Includes- League of Nations
Steps to War
1) Why did the French want a harsher peace at They had suffered badly, losing many soldiers and
Much of North East France was severely damaged and
the cost to re-build was high.
They wanted to prevent a German invasion in the future.
2) Which leader proposed the 14 points? Woodrow Wilson, president of the USA
3) Why did the USA want a fairer settlement? They had suffered less in the war.
4) When was the Treaty of Versailles signed? June 1919
5) Which land did the Germans lose in the Treaty? Alasace and Loraine,
6) What happened to the Rhineland? It was de-militarised- Germany wasn’t allowed any
troops in there.
7) What was the war guilt clause? Germany was forced to accept full responsibility for
causing the war.
8) What were the German armed forces reduced to 100,000 men, only volunteers, without armoured
after the Treaty? vechiles, aircraft, or submarines and only 6 warships.
9) How much was Germany forced to pay and until ?6.6 billion in total until the 1980’s.
10) What was a diktat? The Germans were told what to sign and were not given
an option to negotiate.
11) Why did Clemenceau not like the Treaty? He thought it wasn’t hard enough on the Germans.
13) Give four reasons why the Germans resented the The Germans were left weak and resentful.
Treaty of Versailles? They could not afford the reparations.
Lost colonies while Britain kept theirs.
Many German’s living under foreign rule in “new”
Lost industrial areas.
Didn’t accept guilt for starting the war.
Give three problems that the Treaty was creating for the Europe couldn't recover properly while countries like future? Germany remained poor.
The new countries included a mixture of different
nationalities. Self determination was a disaster waiting
The League of Nations was always weak without the big
German resentment would lead to future problems.
14) Name two new countries that were created? Czechoslovakia
Austria and Hungary are separated
15) What were the problems facing these new nations? These countries contained a number of different
nationalities. Czechoslovakia contained 2 million
16) What were the four main aims of the League of Stopping aggression
Improving working and living conditions
17) What was the Assembly? Each country had one vote.
This group could only recommend to council.
18) What was the Council? Met 3 times per year or in emergency
5 permanent members- Britain, France, Italy Japan and
Germany from 1926.
19) What was the International Labour Organisation? A group aimed at improving working conditions
20) How could the League deal with problems? Warn countries in disputes
Apply economic sanctions
21) Who decided border disputes? Permanent International Court of Justice
22) Name four early successes of the League? It solved the dispute in 1921 between Germany and
Poland over Upper Silesia, Sweden and Finland over
Aaland Islands in 1921,
Intervened when Greece invaded Bulgaria.
23) Give three reasons why the Americans didn't join The people of America hadn’t liked the Versailles
the League? Treaty and refused to accept it.
The US. Worried about the cost.
They believed that the individual countries should solve
the problems of the world.
24) Give four reasons why the League wasn't very Economic and military sanctions were weak unless they
powerful? involved the most powerful countries
The USA did not join.
The League had no army
Germany and Russia were not allowed to join at first.
The organisation was a disaster
Britain and France were weak after the war
25) What was the Dawes Plan? The USA lent Germany money. Reparations were cut.
29) What was the Locarno Treaty Germany agreed to the western borders set at Versailles
30) At which agreement did 65 nations decide not to use Kellog Briand Pact- 1928- 65 nations agreed to use force force to settle disputes in the future? to settle arguments.
26) Why did the Young Plan help the Germans? Cut reparations by a quarter
27) What other major agreements were introduced in Rapello Treaty- an agreement between Germany and
the 1920’s? Russia
Kellog Briand Pact- a number of countries refused to use
war as an offensive act.
28) When were the benefits of the Dawes and Young The Wall Street Crash
Plans wiped out?
29) What problems threatened peace at the end of the Countries didn’t trust the League
1920's? The economic depression
The Germans didn’t make any agreements about their
30) Why was Manchuria so important to the Japanese? The Depression had wrecked Japanese business and they
needed new resources. Manchuria provided raw
The Japanese controlled the South Manchuria Railway.
31) When did the Japanese start invading Manchuria? September 1931
32) What did the League of Nations do to deal with the They sent Lord Lytton to assess the situation. He
Japanese? produced a report, which said the Japanese had been
wrong, but the League didn't do anything.
33) How did the League look after the challenge from They looked weak because the Japanese refused to
Manchuria and why? accept the report.
34) What was the name of Italy's fascist leader? Mussolini
35) Why did Mussolini invade Abyssinia? Give three Italy owned land on either side of this country.
reasons. They wanted a big Empire.
Mussolini had seen Japan get away without the
The Abyssinians staged a small scale attack on the
36) How did the League react to the invasion of They imposed economic sanctions but Italy and
Abyssinia? Germany didn't apply them.
Britain and France wanted to avoid confrontation
because of the depression.
37) What were the consequences of the Abyssinia The League of Nations had failed.
crisis? Italy became more confident.
Hitler saw that the international community wanted to
38) Why have some historians argued that it is unfair to The economic depression made the world tougher.
blame the League of Nations? No organisation could have stopped Mussolini and
The League of Nations had to defend the Treaty of
Versailles and many thought this was unfair.
Britain and France were in a difficult situation as the
USA never joined.
39) Why did the League fail? The USA never joined.
Too many members didn't keep the rules.
Germany and Japan left in 1933, Italy left in 1937.
They didn't have an army.
Rise of the dictators.
Everyone wanted to avoid war.
Steps to war Disarmament had failed. 40) Give three reasons why the atmosphere in Europe Germany still hated the Treaty of Versailles. was tense by the middle of the 1930's? Britain didn't want to use force. Hitler had come to power. The League was weak. Britain believed in appeasement. 41) Why did no one stop Hitler's invasion into the The League was busy in Abysinnia. Rhineland?( 3 reasons) Many countries believed Hitler was righting the wrongs of the Treaty. 42) When did Germany unite with Austria and what March 1938, Anschluss was it called? 43) Where was the Sudeteland? The German speaking area of Czechoslovakia The majority of people spoke German and it had been 44) Why did Hitler want the Sudetenland? taken away from Germany in the Treaty of Versailles. They appealed for help from France. 45) How did the Czech government react to Hitler's invasion? The British Prime Minister flew to Munich to meet 46) What happened after Hitler's invasion? Hitler. Hitler said that he only wanted the Sudetenland and was allowed to keep part of it.
47) Why did the British and French appease Hitler? ( 4
reasons) Many people believed Hitler was right to correct the
Britain could still remember the First World War.
The British and French were short of money due to the
Hitler protected Europe from Communism.
The German army was stronger.
What did Hitler do in March 1939?
Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia.
48) What was the Nazi/Soviet pact and why was it so
important? Germany and USSR agreed not to attack each other.
They also planned to carve Poland in half.
49) What was the final trigger for the start of war? Invasion of Poland in 1939, September
11) What were the main causes of the Second World Appeasement
War? Treaty of Versailles
Rise of Hitler
Consequences of Great Depression
Weaknesses of League of Nations