The scientific revelation magical paranormal
You probably never been abducted by aliens, may also have never heard of someone and bigfoot dealt.But there is no doubt that others around you, or you must have a supernatural experience, such as "see" the future or long past.Most of us have had that experience: dream something finally happened, accurately anticipate what happened a few kilometres away, or predict will suddenly to call an old friend.This experience strange incredibly, it was really weird, but always has such things happen.
So, how does it work?The answer to the question how to want to see you ask who is the object.There are plenty of people in the world will these strange events due to extra-sensory perception (ESP), a kind of beyond sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste.Different from common sense, almost no range limit on ESP, and its main way for thinking rather than feeling experience.
The other view is that these events and the supernatural had no relationship.Sceptics say, these things did happen, but in a traditional science can explain the phenomenon.
In this article, we'll look at both sides of the argument, and find out the possible reasons of the phenomenon of ESP.We will also understand how pseudo practitioners make ESP illusion, and look at how this deceptive factors with the ongoing parapsychology dispute.
Esp is the floorboard of the various hypothetical mental ability.These abilities (and other supernatural), also known as the psi.
ESP the main types include:
• telepathy - the ability to perceive another thought
, super view - "see" events in other places or objects
• predict - the ability to see into the future
• retroactive recognition - the ability to see the distant past • psychic ability - the ability to communicate with the dead soul Touch, item technique -- by touching objects to learn the ability of information about people or places
Closely related to the psi phenomena have ability, but from the academic point of view does not belong to the ESP, this is telepathy, namely, only through the power of ideas to change the ability of the real world.
All these capabilities based on the concept of human with sensory ability beyond the known.Since the advent of human civilization, the concept has been exist in a variety of names, but the modern concepts developed until the 20th century.ESP the term itself produced in 1934, is a professor at duke university, J.B. Rhine, J.B. Rhine is a lab at the university scientists engaged in the work of supernatural research, is also the first engaged in one of the scientists who study and respected.
Global ESP believers on the existence form of the superpowers were at sixes and sevens.Some people think that everyone has this ability, and every time we unconsciously through the ESP.While others think that only part of practitioners, the shaman, or drop god only has the special ability, and these people only when into a particular state of mind to use this ability.Most believers think that everyone has a potential of ESP, just some supernatural ability is more sensitive than others.
On the mechanism of the ESP, held by the believer's point of view is different also.One theory is that ESP is similar to our common sense, is a kind of can from one point to another point of energy.This theory advocates that ESP energy performance usually in the form of electromagnetic wave, like light, radio waves and x-rays and other energy - just as we also cannot be detected by scientific means.
This theory is pretty popular in the early 20th century, but due to some inherent problems, now this theory has no longer suffers bestow
favor on.First of all, it can only explain telepathy, not explain super or precognition.Us to infer, if the information is used during transmission of electromagnetic energy, the information must be sent by the people, it must be from one to another mind.The theory fails to explain how the information is beyond time and space or objects from one to the people's mind.
Second, the theory and the understanding of themselves and the universe we can't maintain coordination.In most reports telepathic case, the role of the ESP way completely has nothing to do with distance.That is to say, no matter man and reception of the signals are in the same room or in the side of the earth, the strength of the "signal" is the same.Skeptics point out that any other form of energy to do this, so what about "psi wave" doesn't make any sense.In addition, we in the human body and didn't find any puzzling senses this energy can be recognized, nor is there any evidence of this energy wave, this seems very strange.
Considering these problems, now prevalent in the believer's theory is, ESP is a product of known something beyond the physical world.For example, many people regard it as another "overflow" of the real world.According to this theory, besides we realized that the physical universe, we are all still living in another use completely different dimensions at the mercy of the law.Time and space in another way to work in the real world is completely different, and this allows us to know
other people think, old memories, or has not yet happened in real life.Under normal circumstances, we are completely unaware of the existence of this dimension, but our mind occasionally able to capture this information.
Needless to say, this theory also completely beyond our scientific understanding of the world.According to this theory advocates, however, they did not intend to this theory into the category of scientific theory.Like the idea of god or the afterlife, this imaginary world also do not follow the physical laws of the universe.It depends on the existence of things is a soul.
Therefore, if use our understanding of the world's point of view, this theory is so weird, but why there are so many people believe in the existence of ESP?Hold this belief in the next section, we'll look at some of the reasons, and see if there is scientific evidence to support this belief.
Most believers are because of personal experience or hearsay evidence and believes that the existence of ESP.If you did dream finally came true, and detail strikingly similar, you might think that this is a golden evidence is used to illustrate their practitioners.If you hear a lot of incredible stories of ESP, and the origin of the story is very reliable, then you might find it hard to be totally ignore the phenomenon.
There is no denying the fact that the real world there are a lot of evidence to support these two points of view.Most of us would
occasionally experience something very coincidence, many famous predict and super visual examples are clear.For example, in 1898, Morgan Robertson published "in vain" (Futility) book, this is a film about a ship named "Titanic" (Titan) luxury liner of the novel.According to the author, this story is his thought of in a trance.In the fiction, the ship in one night in April, in the thick fog hit an iceberg and sank, killed hundreds of people.Fourteen years later, the Titanic, a ship size and structure are similar luxury cruise ship in the novel exactly the same time of the year, sank in the same circumstances.Whether the ship or ships in real life of the novel, passengers, the number of casualties is very high, because do not have enough lifeboats on the ship.
There are many other famous story (most of the evidence of this event if you have a full details the large and small, obvious ESP examples occurred in all over the world.But as for the believers in these stories is persuasive, but they are persuasive for scientists is very limited, because these examples are in a controlled environment.To make use of effectively verify something persuasive evidence, scientists have to almost completely controlled conditions in the objective standard lab tests.
Since the 1930 s, super psychologists have been all over the world to do so.J.B. Rhine (often referred to as the "father" of parapsychology) to complete the zener tests are most early, is also one of the most famous
such work.The original qi zener (named for its designer Karl zener) is a 25 white card, each card is printed with five simple, easy to distinguish between the design of a.Each group including 5 different pattern of the CARDS, so one correct guess any card on the design of chance is one 5.
Zener design standard
This experiment is very simple: Rhine asked subjects to guess the pattern of each card and record the results.On average, every 25 card at random guess there will be a "hit" 5 times.Rhine argues that under the condition of the banned any cheating, if the accuracy of the speculation has been higher than the standard, then there is the ESP ability.
Shocked the scientific community is (in the very great degree is doubt), Rhine in his paper the extrasensory perception, announced that some of his subjects to guess probability level is always higher than by chance.Many people on the Rhine the way and he expressed doubts
about the credibility of, but on the whole, he is also regarded as an orthodox scientists, and honest and reliable.
Since the pioneering work of Rhine, hundreds of super psychologists have done a similar test, sometimes get the same positive results.Most of these researchers use's zener mechanical design no longer, but a more casual images, such as painting or photography.In a typical experiment, the "sender" will focus on a specific image (target), and try to send it in the form of telepathy test subjects have been quarantined.As the "recipient" of the subjects described the scene in his mind, while the team recorded the receiver's impression.At the end of the test phase, the receiver trying to according to the experiments of impression, pick out the right goals from multiple images.
Developed in the 1970 s the ganzfeld (German, meaning "the area") target experiment, the receiver was stripped of sensory information, in order to focus even more easily than the ESP information.Subjects lay in a faint red light in the room, only listen to white noise, and cover the eyes (in traditional test, using split into two and a half of table tennis cover eyes).In most cases, the receiver can't guess the results of these tests, but some of the subjects with amazing detail describe the target image.In PSI detector: the Ganzfeld experiments have made a few example give people left a deep impression.In to test only regard not telepathic ability of similar experiments, without the sender, the receiver only.
In another common experiment, participants were trying to use thoughts to influence a machine, such as the random number
generator.After hundreds of rounds of tests, the researchers found that subjects did show some influence of machine action, though this influence is extremely weak.For more information, please check the special engineering research at Princeton website.
Many psychologists have argued that their findings show that there is ESP, but this is can't let convince doubters.In the next section, we'll look at some of the arguments which denies the existence of the ESP.
Over the past 100 years, psychologist, received a lot of trust, but there are still many sceptics see, from the point of view of the goodwill, ESP research belongs to the misguided, and you're welcome, this research belongs to the pseudoscience, no value.
For many skeptics, denied that ESP's main argument is simple: it doesn't make any sense to ESP.As previously learned, the existence of ESP phenomenon seriously deviate from the known universe "law", and these laws have been confirmed by numerous scientific experiments.These skeptics say, although we also want to believe its existence, but the ESP is so special, so that there is no evidence to the same special, we according to the can't accept it.
Widely circulated, they say, all kinds of anecdotes about ESP exists, of course, not nothing special evidence - will see it in the overall consideration.For the average person, a dream or feel to become a reality, and the details have no difference, it seems too amazing, therefore not to be only as a mere coincidence.But from a statistical point of view, this kind of thing, it is not so unbelievable.At present, the world's population has more than 6 billion, and every day people are constantly thinking and experiencing numerous important events.From a statistical point of view, on a particular date, some people think something will just will experience with these people.In life, this kind of thing will no doubt be occasionally happen to you.Sceptics say, will it linked with a desire to have the afterlife, so there are so many people are confused of psi phenomena and believe that it is no surprise that its existence.
If considering the people has the ability of logical reasoning and speculate on experience, hit chance would be even higher.For example, when you learned that Morgan Robertson was a seaman, knows a lot of modern ships in terms of technology, he clearly about the Titanic disaster prediction was felt incredible.Sceptics, says Mr Robertson in the book can accurately predict the details about real ships and collision, because he to the manufacturing process of the ship, the ship how to get into trouble, and what will happen situation like the palm of his hand.