What makes a world-class university?
Press: recently, some domestic university offered to run the world first-class university, worthy of praise and encourage their ambition, however, we must first understand the actual condition of world-class university, have to catch up with a target clearly.
In order to provide valuable information for education in China, the author in the past 10 years, visited the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Canada and other countries more than 30 universities, including the top universities in the world's top 10 9, 15 of the world's top 20 college (in accordance with the "Shanghai jiaotong university world university ranking").At the same time, also to China more than 60 universities to give lectures, and visited the university of Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and other major.
What makes a world-class university?
? a criterion for a world-class university: for more than 10 Nobel Prize
Recently, some domestic university offered to run the world first-class university, wish is ok, but before moving towards this goal, we
must first understand the world first-class university is what look like?What are some characteristics and standards.
I have been engaged in a research project in the past five or six years, is "the distance education in China and the world".I to Stanford university for study key, and visited the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other countries more than 30 of the various levels of universities.Which discuss a question is: what is the world's top universities?
Appeared on the surface, most of the world first-class university is a long history, beautiful campus, many masters.In fact, international schools and deeper connotation are worth noting.
To tell you a few facts first, and let people think.
So far, the world has more than 300 researchers in universities or research institutions at work won the Nobel Prize.If according to talents' cultivation standard of top, mainland China all university should row after 300, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Singapore and other parts of the university of China.
I studied or worked for three universities in the United States, their professors won the Nobel Prize number is as follows:
1, the university of California, San Diego, 17 a Nobel Prize.
2, university of California, Santa Barbara campus five Nobel Prize.
3, Stanford university, 37 a Nobel Prize.
If what is "a world-class university," estimated that many people may think only at Stanford university, the other two schools are very common, some even are not heard.But, want to know the above two Nobel laureate at the university of California, not only there are so many, and many disciplines have affected the scholars of the world.All university of China and the distance of the university of California is huge, don't say a few years, even decades, difficult to achieve.
I gave a simple standard, measure whether any university in China to enter the "world class", we have to see whether it has won more than 10 Nobel awards.Why on the basis of this number?Because so far 30 universities around the world have at least 10 professors or scientists won the Nobel Prize.A university on the scientific research strength, if can't enter the top 30, is hard to say it has become the world's first class.
? has a group of world-class master
Early school, tsinghua university, university of mei yi-qi give a definition: "the so-called big scholars, called also not have building, a
master of" also."This sentence is considered a classic, so far as people often mention.So what is called "master"?Is quite difficult to define.In terms of science and technology, there is a more objective criteria, is to obtain the highest prize in various disciplines.A lot of natural science have recognized as the world's highest award, such as maths prize, computer science has the Turing award, physics, chemistry, biology and other fields have a Nobel Prize.Without exception, has a number of world famous universities with this kind of privilege, a professor of experts.
To measure the level of a university, however, is not simple only see a university how much these international award winner, and should see where they are, pay attention to where their work is made.The Chinese university of Hong Kong, for example, the former President Charles kao won the Nobel Prize for physics, can explain physics at the Chinese university of Hong Kong has reached world class?Obviously can't see a problem simply.In fact, Charles kao winning research achievements is he made during the period of doing a PhD in the UK, is represented by the British university scientific research level.And pride of the Chinese university of Hong Kong in oneself once had a President won the Nobel Prize, more should ponder: why did Charles kao to Hong Kong is not the same level of study?Where is the gap between themselves and the British university?
See a problem to see the essence, the Nobel Prize when calculating a university number, depends on the research achievements of the winners is made, in which school because the school best illustrated by the scientific research level.If according to this standard, Harvard University in the world, it has a 68 Nobel Prize winner;Followed by Stanford university, there are 37 Nobel laureates.
You know, many disciplines is not of the world's highest award.The Nobel Prize awarded scope is very limited, only including physics, chemistry, biology (medical) and economic the four traditional discipline.Though mathematics no Nobel Prize, but it has a same level awards, called the "prize", awarded once every four years, each time is about four people, a per year on average, rewards those who make outstanding contributions to mathematics under 40
mathematicians.Princeton university and the university of Paris have seven fields prize winners, tied for first in the world.
How many world-class talent ? look at training
Measure the level of a university, not only look at its more powerful scientific research achievements, also look at how to develop students quality it.One of the reliable standard is watching a university to cultivate the students, including undergraduate and graduate students, then how many won the Nobel Prize.So far, there are 23 universities around the
world at least 10 graduates won the Nobel Prize.Best is the Harvard University, a total of 69 graduates has won the title.Followed by the university of Cambridge, 65.Calculate according to the standard, old university comparative advantage, because of the Nobel Prize in 1895, at the beginning of the prizes, a university graduates to get this award, must be attending university has grown up.Harvard and Cambridge are hundreds of years old, so their graduates that the start of the Nobel Prize for decades has a huge competitive advantage.
? has opened up a new subject of excellences
Most of the subject is not the international prize, but each subject has its own excellences of characters, they not less contribution to the academic world, the international award winner, they thought profoundly affects people's thinking, changed the views of people in the world.As founder of evolution Darwin founder, aromatic, founder of the information theory, cybernetics wiener, belong to thought the most important person in cultural circles, their contribution is greater than that of general Nobel laureates.So, whether for a university as an international first-class another reliable standard is: whether it has open academic endeavor the man of the hour, have created a master of the field.
? its scientific research achievements have to change the world
The world first-class university is not a distant and abstract concept, but in each person's life, let the ordinary people can feel its existence.Measure whether a university as a world-class another indicator is that it creates ideas and inventions whether technology has affected the world, whether to let people benefit from every corner of the world.Such as computer science at Stanford university in the world's highest, many revolutionary invention in the field are first made to the university, such as the concept of today, people use the Internet and search technology is firstly originated here.Stanford's department of psychology has long dominated the United States, people use the concept of "intelligence" is the professor of the department of first put forward in the last century 20 s.Top universities can't just a name, want to have the research results to change the world, affect the life of the ordinary people, thinking way and see the world.
? the best talent to the world if there is a great attraction
Top university is the world's top master mix, attract the best people in various disciplines to work.Look at those big influenced the development of science and technology where scientists are willing to work, you know which school is world class.After Einstein's fame, from Europe to the United States, he chose Princeton university, because he thinks here has the most suitable for his work environment, including the
experimental condition and resources, is conducive to play his own talents.No matter from which side, Princeton university, has no doubt is world class.
? teachers can influence the world of popular science books
There is a neglected index, is a professor at the university of teams can someone write the world's popular science books.Ordinary people think "pediatrics" popular science books is a scientific research, talent that only those scientific research is not a good thing to write popular science works, actually otherwise, those who affect the world of popular science books often comes from the hand of the master.General scholars mostly will only be "serious" knowledge, but only those who are on a particular subject has profound attainments of outstanding scholars to his profound theory to be easy to understand, use vivid language to let the public to understand that the advanced scientific theory, so as to improve the public's scientific literacy.Such as the university of Cambridge is now in charge of Newton's mistress hawking wrote a book "a brief history of time", by his sense of vision, in plain vivid style of writing, let the advanced ideas of physics to the masses.
Before I went to Stanford university, attended the mathematics of the late professor poly a writing "how problem solving", "mathematics and guess" and other books, the books for middle school students can
understand it.Poly a master is a world-class math, he wrote a series of popular mathematics books, popular in the world.If one day, a professor of a university of China also wrote this book is popular all over the world, is not only a household name in China, and been translated into foreign languages in the world, this kind of meaning and honor as winning the Nobel Prize, the author is worth all the Chinese pride and respect.But so far no one has been able to write this level of China popular science books.
? can attract people from all over the world come to visit
Without exception, the world's top universities are also scenic spots and places of interest.How to measure a university environment, will see if it can attract large Numbers of tourists to visit.First-class university building is not tall, also not line, but lies in its artistic charm.
Use these standards to measure any university in China, will know that the gap between us and the somebody else not can eliminate three or five years, is clear that China university and the world how far the distance.To a world-class university in China, a long way to go.
(Wall at the university of Cambridge so far to pursue the
aesthetic, is actually show the artistic charm)
(The Nobel Prize winner)