The theme of the business architecture and rules
Business architecture has become a fashionable word.Like safety, everyone had heard of, also have their own views, but only a few who know what it really means.
In this paper, at the same time consider under the condition of subject and the rules of business architecture phenomena are discussed in this paper.Don't know the theme of the business architecture, it is hard to determine the role of business architecture connotation and denotation, such as rules.Many managers and architects will say: "what's the problem? By identifying the stakeholders, and collect their point of view, basically can define business
architecture."Unfortunately, this kind of practice is a great mistake, it will cause a lot of contradictory point of view.
Through the views of stakeholders define business architecture supporters of subconscious will focus from "what is it" into "what it can do for me," and will follow the standards of ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 handling opinions and views.However, this standard warned that view doesn't define and can only be used to describe the theme.We are here to distinguish "description" and "definition".May be collected thousands of description is not the subject definition, because all description or opinion is subjective, in other words, everyone see is he or she want to see.
I noticed that, in all kinds of conferences and online countless discussions of the business architecture, most of the debate is all about business architecture is what to do, or should do, in fact this is another matter.When we define views on driving, can you give the definition of the car?Can't, because of driving in the car with only a few operational control, and their influence on how mobile car.In addition, there are found from the car can't driving rules and regulations;Just don't see the appearance of the car and trim its internal structure.If that won't solve simple examples in the car, so for the business architecture, what makes us think stakeholders by observing more than business architects know?
I in this article introduces a kind of method, let I can define out independently of the business areas of business and enterprise architecture.I found that as a result, business architecture is simple, than a lot of people want to get at the same time with the other business has more complex relationship.I will elucidate the reasoning process of this conclusion, and listed some results.
Business architecture is defined
The architecture of the enterprise business elements
Business architecture can be from two aspects: business and formal definition.The first way is based on business value.Currency's value is a well-known business value.Many people believe that the value, including monetary equivalent goods, is the only value the value of the business.Abstract on the value of money is very simple, and modeling, measurement and management is very convenient;However, in the consumer society, money can't eat, can not wear, more can't take away.
When a new company, to write the business model of the enterprise, is the company's "business".It is usually composed of enterprise's core business functions, is the enterprise the key to distinguish from other companies in the market.Business function is the enterprise with consumer society the only connection between the "supply and demand factors.
Use only monetary value of the connection is a bit shortsighted.Monetary value will confuse demand meet mechanism, through long-term operation, changes in demand, the company may have missed this adjustment mechanism to follow up the demand point.If the customer satisfaction decreased, the company's revenue will not be affected, but by the time the revenue fell may be too late, the company reputation in the customers may have broken.That is a monetary value can be used to measure the business results, but should not serve as the only standard.
At the same time, in the consumer society, all business functions can determine the business value of the company.If the function can meet the needs of the consumers, they can help the company to make money.That is the second way to use money to measure business architecture and function.If the business architecture is based on the business functions, the essence and the strategic target of the company is likely to be able to adapt to market changes.
In discussing business architecture, I assume that it is a structure in the first place.I chose in the ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 definition of architecture, and it is extended: an organization system/structure embodied in it can basic subsistence cohesive element, between each other, and the relationship with the environment and the ability to guide its design and evolution of Shared principles.As you can see, this definition is not limited to the business or technology.
With this definition, I to the enterprise of a few significant business elements was investigated, including will be those of other authors comes down to the business architecture.I analysis the elements is the enterprise strategy, business ability, financial revenue/profit target, business functions,
customers and suppliers, personnel, and business process, organization
structure, corporate governance, business information, and the structure of
economic activity is responsible for.
In the above list of these elements, only the business functions and business
information has the following characteristics:
; Fundamental - a enterprise can exist without them, and they cannot
; Subsistence - they are not derived from something else, can exist
; Cohesion - they are consistent and associated with each other ; Guide similarity - they have the same guiding principles. That is to say, these two elements have properties of architecture.As for
the features of other enterprise elements, I can simply introduce: ; Corporate strategy - insufficient, its guiding principles may also
be different from other enterprise element principle.Enterprise
strategy and business model constitute the input and the target of
the business architecture.Enterprise strategy is set by the chief
level management and supervision.Business architecture will only
promote strategy, and through practice verify its final version. ; Business ability, is a specific business function or the
realization of a certain business functions combination.Business
ability is one of the major achievements of business architecture,
and architecture itself is only part of the responsibilities of
identified the ability.
; Financial goals - form a structure, rather than architecture,
because they cannot be self-sufficient, may not be cohesive.In
essence, the enterprise's financial structure is determined by
several factors, including business functions, operation and
organization structure, practice methods and technology, as well
as the state of the market.
; Customers and suppliers - determine business architecture is the
enterprise internal elements, and customers and suppliers is the
external elements;Relationship with particular customers and
suppliers is the business architecture model of input and
output.Architecture model only contains the type of customers and
; Personnel, insufficient, may not be cohesive, can be replaced and
externalized (outsourcing).Business architecture (model), staff
can also exist, but not the realization of the business
architecture;All of the implementation architecture is done by
; Business process - is the realization of the functions of business
form, more precisely, is the realization of business services
form.That is to say, the business process is not structured element,
and function/service can be.
; Governance structure, organization structure, as well as the
structure of the responsible for economic activity - the business
architecture to realize the main output;Some of them are business
architecture input.If they are away from the business architecture
decisions and direction, the enterprise must adjust/change these
implementation elements, in order to avoid trouble in the daily
So, despite the elements listed above to the enterprise is very important, but they do not belong to the architecture.They form the existence and operation of business architecture environment.Not all is all important to the enterprise business architecture (just like the car is not all engine).Business architecture is the ability to influence the enterprise the essence of things. The theme of the business architecture
When doing business, ask why, what, who, where and when a few questions, the theme of the business architecture is defined by the answers to these questions.That is business architecture will elaborate the enterprise business model and corporate strategic planning, to convert them to the business functions, while the rest of the company should how to solve this one function or how to implement.
Enterprise business architecture is composed of business functions and business information architecture, it across the business management and enterprise's organization structure, enterprise business model and enterprise strategic planning to determine the goals and objectives, define the enterprise business functions and business information.Business architecture of this definition is based on the preceding architecture definition.
Functional architecture is not a new idea;Although is not very clear, modeling language ArchiMate called "functional architecture".(BFA).It is defined as "the BFA describes the execution process of situations, and can assist to complete the enterprise modeling and visualization of the" the most important goals.Also, "enterprise business model... describes the business process, data and information, corporate purposes, the key success factors, information area, and the relationship between the parts to each other."According to this logic, almost every part of the enterprise is "business architecture".
On the contrary, I think business architecture is defined, not describe the functions of situation, does not involve the specific implementation, the enterprise's most important goal is appeared in the enterprise strategic planning.In addition, as we discussed before, business architecture does not describe the business process, data and information, the purpose of the enterprise, the key to success factors, the structure of the organization ".All of these are the factors of architecture implementation.Purpose of the enterprise and the key success factors cannot appear in architecture, because they are the external architecture should comply with the standards.
Between business architecture and their implementation are M: M relationship.A business architecture may have several optional
implementation;And vice versa.Implementation can't be used to define architecture.Architecture should provide functions, information and operation quality (such as availability, scalability, robustness and security, etc.) of the model.Therefore, in the field of business and technology two to find the solution of the latter, the business architecture as a source of demand.
Business architecture will deal with the current and planned functional architecture model.Existing functions usually be interpreted as business competitiveness, and planned function is through business ability description (i.e., implement certain business functions in a particular business environment/feature of potential).Business competitiveness may include incentive value and the current behavior, and business capability defines what companies can do in the presence of certain conditions.
Ability is a business function and it may (keep) the implementation of the combination of the two, as shown in figure 1.Business architecture for each capability defines a business function/feature combinations, and enterprise management definition/reserve the implementation details.Anyway, the ability of the business is just business architecture do and part of the definition of business architecture rules.Does not define/reserved implementation of business function/feature list is worthless.For example, you define/planning a vacation trip of the seychelles, but if all the tickets were already sold out, the plan is useless.
Figure 1. Part of the business ability
Business architecture association (BAG) is proposed based on a complete ability, the concept of value stream and organization, described above is different from they put forward the concept of business architecture.This architecture is pointed out that the input of vision and strategy is the framework, and tactical implementation method;Shared by the management and organization ability are the main implementation mechanisms, it can not match with the architecture (unfortunately);Value stream is the result of the implementation, may also be different from the direction of architecture;Architecture design project and implementation project is separated, and policy - the rules - rules - indicators - measures is architecture's contribution to the other and its management, such as the outside of the architecture.Business architects may be as part of the rules in all these activities, rather than as the theme of architecture.That BAG is not a new way, only on the architecture model - plan and implement together existing practice, such as intention and reality blend.As is known to all, according to the business environment, may implement the value stream and ability, also may not be implemented, such as the construction of a prosthetic structure may not be the best way to use resources.
In addition, I also found the BAG has several principle is
self-contradictory.For example, if "the scope of business architecture is the scope of business", how can the rules "business architecture is a reusable",
it is impossible to reuse.Or, if "business architecture is not prescriptive", in the enterprise all can do what you want to do, business architecture is redundant.This article presents the business architecture paradigm is prescriptive, it defines the business functions and other elements required in the enterprise information model should try our best to achieve.
Even if no formal record, didn't even being noticed, but every enterprise has its own business architecture.Only business functions and business information model constitute the specific business architecture.Other business elements only contributed to the emergence of architecture scheme.These elements affect the business architecture, or be affected by the business architecture, but do not constitute a business architecture.
The influence of functional business architecture
Based on the functions and information on the nature of the business architecture is an implementation of a business function and provide service architecture of business capabilities.In other words, the business architecture will guide enterprises to develop in the direction of service-oriented, including the structure of business services.This architecture can be strategic business goals/objectives, rewards, consumer demand and corporate culture together.It also requires a specific organization and operating structure.This architecture enterprises will become the most suitable for survival in a highly dynamic external environment form.
Through to the business services, service-oriented can quickly adapt to change.If companies don't want to be flexible, not on the management and organizational structure adjustment, it is impossible to implement the business plan of flexibility.Business architecture of service-oriented features in the enterprise performance as the main reinforcing factors, can with the social structure, corporate culture, internal business unit is compatible with the external activities to work together on the market.
Service-oriented business architecture is suitable for all kinds of types, companies of all sizes.Service-oriented based on business innovation, business integration, flexibility and scalability, and the integration of technology, scalability, security, and manageability, can form the market competitive advantage.
Form of business architecture enterprise service organization and operating entities, by manual or automatic way to achieve a specific business function.Usually these entities across the company's business and IT field.The implementation of information technology as a business function form, occupies an important position in the optimization of business services.Granularity
appropriate service formed a powerful tool that can solve most of the new business task and existing problems.
Business services to provide the most complete level of abstraction to tactical and strategic management.Also allows a more capable and competitive business architecture implementation.Therefore, by rearranging the cooperation of the structure of the enterprise service may be able to upgrade the efficiency and customer value of input/output.
Some notes of the principles of business architecture
The rules of the business architecture is the bridge between business requirements and business ability, provides a method of what will be converted to do.Since the business architecture is defining the business organization, management and operation of the structure of the demand for resources, the rules of the business architecture requires business architecture can be used in two basic dimensions.First, they are for the current state of the enterprise defines the functions of the business model, and planning the ability to achieve strategic state functions.Second, they through the changing structure of product, service, organization and operation assisted the development of the enterprise management business transformation.The two will contribute to the enterprise financial goals agreed upon.The relations between subject and the rules in the business architecture is shown in figure 2.
Figure 2. The theme of the business architecture and rules
It is not just a business architecture of business architecture to deal with.By the rules of the business architecture, it can infiltrate into the influence of the enterprise of many elements, but all these elements are not architecture or controls.Business architects will level, chief executive of instruction with the direction of the enterprise strategic planning and market analysis together, instruction into business function components, functions, features, services and products.
Business architect's contribution to the business performance is very big, but they don't define earnings or revenue, or other financial indicators, this is the job of the company's management.Business architects to design the solution for some performance or revenue, but I wouldn't call this earnings or revenue model.Business performance and revenue can be as the extensibility, flexibility and robustness, the business architecture quality led drivers.
Business architect defines the business plan and/or business unit should take on task, so as to keep up with the enterprise strategic planning and the company's goals and objectives.These decisions will affect or should be able to affect the business structure, business and technology management structure, business are not ripe, strategy and relevant technical delivery, although which unit do is defined by the related management.
Business architecture rules need to make some decisions, but currently it is the privilege of management, should share with business architects or authorization to them.This is why business architects should have a higher level of business, such as manager level or higher level, because they want to influence senior and middle management of the business.
Business architects work focuses on medium and long-term
benefits.Short-term solution, can be characterised as "today's income regardless of tomorrow" or "tomorrow will be a new business," significantly higher costs, a greater risk, because the business is likely to be no "tomorrow".Although the architecture on the possibility of errors, admittedly, but is more common in the process of implementation is short-term thinking to the destruction of the architecture scheme.
In a word, the rules of the business architecture is on the role of business architects a description of the responsibilities of the major and minor.To separate the theme of the business architecture and rules, can distinguish architecture model and its implementation throughout the enterprise.This also helps to clarify the business management responsibilities of both architects and company.
This article discusses the definition of business architecture theme and rules, its reasoning and choice.The key method is to separate the theme of the architecture and rules, separate the architecture and implementation.Business architects is e