People through "luxury" to highlight differences and social
The paradox of classical economics, luxury:
For people in the Christian world, thrift and asceticism is a need to pursue the good.The poor natural need to work to live a happy life, the rich are destined to have an obligation to do good to the society as a whole, generous and generous, this way of think of wealth, the purpose of which is high.From economics point of view, in the middle of the whole system is static, no vitality.It is weber topsy-turvy proposition of capitalism and the protestant ethic and the economic vitality of the whole society, or even shrinking.Luxury is for god's voters need to abandon bad habits, this luxury linked with all sorts of crimes.
About from the beginning of the 16th century, a unified Christian thought slowly began to collapse, with the rise of the nation-state, the popularity of the various views, nation-states gradually replace the church as the core of economic activity, the protestant in this process
played a strong role, preliminary for luxury to remove the bondage of moral, and therefore to legal status.Weber for capitalism and the relationship between the protestant has his mature theory.Anyway, accompanying with the development of protestant is the rise of capitalism, the large increase in economic activity and wealth, economic vitality, and trade between the countries together.
Thomas meng, as a representative of the mercantilism in the wealth of the British in the foreign trade in the discussion of the relationship between trade and wealth, "the ministry of foreign trade is the usual means of increasing our wealth and cash, at this point we must always keep the principle: in value, the goods sold to foreigners each year, must be more than we consume them."
Obviously, for the mercantilists, trade is a zero-sum game, the damage to the benefit will inevitably lead to the other country.So if one country to need to rely on imports of luxury goods, this kind of situation will be out of the country's gold.For mercantilists, which weakens the country's economic vitality and to a performance of gold and silver wealth, so the country must reduce imports, increase exports, imports to domestic supply to replace.At the same time, in fact, frugality will reduce imports, will leave more goods for export, but the
economical vigor and does not conform to the mercantilism want wealth, so Thomas?Meng did not agree with frugality, its perception of luxury is like this:
Moreover, nobles, gentleman and other people who go a long way, in terms of housing, clothing and other big pendulum, is not the poor countries.If it got very novel and unreasonably expensive work, is by our own people, with our own raw material to complete, it will make the rich money to maintain the life of the poor people, it becomes the best allocation method of public wealth.
This tolerant attitude to luxury, with economic behavior and business practices together, for classical moral, this is, of course, the traditional, a pioneer from the Christian world.He must have a business in the society, the importance of the social nature of the business and the exchange, and exchange for the social value of wealth.Desalination of moral principles, social holism goal orientation to individualism, these are all positive.But at the same time, the
pursuit of the interests of individualism in spontaneous cases, still can make up the whole social public interests of harmony.Although the mercantilists there, consumers, producers and there is a conflict between countries, but on the premise of the trade surplus, harmony is possible.
In the 17th century, on the other hand, the Netherlands and UK trade prosperity brought inspiration to emerging nation-state: on the surface of morality of luxury and pleasure, put an end to, along with the trade surplus brought about by the overall interests;But in fact, the surface of virtue is the desire for wealth, and this desire eventually still point to luxury.So the trade of the world is with luxury clear or not clear guidance inseparable, it benefited from luxury to dehua.Revaluation of desire, just as effective as heavy Nietzsche to morality, desire, emerging relationship between trade and wealth is a necessary prerequisite to dehua luxury.
If the source of the thought history, the back again, ancient Greek Aristotle seems to think that desire is limited, it is a high standard of desire problem is virtue and goodness, all desires beyond purpose is do not conform to the standard.Li Weize said in his history of Rome, luxury is a moral corruption, it is given from the Angle of the whole history of moralizing.So for the classical world, most of them are opposed to trade, trade itself to leisure and luxury make people become weak, it also can make people can't adapt to war fatigue and the poor, trade is hinder the development of the empire.Therefore, Machiavelli, bentham and Hobbes so it is necessary to material nature.All material need to be around the business and trade.
The tolerance of economics, or treat luxury bias:
Modern society is a commercial society, people are selfish, in which for the classical thinkers such as Plato, the selfish society is necessarily corruption, but will Smith, is from a more modern sense in terms of economics, the universality of self-interest is the natural tendency of human nature, as the materialization of the individual in the society, their desire is positive.Stoic and cynicism can hope to self-restraint and ideal of peace is impossible, for individual self-interest behavior patterns, not only can guide the increase of wealth, still can increase social welfare, the invisible hand may guide the consequences of a non intentionality.
Smith's economics is an important feature is objective, for luxury, economics has its proper understanding.Treat the effectiveness of demand, according to the law of diminishing marginal utility, the individual number of luxury consumption is less expensive demand, as long as a commodity is relatively scarce, our demand for this is a kind of luxury, actual it is synonymous with the individual sense of scarcity.If the reintroduction has so-called demonstration effect and ratchet effect, the comparison between individual expanded the space of explanation, this is a response to the social interpersonal interaction network, the strength of interpersonal interaction on the reinforcement for the treatment of universal validity of luxury.Another individual consumption behavior of ratchet effect by copying, diffusion, social biological mechanisms such as infection, automatically zoom in luxury itself.Is still a luxury lies not in the nature of consumption itself, but in the social network of human impression.This sense, luxury is a form of "exchange", due to their own, as
demonstrated by the levi-strauss, originated in systemic symbol consumption rules and differences, rather than the needs and enjoyment.While the economics on the meaning of utility and demand to strengthen the this explanation.First, from individual sense, luxury consumption is as a result, the comparison of difference of its own utility behavior for luxury consumption happen when marginal utility is larger;From the point of view of the community, which is formed by the interaction between people, outside of the individual self comparison we will continue to strengthen external comparison, people through the luxury to highlight differences and social status.
If you use the income and price to explain the market behavior, on the need for luxury of inspection, the best way to experience is elastic, as individual income growth to a, if the demand for a commodity will lead to increased by more than one percent, is this kind of products for the consumer behavior person is a luxury, it is also a Lancaster elastic analysis method proposed by the authors, of course, this analysis is the individual sense of the word.
From the point of view of society as a whole, for the economic factors in the history, practice or custom is crucial, the formation of social conventions and customs must be linked to system, Darwinian evolution is giving us explain the changing social, political, and economic new point of view.So institutional economics is the product of social Darwinism and union of pragmatism, the shadow of it with James and John Dewey.
Whoever bollen in his book "the theory of leisure class," a study of how people in social economic life show that the adaptive ability, system is formed in the process of natural selection and adaptation, the behavior of people have always been a habitual forces of the past and the influence of the popular way in the past, sometimes even can't get rid of.Whoever bollen explain their treatment by the method of such a luxury, people on the luxury is negative, the dull, he writes:
"But in a certain stage of the process of economic evolution,......, as proof of financial power consumption of the property of a specialized, line has gradually become a close system. The differentiation on the consumer, even in power before anything can be appropriately called money, had already started.... to consumption as proof of wealth, should be thought of as a derivative development. It is through the process to adapt to a new purpose of human characteristics, and this feature in the people's thought habit is originally already exists, established."(Mr. Bollen "theory of leisure class")
Luxury is that showed their wealth to the rich, make its wealth bring their social status, these luxury by conspicuous behavior, and luxury as derived behavior also has a long history in the process of economic development.
So, economics has her unique view of the problem.Choices often over the certainty of knowledge, interpretational sometimes is a kind of bias is discussed;Apotheker said explanatory power is unlimited potential, this is not only suitable for the text, the word itself is appropriate.About luxury, thad, and Patagonia have their own opinions, luxury and cost
also can be strange, or can be a meaning full analysis of their social functions, or can also be