The earth so big telescope to see the black hole's
With the aid of event horizon telescope, astronomers observed the magnetic field near the black hole horizon for the first time.Photo: the CfA
Most of the giant black hole as the universe vacuum cleaner, will all depend on it too close to devour it all.Galaxies, however, is more like a supermassive black hole in the center of the engine, the universe will matter falling toward a black hole is converted into energy, in the form of strong radiation released, even brightness than the surrounding all stars emit light.If the black hole in the rotation, it can also produce strong jets, outward material into the tens of thousands of light-years, thus shaping the face of the whole galaxy.Scientists believe that these engines are driven by magnetic field.Now, for the first time, astronomers in our supermassive black holes at the center of the Milky Way galaxy event horizon detected outside of the magnetic field.
The study's lead author, harvard - smithsonian astrophysical center (CfA) Michael Johnson said, "before understand the magnetic field is very important. No one has been able to tell a magnetic field near the black hole's event horizon, until now."
Lead researcher, CfA, and the United States at the Massachusetts institute of technology (MIT), Shep Doeleman added, "it has long been predicted that the
magnetic field should exist, but had never seen them before. Our data to the decades of theoretical research provides a solid foundation for observation."
This feat is with the aid of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT).Event horizon telescope by many sets of radio telescopes around the world connected to the Internet and form, its effect is equivalent to a giant telescope the size of the earth.Because of the greater the telescope would be able to provide more details, event horizon telescope will have the ability to distinguish small to the characteristics of the micro Angle of 15 seconds.Angle (1 seconds equal to 1/3600 of 1 degree, 15 micro arc seconds is the equivalent of a look at the moon on the earth surface the size of a golf ball.)
This high resolution is needed, because the black hole is the densest objects in the universe.A black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy, namely Sagittarius A *, quality equivalent to 4 million times the sun, and its event horizon is only 13 million kilometers in diameter, is smaller than the orbit of mercury in the solar system.And because of the black hole 25000 light-years from earth, seen from the earth, its event horizon size only 10 micro arc seconds.Fortunately, the black hole's powerful gravitational will bend and enlarge the event horizon, making it look a few bigger, can achieve approximately 50 micro arc seconds.So the size of the event horizon telescope can easily resolve.
Event horizon telescope consists of the radio telescope network all over the world and, eventually will be able to directly take horizon of supermassive black holes at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Event horizon telescope observations on 1.3 mm wavelength of radio band.The team measured the linear polarization of light.On the earth, the sun will become after
reflection line polarized light, it is also a polarizing sunglasses can keep out sunshine and reduce glare.And around the Sagittarius A *, the supermassive black holes, polarized light is made by circling along the lines of magnetic force of the electronic.As a result, these light reveals the structure of the magnetic field directly.
Sagittarius A * is surrounded by an accretion disk, which is around the black hole rotation of the material.The team found that certain areas of the magnetic field near the black hole is chaotic, with messy magnetic ring and vortex, like pasta together.On the contrary, in other parts of the magnetic field is much orderly, is likely to be produced by the material flow area.
They also found that magnetic field surrounding the black hole to 15 minutes in the short time period will be significantly changed.
Johnson said, "it has been proved again, is an energetic place at the center of the Milky Way galaxy, dynamic before beyond our imagination. The magnetic field were all beating."
These observations used in three different locations of astronomical observation equipment: the submillimeter array mauna kea, Hawaii and maxwell
telescope;Submillimeter telescope in Arizona graham hill;And in California near the Bishop of millimeter wave astronomy research joint CARMA.As the world more radio telescope antenna to join the event horizon, it will get more and more high resolution observation, the ultimate goal is the first direct filming the event horizon of a black hole.
Dorman said, "to build a telescope across the whole earth, the only way is to work with scientists around the world. With this result, the event horizon crack astronomical telescope distance are a step closer to a central paradox, and that is why - black holes could be so bright?"