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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGEREPO

    Form ApprovedREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGEOMB No. 0704-0188

    Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503.

    1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)2. REPORT DATE3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED

    December 2004Final Research Report

    April 2002 – March 2004

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE5. FUNDING NUMBERS

    Integrated Collision Warning System Final Technical ReportFederal ID # 2509694490006. AUTHOR(S)

    University of California PATH, Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)REPORT NUMBERUniversity of California PATH Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute

5000 Forbes Ave

Pittsburgh, PA 15213

    9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBERU.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration

    400 Seventh Street, S. W.

    FTA-PA-26-7006-04.1Washington, D. C. 20590

    11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT -- Available from the National Technical Information 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODEService/NTIS, Springfield, Virginia, 22161. Phone 703.605.6000, Fax 703.605.6900,

    Email [orders@ntis.fedworld.gov]

    13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words)

    Based on the foundation of the frontal and side collision warning systems, the Frontal Collision Warning System (FCWS) and Side Collision Warning System (SCWS) teams joined efforts to improve the collision warning algorithms. The objective of the ICWS Program is to study how frontal and side collision warning system might interface with each other, and to develop prototype ICWS systems on two buses, one at Samtrans and the other at PAT. The prototype ICWS buses have been in revenue operation in the Bay Area and Pittsburgh to collect field operational data and driver responses. The results of the ICWS design, build, and integration efforts as well as an analysis of early data collections to evolve the warning algorithms are documented in this final technical report. Evaluation and performance analysis are currently being finalized and will be issued in a separate report.

    14. SUBJECT TERMS15. NUMBER OF PAGESICWS, Collision Warning, Transit bus safety

    16. PRICE CODE

    17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT

    UnclassifiedUnclassifiedUnclassified

    NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18298-102

    Integrated Collision Warning SystemFinal Technical Report (Final Draft)December 2004

    Prepared by:

    Carnegie Mellon UniversityUniversity of California at Robotics InstituteBerkeley

    5000 Forbes AvePATH Program

    thPittsburgh, PA 152131357 South 46 Street

    Richmond, CA 94804Prepared for:

    U.S. Department of TransportationFederal Transit AdministrationWashington, DC 20590

    Report Number:

    FTA-PA-26-7006-04.1

Disclaimer Notice

    NOTICE

    This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.The United States Government does not endorse products of manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the objective of this report.

    i

     List of Figures................................................................................................................. i

     List of Figures................................................................................................................. i

     List of Tables.................................................................................................................. i

     List of Tables.................................................................................................................. i

     Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... i

     Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... i

     Executive Summary...................................................................................................... ii

     Executive Summary...................................................................................................... ii

     Introduction................................................................................................................... 9

     Introduction................................................................................................................... 9

     1.1. Background............................................................................................................ 9

     1.2. Scope..................................................................................................................... 10

     1.3. Organization of Content...................................................................................... 14

     Integrated Collision Warning System ...................................................................... 15

     Integrated Collision Warning System ...................................................................... 15

     1.4. System Description.............................................................................................. 15

     1.5. Integrated ICWS.................................................................................................. 17

     1.6. Sensing Needs....................................................................................................... 19

     System Overview......................................................................................................... 20

     System Overview......................................................................................................... 20

     1.7. FCWS System Overview..................................................................................... 20

     1.8. SCWS System Overview..................................................................................... 27

     Hardware Development.............................................................................................. 30

     Hardware Development.............................................................................................. 30

     1.9. FCWS Obstacle Detection Sensors..................................................................... 30

     1.10. SCWS Side Sensors............................................................................................ 35

     1.11. SCWS Curb Detector........................................................................................ 37

     1.12. PC-104 Platforms............................................................................................... 47

     1.13. Digital Video Recorder PC-104 Platforms...................................................... 50