Genetically modified salmon get approved by FDA,
scientific American exclusive follow up
A fast-growing salmon became the first edible permission in the United States of genetically modified animals.
After 20 years of regulatory vacuum, on November 19, the United States food and drug administration (FDA) announced the decision.The move quickly encountered opposition from some environmental and food safety organization.
But for the supporters of this technology, after a long and annoying wait, they finally welcomed the decision.They think that the decision can promote the development of other genetically engineered animals."It makes using the technology."Animal genetics at the university of California, Alison Van Eenennaam evaluation, "from regulatory obstacles hindered the people to use the technology for a time."
This kind of genetically engineered salmon - AquAdvantage salmon, is located in Maynard, Massachusetts, a companies in the United States AquaBounty Technologies products.Genetically engineered salmon can secrete than higher levels of growth hormone, wild salmon can grow into adult 18 months -- and three years to traditional salmon up to the same size.
AquAdvantage salmon and standard of the same age with the Atlantic salmon.Image: AquaBounty Technologies
According to the supporters of this technology, the modified fish food and other resources required for production per kg less, engineered salmon can alleviate the pressure of the heavy fishing of wild salmon.
Opponents worry that the genetically engineered fish will escape from fisheries, affect the natural ecological system.They also denounced the (administration) there is no requirement to fish with genetically modified (gm) logo.
"A lot of people say, 'yes, hope to have our logo'."Food safety center, an environmental group based in Washington, dc of the jedi Hansen, an senior policy nalyst said, "if the product is so good, the companies themselves should be willing to a
As early as in 2010, the FDA is done to the food safety of this product evaluation, environmental impact statement and released at the end of 2012.Assessment procedures and long interval between the final decision, let people suspect that the FDA decided by political interference.But the FDA senior policy analyst at the veterinary medical center Laura Epstein, said by license takes a long time, because it was the first time."The first time for most products, we are very cautious."She also added that the administration needs to deal with all kinds of public comment, to decision.
The FDA refused to comment on other application is also entered the assessment phase.Alison van Mr Ning said, it is unclear whether the FDA will be how to deal with the use of more frontier gene editing techniques (such as a CRISPR) animals.
Scientific American follow-up reports
After they learned the news in the nut shell network science people immediately contacted Alison van Mr Ning.She was at the university of California, Davis genomics and biotechnology researcher, the United States department of agriculture biotechnology national advisory council, at the same time the FDA membe4r of genetically modified salmon.
Alison van Mr Ning.Photo: biotecheducation.org
Scientific American: did you hear about the FDA approved the genetically modified salmon listed decision is what feeling?
Alison: my decision was not a bit surprised, for approval, according to the safety of genetically modified salmon and salmon, traditional and genetically modified salmon will be farmed on land in the fishpond, put an end to the salmon in the sea of environmental risks.My surprise the FDA took five years to decide whether to approve!
Science: do you think what effect on genetically engineered salmon salmon industry?American consumers when it's time to really eat on genetically engineered salmon?
Alison: this approval is one of the farms for panama highlands, so will not have much of an impact on the salmon industry.The approval is not offered opportunities for aquaculture, but it does provide the opportunities for Atlantic salmon farming land.Aquaculture industry itself is in the seafood at the same time, provide consumers with a way of reducing pressure on wild fish fishing.
Compared to traditional salmon, AuqAdvantage salmon feed is more efficient, which means that the land farming system per unit of output need to consume fewer resources, but also avoids some of seawater aquaculture environmental risk, such as the interaction between wild and farmed fish infectious diseases and parasites.
Farming takes 18 months time, even after a subsequent processing, so American consumers to eat genetically modified salmon also need a few years time.
Science: genetically modified salmon after approved, the FDA's concerns where next?What would be the production of transgenic salmon regulation?Need to mark?
Alison: all food sold in the United States must ensure safety.It is illegal to sell unsafe food, no matter why farming methods.In the United States, whether you need depends on the attribute of food itself.Because traditional AquAdvantage salmon and salmon is no different, so don't need a mandatory labeling.Seafood sold in the United States must indicate the origin of a product, so this kind of salmon will mark is "production" of panama, in addition, also marked the aquaculture is (rather than the wild salmon fishing).
Science: what do you think of the future of the commercial prospects of gm salmon in ten years?
Alison: as animal geneticist, and I'm feeling inspired with the FDA's decision, because it shows that the use of genetic engineering breeding safety products are listed in the channel.Genetic engineering allows breeders to introduce other species beneficial mutations, join in the process of breeding useful properties, such as disease resistance, and so on.At present, the human to produce animal protein, about 20% are lost because of disease, this both for animal welfare, and the ecological environment is a problem.Genetic improvement is very important to reduce the environmental footprint of food production.Take the chicken, chicken growth rate is now four times the size of the '50 s, only need 42 days can output.These achievements are through traditional breeding way, greatly reducing the dosage of feed required for the production of one kilogram of chicken.In the next ten years, I hope the breeders are also can through genetic engineering methods, the livestock poultry genetic improvement.
Science: the first genetically modified salmon, how are you going to eat?
Alison: wipe photogenic burn sauce is absolutely eat grilled fish!Then sprinkle spring onion and lemon juice, deserve to go up a cup of white wine and a bowl of fragrant air good taste meat dishes risotto.Maybe can also do with genetically modified (gm) antiviral made in Hawaii papaya dessert!