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COMMON ROOT WORDS AND WORD ORIGINS

By Alexander Hamilton,2014-12-09 17:57
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COMMON ROOT WORDS AND WORD ORIGINS

COMMON ROOT WORDS AND WORD ORIGINS

    ROOTS MEANING WORD

    alter other alternate, alter ego

    ami, amic- love amiable, amicable

    amphi both ends or all amphibian

    sides

    ann, enni year anniversary, annual, biennial, perennial anthrop human, man anthropology, anthropomorphic, misanthrope aqua, aque water aquatic, aquarium, aqueduct arch chief, leader, ruler archangel, monarch, archaic, archenemy arthro joint arthritis

    aud sound auditorium, audible, audiologist, audiotape bell war belligerent, bellicose

    biblio book bibliography, bibliophile

    bio- life biography, autobiography, biology, antibiotic brev short brief, abbreviate

    cap take, seize capture, captivate, capacity carn meat carnivorous, chili con carne ced yield, go recede, secede, proceed, intercede, concession chrom- color chromatic, monochrome, polychrome chron- time chronicle, chronology, chronometer, synchronize cogn know recognize, cognitive, incognito cord/chord cord harpsichord

    corp body corpus, corpse, corporal

    crac, crat rule, ruler autocrat, democracy, bureaucrat, democracy cred believe credible, credulous, credibility, credit, credo cruc cross crucifix, crucial

    crusta shell crustacean

    crypt hidden cryptogram, cryptology, cryptic culp guilt culpable, culprit

    dei god deity, deify

    demo- people demography, democracy, epidemic dent tooth dentist, dentifrice, dentin

    derm- skin dermatology, epidermis, hypodermic dic speak, say dictate, predict, diction, indict dox belief, opinion orthodoxy, paradox, heterodoxy duc, duct lead induce, deduce, seduction, conduct, abduct duo two duo

    dynam- power dynamo, hydrodynamics

    ego self egotist, egomania

    equ equal equal, equity, equanimity, equate, equidistant fac make, do manufacture, factory, benefactor fil threadlike filament

    frater brother fraternal, fraternize

    gam- marriage monogamy, polygamy, bigamy

    geo- earth geopolitical, geology, geography, geothermal glyph vertical groove HieroglyphicsEgyptian “sky writing” grad, gress step gradual, progression, transgression graph- writing, printing graphology, biography, telegraph, geography gym naked gymnasium

    gyn- woman gynecologist, androgynous hemo, hema, hem blood hemophilia, hematology, hemoglobin holo whole, entire holograph

    hydro, hydr water dehydrate, hydraulics, hydroelectric, hydroplane iso equal, identical isolate

    ject throw inject, reject, subject, projection jud judge judicial, judge, adjudicate

    leg, lect read, choose legible, lectern, lecturer, election liter letter literature, illiterate, literal

    loc place local, location

    log word monologue, epilogue

    luc light lucid, elucidate

    magn large magnify, magnate, magnificent man hand manufacture, manual, manuscript mar sea marine, mariner

    mater mother maternal, maternity, matriarchy, matricide mere part, segment mere

    meta, met behind, between metacognitionbehind the thinking metri, meter- measure geometric, thermometer, odometer min small minority, minuscule, minute mit, miss send permit, submission, mission, emit, mob, mot, mov move mobile, automobile, motion, promote, movie mon warn premonition, admonition

    mor, mort death mortal, mortician, immortality morph form, structure metamorphosis, amorphous, morphology mut change mutant, mutability, mutate neuro nerve neurology, neurosis, neurobiology nomen /nomin name nominal, nominate, nomenclature nov new novel, renovate, innovation, novella nym, onym word, name synonym, acronym, anonymous, pseudonym odonto tooth orthodontistone who straightens teeth ortho- straight, correct orthodox, orthodontist, orthopedic pac peace pacify, Pacific Ocean, pacifist pater father paternal, paternity, patricide, patrilineal, patriotic path feeling, suffering sympathy, apathy, empathy, telepathy, pathology ped, pod foot pedal, pedometer, centipede, gastropod pel, puls push pulsate, repulsive, impulse, compel, propel pend hang, weigh pendulum, pendant, suspend, pending phon-, phono- sound, voice telephone, euphony, cacophony, phonograph plan flat planar, plantation, plane

    pneum lung pneumatic

pod feet podiatrist

    port carry portable, transport, portage, report, pot power potent, omnipotent, potentate psych- soul, spirit, mind psychology, psychic, psychobiography pugna fight pugnacious, pugilist

    quer, quis ask query, inquisition,

    scent, scend climb ascend, ascent

    schizo, schiz division, split schizophrenic

    sci know scientific

    sciss cut scissors

    scrib, script write manuscript, scribe, proscribe, scripture sec, sect cut dissect, section

    sed, sess sit sedentary, session

    sens, sent feel, be aware sensible, sentient

    sequ, secu follow sequence, sequel, consecutive serv serve, protect service

    simil same similar, assimilate, simile, facsimile (fax) siphon tube siphon

    sol sun solar

    son sound sonar, resonate, unison soph wisdom, knowledge philosophy, sophisticated, sophomore (wise fool) spec, spic look, see spectacles, spectator, inauspicious, prospect spir coil spiral

    spir breathe inspire, respiration, conspire, perspiration spond, spons promise, answer for respond, responsible

    spont by one's own force spontaneous

    stat stay, position station

    tang, tact touch tactile, tangible

    temp time temporary, temporize

    ten, tent hold tentative, tenable, tenuous terr earth subterranean, terrain, terrestrial, disinter theo god, deity theology, polytheism, atheist, monotheism therm- heat thermal, thermos, thermometer trophy nutrition, food atrophywithout nutrition uro urine urologist

    vac empty vacation, vacuum, vacuous, vacant ven, vent come, go intervene, convene, contravene ver truth veracity, verify, verity

    vert turn introvert, irreversible, vertigo vit life vital, revitalize, vitamin voc call revoke, invocation, vocal, evocative, convocation zoo animal zoo, zoology, zoolatry PREFIXES

    PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

    a-, an- not, without amoral, anesthetic, apolitical, asocial

    ab- away from abduction, abstain, abnormal ad- to, toward adjoin, adjacent (lying near to) ambi- both ambidextrous, ambivalent ana- up, back, again analogy, anatomy, anagram anti- against antipathy, antiwar, antisocial apo- from, away from apology, apologize

    auto- self autobiography, automobile, autocracy, automaton bene- good benediction benevolent benefactor cata-, cat- down, against catastrophe--a turning down centro, centri- around, center concentric, centrifugal

    circum- around circumlocution circumference, circumvent com- with, together communal, community

    con- with, together connect, confide conspire contra- against contradict, contravene

    de- down, away descend, deject (cast down) dia-, di- through, across diameter, division

    dis- apart, not disengage, discord, discomfort dys- ill, difficult, bad dysfunctional, dysentery e- out of, from elect (choose out of), eject (throw out) ecto- on the outside ectoderm--outer skin

    en-, em- in empathy--feeling in

    endo- within, inside endoscope--instrument for observing inside epi- upon epitaph epidermis, epicenter eso- inward, within esoteric--more inward, esophagus eu- well, good euthanasia--good death

    ex- out of, from exhume, exhale, exodus hetero- other, different heterosexual, heterodoxy, heterodox heterogeneous homo- same homosexual, homogeneous, homogenized hyper- over hypertension, hypersensitive, hyperactivity hypo- under hypotension, hypodermic il- not illegitimate, illicit, illegal, illegible im- not imperfect, impolite, impossible im- into imbibe (drink in, take in)

    in- not indiscreet, invisible

    in- into incorporate (take into the body) inter- between intervene (come between), interstate intra- within intrastate, intramural

    ir- not irregular, irrational, irredeemable macro- large macrocosm, macroeconomics mal, male- bad, evil malediction malevolent, malnutrition meta- beyond metaphysical

    micro- small microscope, microcosm, microeconomics mono- one, single monologue, monotheism, monarchy, monogamy neo- new, recent neologism, neo-liberal, neonatology. neolithic ob- against object, obstruct (build against) palin-, pali- back, again palindrome

    pan- all, every pantheism, Pan-Hellenic, panorama, pandemic para- false paramilitary, paralegal, parachute per- through percolate (flow through) perforate (punch through) peri- around perimeter, periscope

    phil-, philo- like, lover of philosophy, Francophile, bibliophile, philanthropy poly- many, several polygon, polygamy, polytechnic, polytheism post- after postgraduate, posthumous postpone pre- before precede, predict (tell before) pro- for, forward promote, project

    pros- toward, in front prospectview in front, something coming up proto- first prototype, protoplasm, protobiology pseudo false pseudonym, pseudoscience

    re- again, back repeat, recede, regress (step back) retro- back retrogression, retroactive

    se- away from seduce (lead away), secede sub- under submarine, subject, subhuman subterranean sur-, super- over, above superhuman, superego, superintend, surpass syn-, sym-, syl-, with, together symphony, synonym, system, syllable sys-

    tele- distant, far off telephone, telepathy, television, telegram trans- across transient, Transatlantic, transport (carry across) SUFFIXES

    SUFFIX DEFINITION EXAMPLE

    -agog, leader demagogue, pedagogue

    -agogue

    -cide kill(ing) patricide, infanticide, herbicide. suicide -ectomy cutting appendectomy, splenectomy -ia, -y act, state amnesia, mania, democracy, anarchy -ic, -tic, -ical, having to do with anthropomorphic, dramatic, biblical,

    -ac cardiac

    -ics things having to do with optics, physics

    -isk, -iscus small asterisk--a little star

    -ism the belief in pacifism, terrorism, socialism,

    communism

    -ist one who believes in pacifist, terrorist, socialist, communist -ite one connected with meteorite, polite, cosmopolite -logy study field of biology, geology, etymology, cardiology -oid resembling, like-shaped asteroid, spheroid

    -or, -er one who takes part in doctor, actor, teacher, driver -phobia exaggerated fear photophobia, claustrophobia,

    agoraphobia

    -sis act, state, condition of analysis

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