ProceduralEffective Date: April 18, 2013
RequirementsExpiration Date: April 18, 2018
COMPLIANCE IS MANDATORY
Office of the Chief Engineer
NASA Systems Engineering
Processes and Requirements
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Table of Contents
Institutional and Programmatic Requirements
Chapter 3. Requirements for Common Technical Processes NASA Systems Engineering Activities on Contracted Projects Systems Engineering Life-cycle and Technical Reviews Systems Engineering Management Plan
Appendix A. Definitions
Appendix B. Acronyms
Appendix C. Practices for Common Technical Processes Appendix D. Systems Engineering Management Plan
Appendix E. Technology Readiness Levels
Appendix F. Technical Product Maturity TerminologyAppendix G. Life-cycle and Technical Review Entrance and Success Criteria
Appendix H. Compliance Matrices
Appendix I. References
Appendix J. Index
Table of Figures
Figure 5-1 – NASA Uncoupled and Loosely Coupled Program Life CycleFigure A-2 – Enabling Product Relationship to End Products Table of Tables
Table 5-1 – SE Product Maturity
Table G-1 – SRR Entrance and Success Criteria for a ProgramTable G-2 – SDR Entrance and Success Criteria for a Program Table G-3 – MCR Entrance and Success Criteria
Table G-4 – SRR Entrance and Success Criteria
Table G-5 – MDR/SDR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-6 – PDR Entrance and Success Criteria
Table G-7 – CDR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-8 – PRR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-9 – SIR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-10 – TRR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-11 – SAR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-12 – ORR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-13 – FRR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-14 – PLAR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-15 – CERR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-16 – PFAR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-17 – DR Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-18 – Disposal Readiness Review Entrance and Success Criteria
Table G-19 – Peer Review Entrance and Success CriteriaTable G-20 – PIR/PSR Entrance and Success Criteria
The purpose of this document is to clearly articulate and establish the requirements on the implementing organization for performing systems engineering. Systems Engineering (SE) is a logical systems approach performed by multidisciplinary teams to engineer and integrate NASA’s systems to ensure NASA products meet customers’ needs. Implementation of this systems approach will enhance NASA’s core engineering capabilities while improving safety, mission success, and affordability. This systems approach is applied to all elements of a system (i.e., hardware, software, human system integration) and all hierarchical levels of a system over the complete project life cycle.
a.This NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) applies to NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including component facilities and technical and service support centers. This NPR applies to NASA employees and NASA support contractors that use NASA processes to augment and support NASA technical work. This NPR applies to JPL, other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements only to the extent specified or referenced in the appropriate contracts, grants, or agreements. (See Chapter 4.)
b.This NPR applies to space flight, research and technology, and institutional programs and projects (including Information Technology (IT)), as appropriately tailored and customized for size and complexity. See Paragraph 2.2 for tailoring and customization descriptions.c.In this document, a project is a specific investment having defined goals, objectives, requirements, life-cycle cost, a beginning, and an end. A project yields new or revised products or services that directly address NASA’s strategic needs. Projects may be performed wholly in-house; by Government, industry, or academia partnerships; or through contracts with private industry.
d.The requirements enumerated in this document are applicable to all new programs and projects, as well as to all programs and projects currently in Formulation Phase as of the effective date of this document. (See NPR 7120.5, NPR 7120.7, and NPR 7120.8, as appropriate, for definitions of program phases.) This NPR also applies to programs and projects in their Implementation Phase as of the effective date of this document. For existing programs/projects regardless of their current phase, the Designated Governing Authority (DGA) may grant waivers/deviations allowing continuation of current practices that do not comply with all or sections of this NPR.
e.Many other discipline areas such as health and safety, medical, reliability, maintainability, quality assurance, IT, security, logistics, and environmental perform functions during project life-cycle phases that influence or are influenced by the engineering functions performed and need to be fully integrated with the engineering functions. The description of these disciplines and their relationship to the overall management life cycle are defined in other NASA directives;
for example, the safety, reliability, maintainability, and quality assurance requirements are defined in the 8700 series of directives, and health and medical requirements are defined in the 8900 series. To that end, this document contains human systems integration language and requirements. (See NASA Standard 3001, NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, and NPR 8705.2, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems.)
f.In this NPR, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.” The requirements are explicitly shown as [SE-XX] for clarity and tracking purposes. The terms “may” or “can” denote discretionary privilege or permission, “should” denotes a good practice and is recommended but not required, “will” denotes expected outcome, and “are/is” denotes descriptive material.
g.In this NPR, all document citations are assumed to be the latest version, unless otherwise noted.
a.National Aeronautics and Space Act, as amended, 51 U.S.C. ? 20113(a).
b.NPD 1000.0, NASA Governance and Strategic Management Handbook.
c.NPD 1000.3, The NASA Organization.
d.NPD 1001.0, NASA Strategic Plan.
e.NPD 7120.4, NASA Engineering and Program/Project Management Policy.
P.4APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS AND FORMS
a.NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements.b.NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Management Requirements.
c.NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management
d.NPR 7150.2, NASA Software Engineering Requirements.
e.NPR 8705.2, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems.
f.NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human System Standard.
a.Compliance with this NPR will be documented by Center Directors in the SE NPR Compliance Matrix for Centers (Appendix H.1). Center self-assessment of compliance should be conducted approximately every two years or at the request of the Office of Chief Engineer (OCE). A copy of the Compliance Matrix is forwarded to the Office of the Chief Engineer. In
addition, the OCE conducts periodic assessments at the Centers to obtain feedback on the effectiveness of NPR 7123.1 to facilitate updating the NPR.
b.Compliance for programs and projects is documented by appending a completed Compliance Matrix for this NPR (see Appendix H.2) to the Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP).
NID 7123-69, NASA Interim Directive (NID) NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements, dated March 13, 2012.
NPR 7123.1A, NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements, w/Change 1 (11/04/09), dated March 26, 2007.
1.1.1Systems engineering at NASA requires the application of a systematic, disciplined engineering approach that is quantifiable, recursive, iterative, and repeatable for the development, operation, maintenance, and disposal of systems integrated into a whole throughout the life cycle of a project or program. The emphasis of systems engineering is on safely achieving stakeholder functional, physical, and operational performance requirements in the intended use environments over the system’s planned life within cost and schedule constraints.
1.1.2This document establishes the common technical processes for implementing NASA products and systems, as directed by NPD 7120.4, NASA Engineering and Program/Project Management Policy. Additionally, this NPR establishes the common NASA systems engineering technical model. This document complements the administration, management, and review of all programs and projects, as specified in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements.
1.1.3The processes described in this document build upon and apply best practices and lessons learned from NASA, other governmental agencies, and industry to clearly delineate a successful model to complete comprehensive technical work, reduce program and technical risk, and improve mission success. The requirements and practices established in this NPR should be tailored and customized, respectively, per Paragraph 2.2.
The order of precedence in case of conflict between requirements is 51 USC 20113(a) (1), National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended; NPD 1000.0, NASA Governance and Strategic Management Handbook; NPD 1000.3, The NASA Organization; NPD 7120.4, NASA Engineering and Program/Project Management Policy; and NPR 7123.1, NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements.
188.8.131.52Figures within this NPR are not intended to be prescriptive but notional.1.2Framework for Systems Engineering Procedural Requirements
1.2.1Institutional requirements are the responsibility of the institutional authorities. They focus on how NASA does business and are independent of any particular program or project. These requirements are issued by NASA Headquarters and by Center organizations, and are normally documented in NASA Policy Directives (NPDs), NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), NASA Standards, Center Policy Directives (CPDs), Center Procedural Requirements (CPRs), and Mission Directorate (MD) requirements. Figure 1-1 shows the flow down from
NPD 1000.0, NASA Governance and Strategic Management Handbook, through Program and Project Plans.
1.2.2This NPR focuses on systems engineering processes and requirements. It is one of several related Engineering and Program/Project NPRs that flow down from NPD 7120.4, NASA Engineering and Program/Project Management Policy, as shown in Figure 1-2.
NPD 7120.4NPD 8700.1NPD 8900.5Mission
Engineering Program and Project OSMA Support OCHMO and Related Management Directives DirectivesOrganization DirectivesDirectivesDirectives
Engineering RequirementsProgram/Project Safety and Mission Health and Medical MSO Functional Management Assurance RequirementsRequirementsRequirementsRequirements
Mission Directorate Center Engineering Programmatic and Management RequirementsPolicies and Practices
Program and Project Plans
Figure 1-1 – Hierarchy of Related Documents
NASA Engineering and Program/Project
NPR 7120.5NPR 7120.7 NPR 7120.10NPR 7120.6NASA Space Flight NASA IT & Instit. Technical Standards Lessons Learned Program & Project Infrastructure for NASA Programs ProcessManagement Program & Project and ProjectsRequirementsRequirements
NPR 7123.1NPR 7120.8 NPR 7120.9NPR 7150.2NASA Systems NASA Research NASA Product Data NASA Software Engineering & Technology & Life-Cycle Mgt. Engineering Processes & Program & Project for Flight Programs RequirementsRequirementsManagement Req.and Projects
Figure 1-2 – Documentation Relationships
1.3Framework for Systems Engineering Capability
1.3.1.The common systems engineering framework consists of three elements that make up NASA systems engineering capability. The relationship of the three elements is illustrated in Figure 1-3. The integrated implementation of the three elements of the SE Framework is intended to improve the overall capability required for the efficient and effective engineering of NASA systems. The SE processes are one element of the larger context to produce quality products and achieve mission success. This NPR addresses the SE processes. The larger SE framework also includes the workforce and tools and methods. Additional initiatives to address these other elements include revision of the NASA handbook on systems engineering and development of tools and an assessment model. Together, these elements comprise the capability of an organization to perform successful SE. Each element is described below.
Common Technical Processes
•System Design, Product Realization, and Technical Management
Tools and Methods
•Advanced Tools and Methods
•NASA SE Handbook and Guides
•Technical Measures and
•Skills, Competencies, Teamwork,
•Ethics, Training, Experience
Figure 1-3 – SE Framework
1.3.2.Element 1: Common Technical Processes. The common technical processes of this NPR provide what has to be done to engineer system products within a project and why. These processes are applied to the hardware, software, and human systems integration of a system as one integrated whole. In addition to the common technical processes, contributions to improvements of SE capability also come from the inclusion of:
a.Concepts and terminology that are basic to consistent application and communication of the common technical processes Agency wide.
b.A structure for when the common technical processes are applied.
1.3.3.Element 2: Tools and Methods. Tools and methods enable the efficient and effective completion of the activities and tasks of the common technical processes. An essential contribution of this element to SE capability is the improvement of the engineering infrastructure through the three Agency-wide activities listed below:
a.Infusion of advanced methods and tools in the SE processes to achieve greater efficiency, collaboration, and communication among distributed teams.
b.Provision of a NASA handbook on SE methodologies (NASA/SP-2007-6105, NASA Systems Engineering Handbook) that is a source for various methods and procedures that Centers can draw upon to plan implementation of the required processes in their projects. c.Measurement of the SE capability of projects within NASA and assessment of the improvements of capability resulting from implementation of the SE NPR, use of adopted methods and tools, and workforce engineering training.
1.3.4.Element 3: Workforce. A well-trained, knowledgeable, and experienced technical workforce is essential for improving SE capability. The workforce must be able to apply NASA and Center methods and tools for the completion of the required SE processes within the context