How do scientists look at the Paris agreement?
Climate change is not a fresh concept.From the beginning of the 19th century, scientists have gradually realized that since the industrial revolution humans burn fossil fuels to produce a large amount of greenhouse gases, and recognize the greenhouse gas effect on earth's climate.Behind these conclusions, are long-term research, scientists can track record of temperature on the glacier area of continuous observation and countless fitting model and so on.
Climate change, the first is a matter of science.
Scientists have therefore issued a warning to the world, if we do nothing, the world will be 4.5 degrees will heat up in less than 100 years.In this process, the humanity will experience a rise in sea levels, frequent extreme weather, food security is threatened, and so on the challenges and crises.From here, people began to realize that climate change is already isn't just a matter of science, it was about the future of humanity.
According to the scientists to provide evidence and information, the world sat down and opened international conference, talking about all kinds of measures to tackle climate change.Meeting talked about a collapse, collapse, back and forth more than ten years, finally in the recent Paris, 195 countries have signed a general sense of the legally binding agreement on climate change.
Scientists in the "climate change" played an important role in this big event.They think of the signing of the agreement?
If we do nothing, by 2100, global temperatures could rise by 4.5 degrees.What is this concept?The sea level rise alone will make all along the huangpu river of Shanghai core submerged in the water, it's not too more violent and extreme weather.
Optimist: no matter how, to sign the agreement's progress
Professor of climate change at the university of Leeds Piers Forster, a professor at Piers Forster :
"Christmas miracle! Perhaps we can get the best deal. The ambitious long-term plans to stop the rise in sea level, ensure food safety, and protect the coral reefs. While we cannot predict, about the agreement, we almost don't know what kind of economic way to achieve a goal."
"But on the other hand, the answer is simple: we need everything to help us. We need to start a real world revolution, right now! We are in need of renewable energy, nuclear energy, zero carbon transport, energy efficiency and more energy-efficient housing. Even excluded from this agreement during the international aviation and shipping, we also need to solve in the next few years. In particular, we also need a lot of from carbon capture and storage and greening in negative emissions."
"Short-term climate control of pollutants is also becoming more important, especially in agricultural produce methane emissions, diesel transport of smoke and pollution from the burning of wood."
Mark Maslin climatology professor at university college London:
"Paris agreement is a remarkable achievement. Since the Kyoto protocol, for the first time at the United Nations negotiations, 195 countries have signed a legally binding agreement on climate change. It tries to balance" climate justice "and" differentiated responsibilities' and limit global warming 'is far lower than 2 ?
temperature. The most important thing is, every five years there will be a review, if evaluate future warming might more than 2 degrees, the terms of the deal will be closed tight."
"I have to praise the French, who ensures that all countries are able to speak, let all the opinions of the state. Therefore, we have a landmark international climate agreement, it is also flexible enough, to ensure that the climate change under control, and damage and help those poor countries."
Professor Chris pull split at university college London (Chris Rapley) :
"The Paris agreement will be the turning point of epic, or naive hope? Time will let us understand the nature of it. Anyway, it will be decided by the real world of action. We have to change the energy structure, economic system and political system. Those who want to build a better world, with wisdom and evidence lit up the Paris agreement. The tide has turned, people can choose to walk along with it, or upstream. But for now, the former has been a sharp rise in the proportion of."
The British Antarctic survey Dr.Emily Shuckburgh
"Ice cores and observation record shows how humans in such a short time significantly changing the global atmospheric. Followed by our generation and future generations of people facing risk. Agreements to let we have already seen the other side of the human. An unprecedented scene coming towards us, global cooperation, lead humans to a more secure future. Science tells us that this would be a huge challenge, but also full of opportunities."
Proved: the government and the scientific community needs to face
Reading university, atmospheric chemistry professor Bill Collins and earth system model:
"This is the most ambitious climate change agreement that we have ever seen, if can realize the planning in the agreement, then in limiting the damaging effects of temperature rising, the agreement will be huge benefits for all countries. But in the agreement statement about the cutbacks are deleted, this worrying. We have to set a right direction, or how to achieve those goals? To 2050, we have to about 70%. Before the government really accept this, we should keep cautious optimism."
Climate modeling at university college London professor Julian Hunt:
"Paris protocol is logic is smooth, transparent and open. I think of, in the city of the citizens and the government should play the role of what? The end of the century, 70% of the population will be living in the city, and they will be responsible for most of the energy use. But in terms of current urban planning and way of life, such as Dallas, Riyadh, Paris or Hong Kong, want to control the global temperature rise of 1.5 ? C target is unable to realize. Governments is an urgent need to solve this challenge."
University of east Anglia Tyndall climate change research center of Asher Minns:
"Climate science has a new challenge. If you want to keep the temperature below 2 degrees of global warming, we need to reverse the trend of global warming, but also need to do much more than this. This means that people need for a new dialogue on global climate change policies, to improve on climate change before we have to face more fierce extreme weather."
Professor at the university of east Anglia climate change science and policy Corinne Le Quere :
"At the end of the agreement shows that the scientific community together to cope with climate change. Agreement in a certain sense has three key factors: keep warming below 2 c, away from fossil fuels, and review every country every five years to increase the emission reductions. Now national commitments is still not enough completely, but as a whole, to enterprises, investors and citizens sent a powerful message: our new energy is clean energy, fossil fuels are heading for the past. We have a lot of work to do."
Sceptics: agreement is hard to achieve our goals
At the university of reading the climate system, science professor Nigel Arnell, (Nigel Arnell) professor:
"As agreement, points out, it is now the promise is not enough to achieve its goals. Part of the agreement text is fuzzy, it does not specify the exact time of peak emissions, just set to achieve the balance of greenhouse gas emissions during the latter part of this century."
"Now, for the research community, a definite requirement is figuring out how to emission reduction measures to meet the new ambitious plans. At the same time, we also need to quantify the effects of these measures: what are the terms and conditions will remain the same, and what needs to be modified again. So, the development of new technology and the establishment of new institutions may be necessary."
At the university of Oxford, the earth system science professor Myles Allen:
"Is possible within 1.5 degrees? Human-induced climate warming has been close to 1 degree, is expected to reach 1.2 degrees in 2030 - so control within 1.5 degrees of temperature will be a big challenge. So if we want to stick to zero carbon emissions this way, can do is to control the source of warming."
"If, if we can insist the IPCC the '2' plan, if the United Nations environment programme (unep) is right, we can through the limit of methane and soot pulling down on peak temperature of 0.5 degrees. If nature response as we imagine the change, then 1.5 degrees is still possible, but this would be a big, big" if "."
The university of Southampton, a professor at the national center for Marine, (John Shepherd) :
"Very few people realize that achieve agreement how difficult, even if we have 50 years of time. Because of the country's own emissions cap, we don't even have anything can be guidance to the ceiling. I to achieve these goals is not optimistic."
The university of college London Dr. Ilan Kelman:
"100 billion dollars a year in aid certainly helpful, but the number is less than 8% of the world's military spending every year announced."