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    1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)2. REPORT DATE3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED

    December 2004Final Research Report

    April 2002 – March 2004

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE5. FUNDING NUMBERS

    Integrated Collision Warning System Final Technical ReportFederal ID # 2509694490006. AUTHOR(S)

    University of California PATH, Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)REPORT NUMBERUniversity of California PATH Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute

5000 Forbes Ave

Pittsburgh, PA 15213

    9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBERU.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration

    400 Seventh Street, S. W.

    FTA-PA-26-7006-04.1Washington, D. C. 20590

    11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT -- Available from the National Technical Information 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODEService/NTIS, Springfield, Virginia, 22161. Phone 703.605.6000, Fax 703.605.6900,

    Email [orders@ntis.fedworld.gov]

    13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words)

    Based on the foundation of the frontal and side collision warning systems, the Frontal Collision Warning System (FCWS) and Side Collision Warning System (SCWS) teams joined efforts to improve the collision warning algorithms. The objective of the ICWS Program is to study how frontal and side collision warning system might interface with each other, and to develop prototype ICWS systems on two buses, one at Samtrans and the other at PAT. The prototype ICWS buses have been in revenue operation in the Bay Area and Pittsburgh to collect field operational data and driver responses. The results of the ICWS design, build, and integration efforts as well as an analysis of early data collections to evolve the warning algorithms are documented in this final technical report. Evaluation and performance analysis are currently being finalized and will be issued in a separate report.

    14. SUBJECT TERMS15. NUMBER OF PAGESICWS, Collision Warning, Transit bus safety

    16. PRICE CODE

    17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT

    UnclassifiedUnclassifiedUnclassified

    NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18298-102

    Integrated Collision Warning SystemFinal Technical Report (Final Draft)December 2004

    Prepared by:

    Carnegie Mellon UniversityUniversity of California at Robotics InstituteBerkeley

    5000 Forbes AvePATH Program

    thPittsburgh, PA 152131357 South 46 Street

    Richmond, CA 94804Prepared for:

    U.S. Department of TransportationFederal Transit AdministrationWashington, DC 20590

    Report Number:

    FTA-PA-26-7006-04.1

Disclaimer Notice

    NOTICE

    This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.The United States Government does not endorse products of manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the objective of this report.

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     List of Figures................................................................................................................. i

     List of Figures................................................................................................................. i

     List of Tables.................................................................................................................. i

     List of Tables.................................................................................................................. i

     Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... i

     Acknowledgements......................................................................................................... i

     Executive Summary...................................................................................................... ii

     Executive Summary...................................................................................................... ii

     Introduction................................................................................................................... 9

     Introduction................................................................................................................... 9

     1.1. Background............................................................................................................ 9

     1.2. Scope..................................................................................................................... 10

     1.3. Organization of Content...................................................................................... 14

     Integrated Collision Warning System ...................................................................... 15

     Integrated Collision Warning System ...................................................................... 15

     1.4. System Description.............................................................................................. 15

     1.5. Integrated ICWS.................................................................................................. 17

     1.6. Sensing Needs....................................................................................................... 19

     System Overview......................................................................................................... 20

     System Overview......................................................................................................... 20

     1.7. FCWS System Overview..................................................................................... 20

     1.8. SCWS System Overview..................................................................................... 27

     Hardware Development.............................................................................................. 30

     Hardware Development.............................................................................................. 30

     1.9. FCWS Obstacle Detection Sensors..................................................................... 30

     1.10. SCWS Side Sensors............................................................................................ 35

     1.11. SCWS Curb Detector........................................................................................ 37

     1.12. PC-104 Platforms............................................................................................... 47

     1.13. Digital Video Recorder PC-104 Platforms...................................................... 50

     System Software.......................................................................................................... 58

     System Software.......................................................................................................... 58

     1.14. SCWS Software Architecture Development................................................... 58

     1.15. FCWS Software Introduction........................................................................... 66

     Algorithm Development.............................................................................................. 76

     Algorithm Development.............................................................................................. 76

     1.16. Object Tracking Using Scanning Laser Rangefinders................................... 76

     1.17. FCWS Warning Algorithm............................................................................. 109

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    List of Figures

    Figure 1 - Basic ICWS Algorithms.................................................................................11Figure 2 Configuration of Integrated Collision Warning System...............................16Figure 3 System Architecture.........................................................................................16Figure 4 Three stages towards a commercial product.................................................18Figure 5 Integrated system spatial coverage illustration.............................................19Figure 6 Functions of frontal collision warning system...............................................21Figure 7 FCWS system architecture..............................................................................21Figure 8 JDL data fusion process model.......................................................................23Figure 9 The architecture of the transit FCWS warning algorithm...........................27Figure 10 Layout of sensors, cameras and HMI...........................................................30Figure 11. Interface between the engineering computer and host-bus sensors.........34

    Figure 12. SICK Laser Scanner and Retraction Assembly.........................................35Figure 13 Schematic of a laser line striper....................................................................37Figure 14 A LLS mounted on a vehicle looking to the side at various objects. The

    return from the sensor is shown in the lower part of the figure..................................38Figure 15 LLS mounted in the front bumper of the bus. On the left side is a frontal

    view of the SamTrans bus with the rubber skin of the front bumper removed. The

    laser can be clearly seen, the camera is occluded by the holding bracket. On the

    right is a side view of the PAT bus. The red semitransparent area indicates the

    location of the laser plane................................................................................................39Figure 16 Profile of the road and curb observed by the laser line striper. Some

    erroneous readings can be Figure 17 Curb alongside the bus. On left is a birds-eye-

    view and on the right is a view from the right camera. The raw data from the LLS is

    indicated with red color, the curb position extracted from that raw data is in green

    and the tracked curb is in blue.......................................................................................42Figure 16 Profile of the road and curb observed by the laser line striper. Some

    erroneous readings can be Figure 17 Curb alongside the bus. On left is a birds-eye-

    view and on the right is a view from the right camera. The raw data from the LLS is

    indicated with red color, the curb position extracted from that raw data is in green

    and the tracked curb is in blue.......................................................................................42Figure 18 Example of three points chosen for the calibration. Point a is on the

    ground at the front wheel at the same y-position as the camera. Points b and c are

    edges at the lower and upper part of the open front door...........................................44Figure 19. FCWS System Architecture.........................................................................49Figure 20. FCWS Computer enclosure on the bus (top view).....................................50Figure 21. FCWS Video recorder-camera interface....................................................51Figure 22 FCWS Warning signal definition..................................................................53Figure 23 FCWS Data acquisition program.................................................................66Figure 24 FCWS Software flow chart............................................................................68Figure 25 FCWS RADAR file format............................................................................72Figure 26 FCWS lidar file format..................................................................................73

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    Figure 27 FCWS Host-bus sensor file format...............................................................74Figure 28 Check time to open a new set of files............................................................75Figure 29: Tracker input (one frame)............................................................................76Figure 30: Tracker output example...............................................................................77Figure 31: Scanner angular resolution..........................................................................78Figure 32: Shape change.................................................................................................82Figure 33: Occlusion........................................................................................................83Figure 34: Vegetation......................................................................................................84Figure 35: Weak returns.................................................................................................85Figure 36: Corner fitting.................................................................................................89Figure 37: Features..........................................................................................................91Figure 38: Incidence angle and point spacing...............................................................92Figure 39: Tracker dynamics.......................................................................................106Figure 40: Track history matching..............................................................................107Figure 41 FCWS Algorithm structure.........................................................................111Figure 42 FCWS Track file structure..........................................................................112Figure 43 Linked list of tracks and historical data.....................................................114

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    List of Tables

    Table 1. JDL data fusion process model........................................................................24Table 2. Location and orientation of obstacle detection sensors.................................31Table 3. Locations of cameras........................................................................................31Table 4. LIDAR specifications........................................................................................32Table 5. RADAR specification........................................................................................32Table 6. Range and Resolution of Laser Line Striper..................................................38Table 7. Configuration of Left and Right SCWS Computers.....................................48

    Table 8. Configuration of SCWS Digital Video Recorder...........................................50Table 9. Video board specifications...............................................................................52Table 10. Parameter Values............................................................................................55Table 11. Data sent from the FCWS to the SCWS.......................................................56Table 12. Data sent from the SCWS to the FCWS.......................................................57Table 13. FCWS File pointers – sensors........................................................................69Table 14. FCWS System signals.....................................................................................69Table 15. FCWS Database variables – sensors.............................................................70Table 16. FCWS Sensor data pointers...........................................................................70Table 17. FCWS File name format................................................................................71Table 18. Features and improvements of three generations of FCWS algorithms.109

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    Acknowledgements

    This report presents the results of a research effort undertaken by the Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute and the University of California PATH Program under funding provided by the Federal Transit Administration under Federal ID # 250969449000. The direction of Brian Cronin is gratefully acknowledged.Special thanks are also due to the state transportation agencies for providing additional funding and contractual assistance. Specifically, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) were instrumental in the progress of this work.

    Also this work would not have been possible without the cooperation of the local transit agencies. Specifically, the Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT) and the San Mateo County Transit District (Samtrans)

    We would also like to acknowledge the work of Clever Devices. We have learned a lot and hopefully applied the lessons learned from their work of designing and installing their obstacle detection systems on transit buses.

    The feedback of Eric Traube of Mitretek has also been very beneficial to the effort of this research and evaluation program.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    This final technical report documents technical developments conducted under the Integrated Collision Warning System Program (ICWS). It is a continuation of the development programs for the individual frontal and side collision warning systems for transit buses. The goal of the ICWS program is to integrate the advanced frontal and side collision warning systems into a unified collision warning system. A single Driver Vehicle Interface (DVI) is being developed that can effectively display warnings from both frontal and side collision warning systems and signal the driver in a manner that is effective in helping the driver avoid crashes.

    Vehicle collisions have been a significant concern for transit operators. They not only result in property damage, service interruptions and personal injuries, but also affect transit efficiency, revenue and public perception. In addition to collision damage, passenger falls resulting from emergency maneuvers also contribute to an increased potential for passenger injuries and liability. A transit collision ripples through the agency and consumes additional resources to settle claims and results in significant loss of good will. Transit operators and industry stakeholders actively seek solutions to avoid collisions and have recommended that studies be conducted under the US DOT’s Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) to develop transit collision warning technologies. The primary goal of the Transit IVI program is to develop technical and performance specifications for collision warning systems which can identify hazards that may potentially lead to collisions in complex urban environments and warn drivers accordingly. Based on the recommendations, Federal Transit Administration initiated the Transit IVI Program in 2000. As part of the Transit IVI Program, substantial efforts were carried out to develop frontal and side collision warning systems that can deal with the urban driving environment.

    The research efforts on Frontal Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) were carried out by the San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), University of California PATH Program (PATH), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), and Gillig

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    Corporation. Most of the San Francisco Bay Area transit agencies are participating in the project in an advisory role and have provided significant inputs to the project. The team conducted in-depth study of accident data for 35 transit agencies. The team obtained a better understanding of the causes of transit frontal collisions and the conditions in which crashes may potentially occur through field testing and data collection using instrumented buses. Human factors researchers also closely interacted with SamTrans drivers to understand their needs and expectations. Based on the accident data analysis and field data collection, the FCWS team developed sensing schemes, obstacle detection and collision warning algorithms and a DVI design. Prototype collision warning systems were instrumented onto three Samtrans buses that include radar and lidar sensors, obstacle detection and collision warning algorithms, and a DVI. These prototype FCWS systems address imminent crashes and warning needs for smoother maneuvering. As the final product, preliminary requirement specifications were developed and experimentally verified through field testing using the three buses equipped with the prototype warning system.

    The research efforts on Side Collision Warning Systems (SCWS) were carried out by the Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT), Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute (CMU-RI), the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, and Clever Devices. Similar to the research on FCWS, the side collision warning team has collected field data to study the hazards on both side of the bus while the bus is in motion and has developed approaches for tracking the movement of vehicles and pedestrians using scanning laser rangefinders mounted on the sides of the bus. While vehicle collision avoidance is an important goal of SCWS, much of the emphasis of this study is placed upon pedestrian detection by assessing the movement of pedestrians relative to the sidewalk. A prototype side collision warning system was first installed on a test vehicle platform and later on a PAT bus for field experiments. Based on the test results, preliminary requirement specifications for an SCWS were developed.

    Based on the foundation of the frontal and side collision warning systems, the FCWS and SCWS teams joined efforts to improve the collision warning algorithms. The objective of the ICWS Program was to study how frontal and side collision warning system might

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