TVs, or IR cameras and a combinations of periscopes and electronic sensors now number of ESM and communications antennas.
Kollmorgen Non-Penetrating Periscopes, Page 4Electro-Optical Systems Forecast
Because of the more crowded environment, surfacing The advantages of adopting non-penetrating periscopes
are fundamental. In tactical terms, the electronic image would have very critical significance for the operation, can be fused with other data, such as sonar signatures or even more so than traditionally.
ESM system output. This provides the submarine On the other hand, other types of submarines could be commander with a much more extensive view of the fitted to enter even greater depths of blue water areas, tactical situation, in addition to the fact that the i.e., needing more structural strength than before. This submarine needs to stay on the surface only a few would be best achieved by eliminating the penetrating seconds to gather image data. periscope, in lieu of one that required a major structural The use of non-penetrating technology also has weak point in a unit otherwise optimized for great significant design and structural benefits to the boat diving depths. The company also concluded that the itself. The most obvious is the elimination of the demands placed on a new generation of periscopes, in opening in the pressure hull required by the periscope terms of sensor integration, data accumulation, and shaft. Most discussions of submarine diving depth reduced exposure time, could best be met by adopting a focus on the strength of the pressure hull itself, while non-penetrating mast solution. This led to the the fact that the integrity of the penetration seals is also development of the Model 86 periscope, the first to a critical factor is often ignored. Seal integrity is combine viewing and electromagnetic sensors on a directly correlated to the diameter of the hole in single non-penetrating mast.
question: the periscope shaft is one of the worst Meanwhile, parallel to Kollmorgen’s own efforts, the offenders. U.S. Navy had decided to adopt a non-penetrating mast The submarine community itself has expressed con-solution for the periscopes on the new Seawolf class siderable opposition to the non-penetrating periscope attack submarines. In 1987 and 1988, Kollmorgen was technology, stemming, in part, from that community’s awarded contracts for experimental work in this area inherent conservatism. Indeed, there are good and and for the development of a prototype mast. sound justifications for that position. An optical In late February 1989, Kollmorgen teamed with Riva periscope will always work, regardless of power or Calzoni of Italy to develop a new generation of non-computer failures. In an emergency, it can be winched penetrating mast and sensor systems for submarines of up manually. Any electrical failure or computer crash the U.S. and Italian navies, as well as the navies of other takes a non-penetrating electro-optical periscope out, NATO countries. until the system as a whole can be brought up again.
The prototype mast produced by Kollmorgen under the For these reasons, it is doubtful that complete reliance 1988 contract was installed on the U.S. Navy test will be placed on non-penetrating solutions until the submarine Memphis. The equipment underwent a five-technology has been demonstrated to work under all year trials program and was removed in 1993. This circumstances and at all times. In the short term, it is equipment was refurbished with new sensors, projected that a conventional periscope will be retained electronics, and ESM, and returned to service in 1994. as a backup in most designs. Transition to full optronics The system is still in operation aboard a U.S. SSN. operation will take time as well as a change in mindset,
not unlike the introduction of the digital displays of the The Request for Proposals (RFP) for an operational sonar data. non-penetrating mast assembly was issued in January
1992, and by July 1992 bids for a non-penetrating mast Having said that, however, reliability and performance had been received from the following consortia: of modern sensors are sufficiently improved so the U.S. Kollmorgen/Riva Calzoni/Librascope/Unisys; General New Attack Submarine (NSSN) will rely exclusively on Electric/Zeiss; Raytheon/GEC/SAGEM; Rockwell/Barr optronics, as will Sweden’s projected Viking submarine and Stroud/McTaggart Scott/Watkins Johnson; and (Submarine 2000). Sperry Marine/Martin Marietta/Texas Instruments. Not During the mid-1980s, Kollmorgen anticipated that the unexpectedly, the contract was won by Kollmorgen, submarines being designed at the time would remain which received a US$7 million order to develop operational well into the 21st century. They would have production systems in May 1995.
to function in the face of an extremely unpredictable Kollmorgen is making both the Model 86 and the threat profile, and undertake operations quite different penetrating type Model 90 technologies available for from those originally envisaged. This new operational export, thus offering different options for modular environment would require periscope capabilities far in construction. The link with Riva Calzoni makes Italy a excess of the then-current generation. primary prospect for an early export sale, particularly On one hand, submarines were foreseen as functioning since it is behind in the mast construction. This would increasingly in littoral areas, in green and brown waters. probably be the case with the Type 212 submarines, October 2004
Electro-Optical Systems Forecast Kollmorgen Non-Penetrating Periscopes, Page 5
optronic systems were chosen by the Egyptian Navy for being built in Italy off of German license. However,
Germany’s Zeiss may have been able to place its retrofitting on four Romeo class (Type 033) submarines. product on these submarines as well. The systems were probably delivered by late 2002. In 1999, Kollmorgen announced that it had fully taken In February 2000, the U.K. Royal Navy (UKRN) finally over its Italian partner, Riva Calzoni. This move was chose Pilkington Optronics over Kollmorgen and others not totally unexpected, since the two had been to supply the visual systems for its Astute class nuclear collaborating closely for some time, presumably under attack submarines. The Astute will become the first
an arrangement with financial support/ownership stake UKRN submarine to utilize the non-hull-penetrating by Kollmorgen in Riva. masts.
The photonic mast program received a considerable Work on installing the Model 86 continued through boost in December 1999 when Kollmorgen was 2002 for the U.S. Navy and Egypt.
awarded a US$17.6 million modification to a previously In October 2002, the U.S. Navy awarded Kollmorgen a awarded production contract by the U.S. Navy. More US$32.2 million contract for two Photonic Mast good news followed in February 2000 when the Systems, including spares and engineering support. Funding
Development of the Model 86 periscope program was funded by Kollmorgen Corporation. The U.S. government
program to develop a non-penetrating mast was undertaken by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) and funded under Program Element No. 0603226E.
Contractor (US$ millions) Date/Description
Kollmorgen 15.0 Feb 2000 ; Contract for optronic systems to be retrofitted into
four Romeo class (Type 033) submarines of the Egyptian Navy.
Includes installation and ongoing logistics support services.
Deliveries began in 2001, with the last systems being delivered in
Kollmorgen 32.2 Oct 2002 – Contract for two Photonics Mast production units with
spares and engineering support services. To be installed on the
third and fourth Virginia class submarines. Work on the contract
is expected to be complete by Sepember 2004. Naval Sea Systems
Command, Arlington, VA, is the contracting agency.
Month Year Major Development
1976 Kollmorgen develops initial optronic concepts for U.S. Navy review
1980s Kollmorgen begins developing non-penetrating systems
1988 USN system development started
Feb 1989 Joint venture with Riva Calzoni announced
1991-1993 Trial operation of optronic mast on USS Memphis
1992-1993 First Generation Model 86 Optronic Mast operational validation
1994 Contract issued for Second Generation Optronic Mast
Early 1995 Development and initial production contract
1995-present Second Generation Model 86 at sea
1997 Third Generation Photonics Mast deliveries
1998 Bidding for delivery on Britain’s Astute class submarines
1999 Kollmorgen takes over Riva Calzoni
Feb 2000 Kollmorgen optronic mast chosen by Egyptian Navy
Kollmorgen Non-Penetrating Periscopes, Page 6Electro-Optical Systems Forecast
Month Year Major Development
2000 Pilkington wins Astute class contract
2002 Deliveries to Egypt complete
2004 First launch of U.S. Navy Virginia class submarine
2004-2013 Ongoing production of non-penetrating periscopes
U.S. System being produced for New SSN Virginia-class submarines. Second-generation system in service.
Retrofits expected for modernizing the Los Angeles, Ohio, and Seawolf classes. Egypt reportedly acquired the
masts for four Romeo class submarines in 2000.
As the threat profile for today’s submarine forces adapts and, according to Kollmorgen, provides new tactical to changing times, Kollmorgen’s Non-Penetrating capabilities.
Periscopes (NPPs) appear to be poised for increased Virginia class submarines are expected to be produced procurement over the next several years. Submarines along the following schedule; the first entered service in are expected to be increasingly used in shallow water 2004, and the following three boats will follow in 2006, special operations, such as deploying Navy SEALS for 2007, and 2008. There will then be a delay until the clandestine missions. The closer proximity to hostile maximum production rate kicks in, which should see territories makes use of the NPPs, with their advanced production increasing to two or even three boats per surveillance and electronic support measures (ESM) year. A total of up to 30 Virginia-class submarines are capabilities, even more beneficial. While NPP expected to be produced. production for the emerging fleet of U.S. Navy
Virginia-class submarines will be steady over the next For the Virginia-class application an estimated 13 NPP several years, the navies of other nations can be systems are expected to be produced through 2013. As expected to also start to embrace the systems. this production run is tied closely to a known platform
base, confidence of this forecast is highest. Less Over the past few decades, Kollmorgen has been one of certain, however, is production for non-U.S. customers. the leading producers of NPPs. An early version, the As the new-build submarine market outside the U.S. is Model 86 two-stage, modular, electro-optical sensor in something of a decline, and with little or no public system, offers thermal imaging for day and night source information on foreign military sales, this viewing, and color television for daylight viewing. It forecast is inherently more speculative. Still, with the has a built-in, two-axis stabilization feature, intended to likelihood of submarine upgrade programs continuing in eliminate effects of the ship’s motion and mast many parts of the globe, there is expected to be steady vibration. The newer Photonics Mast System has many interest in Kollmorgen’s NPPs. of the Model 86 features as well as advanced sensors
ESTIMATED CALENDAR YEAR PRODUCTION High Confidence Good Confidence Speculative Level Level Total Designation Application Thru 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 04-13 NON-PENETRATING SSN/SSBN (U.S. NAVY) 7 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 13 PERISCOPE NON-PENETRATING SSN/SSBN (VARIOUS) 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 PERISCOPE Total Production 10 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 31