The Mars exploration program overview
Mars was the importance of the former Soviet union, the United States, Europe and Japan space exploration project, today, including China and other emerging countries have joined the ranks.Since the 1960 s, the human will be a large number of unmanned spacecraft, including unmanned orbiter, Mars lander, a cruise.The goal of these tasks is to collect the current situation of Mars data, answer the questions about the history of Mars, and preparing for possible future human Mars lander.Scientists in constant pursuit of a Martian mystery, in addition to trying to make a more in-depth understanding of Mars, also for in the past and possible future of humanity in the earth.
Human ultimate ambition is Mars will she transformed into a second earth
Human in order to close to Mars, have paid a heavy price.About two-thirds of the spacecraft in the process of bound for Mars fails, some even in the beginning to the end.Such a high failure rate in the very great
degree due to the complexity of interstellar travel with many variables.As a result, many scientists to Mars as The main subject to Mars dubbed "terrible Galactic Ghoul" (The Great Galactic Ghoul).Failure than success ratio, make the journey to Mars is also known as the "Curse" Mars Curse (Mars).
But it will not be able to stop the footsteps of human science exploration.In October 2009, NASA and the European space agency agreement between the two sides will strengthen cooperation and improve the ability of collection, integration of resources and technology, continue to Mars together.The cooperation is referred to as "Joint Mars mission" (Mars Exploration to be Initiative).
Last year, in an attempt to quell the NASA budget cuts could lead to space exploration frustrated critics, U.S. President barack Obama announced at the Kennedy space center: "in the 30 s of this century, I believe we have the ability to send humans to Mars orbit and safe return to earth."Mr Obama said at the same time, Mars lander will continue to push forward.So, why did humans in the case of repeated failures, are still actively promote Mars exploration program?Please read the next section, understand the cause of the human history of Mars.
Why do humans to Mars
"Seti" planetary scientists think Adrian brown, the most obvious benefit of Mars is to promote the progress of science and technology."In
exploring the next border, we usually want to break through the limits of existing technology."Brown says, "if we don't have across the vast ocean and to the Asian, African, and the boundary of the new world, we may not be able to invent such a precise timing system and navigation technology."
Artist: phoenix detectors are working on Mars
In other words, in order to meet the desire of human exploration, we need to work on technical pushed forward further.The space exploration of the 20th century, for our remote communication technology, the filtering technology are of great progress.Future Mars exploration are in the same way, the application of new technology, will have important impact on earth humanity's life.
"This is an opportunity at the same time, it can encourage hundreds of millions of youth into the field of science and engineering", to support the exploration and immigration to Mars as the target of organization
"Mars Society" Society (Mars) founder zhuo Lin said, "if they are to develop the scientific thinking and learning, will open up the future exploration and ACTS as a pioneer in the new world of desire, the whole Society will benefit."
In addition, explore and move to Mars, may provide a foothold for humans extend to other world.Cosmologist Stephen Hawking is convinced that this is the key step in the human long-term survival.Although Mars cold, dry and almost no wind, but it has been warm and moist.If we can find water in the rock on the surface of Mars, so human eventually settled Mars is not impossible.
There is very important point, is through the Mars, can find clues to the past and the future evolution of the earth.In the solar system formed 4.5 billion years ago, earth, Venus and Mars once very similar, they are small, rocky planets.But Venus becomes hot, hot enough to melt lead up to 900 degrees Celsius;Mars has become very cold, the low night temperature can amount to several hundred degrees Celsius below zero.And the earth is "just right", scientists refer to as "the blond effect" (Goldilocks effect).Why is the earth to stay warm, and the liquid is not freeze or evaporate?Global warming will make the earth become the next Venus or Mars?Human exploration of Mars might find some clues.
It is for these reasons, the U.S. government announced last year to give up the moon centered "constellation", and plans to shift to the
exploration of Mars.So, America's current Mars exploration program going?Please read the next section and then look for the answer.
The progress of the Mars exploration program in the United States
So far, the United States have been flying near Mars exploration program, orbit, landing and roaming three stages.
When human beings in the process of the preliminary exploration of the solar system, the first task is to fly close to Mars, and in the process as much as possible shooting enough pictures of Mars.This phase represents the exploration program is sailor 3-4 sailor (Mariner 3-4) and 6-7 (Mariner 6-7).
In October 2001, Mars Odyssey spacecraft in 6 months after driving into the orbit of Mars
Then is flying around, with accumulating data in his hands and technology, the United States began to spacecraft sent to Mars orbit,
thus make long-term and global research.Orbital missions projects include: sailors 8-9, 1-2 pirates (Viking 1-2), Mars Observer (Mars Observer), Mars Global Surveyor (Mars Global Surveyor), Mars Climate Orbiter (Mars Climate Orbiter), 2001, Mars Odyssey (2001 Mars Odyssey), Mars Express (Mars Express) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter).
Current us to the third stage, the focus on promoting Mars landing and roaming plan.Through survey and technical preparation, the United States on the surface of Mars.Now, the American Mars detector can not only landed at a certain place at a fixed point, and you can use the rover on the surface of Mars.This one phase of the Mars Exploration program mainly includes: Viking 1-2 (Viking 1-2), the Pathfinder, Pathfinder, Polar Lander and outer Space 2 (Polar Lander/Deep Space 2), Mars rover (Mars Exploration Rovers), Phoenix (Phoenix) and Mars Science Laboratory (Science Laboratory).
According to NASA's plan, America's future Mars exploration program includes the following three stages.
It is the plane detection with balloons.The United States will launch the space shuttle to Mars, and the Angle of view with unprecedented Mars: flying in the Martian air to observation.
Second, the detection on the surface.Enter below the Martian surface, will tell us the geological structure of Mars, especially unravel the
mystery of Mars have water, or even come to the conclusion that Mars in the future whether suitable for human habitation.
Three is to sample collection.The Mars project plan from Mars rocks, soil and atmospheric samples, and sent back to the earth, this will be for scientists in the earth's precise research conditions in the laboratory.
Future Mars exploration program mainly include the Martian atmosphere and instability evolution tasks (MAVEN), ExoMars Mission and Gas tracking satellites in orbit (Trace Gas Orbiter), 2018 Mission to Mars, the Mars 2018 Mission), after the 2020 Mission to Mars.2018 mission to Mars, funded jointly by the United States and the European Union, had originally planned to launch Mars two cars on both sides of the Mars rovers, aims to collect samples return to earth and Mars.However, the partnership is over.Please read the next Chen, NASA and the European space agency (esa) joint Mars project.
NASA and the European space agency (esa) joint Mars project
According to the latest news, NASA (NASA) and the European space agency (ESA) in 2018 to a pair of Mars rover planned cuts, replaced by a single can be a ground of Mars drilling tools, through which they plan to collect the Martian soil, and finally back to the earth.
Mars rover to the surface of Mars
On April 18, 2011, NASA's science mission directorate of planetary sciences director Jim green, said the agency will provide $1.2 billion for this task, including the cost of the spacecraft into space.He told NASA's planetary science advisory committees branch at the same time, the European space agency member states may be in May this year to decide whether to promote the basic conception, including the United States "Mars astrobiology discovery - collector" (MAX - C) and the European Mars space biological rover (ExoMars) joint scientific goal, both plan launched in 2018.
The design of future Mars rover "merge", actually depends on the cooperation of both goals, capabilities, and investment in all aspects of
the game.The United States said, NASA will continue to focus on developing rapid collection of soil samples from Mars surface system, this is a set of America's national research council in the next 10 years in the field of planetary science research priority.
Although the countries have to sample the robot recovery tasks listed as priority, but some analysts believe that NASA will continue to push forward is expected to cost $3.5 billion MAX - C rover, the best price down to $2.5 billion, but some people still think of the planetary exploration plan budget is too high, and that future years will likely continue to shrink.
As the U.S. can provide nearly $1 billion in funding to cooperation projects, the two sides finally cooperation in early April this year return to the negotiating table.Over the past 10 years, through consultations between the two sides, the whole exploration program funds eventually shrunk considerably, which makes the final decided by both sides to complete a single Mars rovers.
NASA's Mars exploration program is responsible for the
humanitarian doug doug McCuistion stressed that the two sides are discussing the choice of joint work and task.He claims, however, America's space agency, NASA, might be responsible for the rover decline period (descent stage), it based on the technology of the Mars science laboratory (MSL).While the European space agency is likely to
develop detection bit, because Europe in the early days of the ExoMars has technical advantages on this plan.
"We will study how to use the ability of the parties and investment combination, common to complete a joint bots," doug doug McCuistion said, "it may be the MSL ExoMars with Europe and the United States are not the same, but should be a new tool to Mars is on its way."