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    Report of the

    Working Group on




    th11 Five Year Plan (2007-2012)

    Government of India

    Planning Commission

    New Delhi





    1.1 Background

    1.2 Evolution of Sports Policy

    1.3 Studies/Reports

    1.4 Programme Initiatives under Five Year Plans



    3.1 Current Sports Scenario

    3.2 Approach & Strategy of the XIth Plan



    Page 1 of 89



    “India is a young nation. India is a nation of young people. Our youth are ready to work hard for a bright future…They want to build a new India. We must build a new

    India of their dreams. I want every one of our youth to walk shoulder to shoulder, and walk forward with us in building a new India. Every young person must have faith in our future. To know that this country will create opportunities for all for the full expression of their talent and skill.” PM’s Independence Day Speech, 2006.

    “Be strong my young friends, that is my advice to you. You will be nearer to heaven through football than through the study of the Gita.” - Swami Vivekananda. th (The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol. III, p.242 9Edition, 1964)

    “Every human being has a fundamental right of access to physical education and sport, which are essential for the full development of his personality. The freedom to develop physical, intellectual and moral powers through physical education and sport must be guaranteed both within the educational system and in other aspects of social life.” International Charter of Physical Education and Sport, UNESCO 1978.


    1.1 Background: Sports and Games as a vital component of social and cultural life are embedded in the Indian heritage, and can be found in the archaeological excavations of Mohenjodaro and Harappa, the Vedic literature, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the Puranas, the literary works of Kautilya, Kalidasa, Panini and Dandin, as well as in Buddhist and Jain literature. They had been seen as an intrinsic component of education and development of the human personality in the philosophical texts of ancient Greece, the progenitor of the Olympic movement. Every civilization has evolved and developed its own indigenous modes of physical endeavour and healthy social interaction through a variety of games and sports forms and events. Apart from being a means of physical exercise and fitness, sports and games have been a medium of entertainment, the generation of a spirit of healthy competition, bonding and pride in the community, and an avenue of constructive preoccupation for active young people.

    1.1.1 In the modern times, there has been an increasing recognition, at the global level, of the role of sports in development per se. The United Nations brought the theme of „Sport for Development and Peace‟ into its agenda in 2001, and issued an

    inter-agency report in 2003 showing how sports can assist in the achievement of the

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    Millennium Development Goals. Following this report, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 58/5 proclaiming 2005 as International Year of Sport & Physical Education (IYSPE 2005), thus giving a strong impetus to efforts to more fully integrate sports into the development agenda. A series of deliberations/programmes/activities involving governments, the private sector, civil society and UN agencies during the year identified sports as: i) being integral to quality education with mandatory physical education recognized in a number of countries as a universal pillar to foster education, health and personal development; ii) improving the health standards of the population; iii) achieving sustainable development; and iv) building lasting peace.

    1.1.2 The above developments, inter alia, serve to highlight the particular importance of sports as a vital ingredient of the development of youth and children in terms of their education, health and fitness and fostering positive values among them, and the special significance of this when seen in the context of India‟s demographic profile wherein persons below the age of 35 years constitute nearly 75 per cent of the population the

    “Young India” referred to by the Hon‟ble Prime Minister in his Independence Day Address. In terms of the imperatives of policy, and priorities for planning and action, this finds expression in the restructured Twenty Point Programme 2006, in which one of the monitorable items under Point No. XIII (entitled „Yuva Vikas‟), Item No. 48 is “Sports for All in Rural and Urban areas”.

    1.1.3 In terms of the competitive aspects of sports also, there has, over the years, been a sea change, in terms of the manner in which they are played, practiced and perceived at the national and international levels. The standards and levels of endurance, fitness and performance displayed by sportspersons have improved exponentially, the number of competitive sports disciplines has increased with the inclusion of many games indigenous to various regions of the world and, with the massive growth and sophistication in the spheres of media and communications, the visibility of competitive sports has grown enormously. In tandem with these trends, there has been increasing emphasis on the creation of high quality infrastructure and employment of sophisticated technology in the conduct of sports events, with a great deal of attention being given to the development of advanced scientific and technical support systems for sportspersons. With all this, sports as an area of activity, has acquired vast new dimensions, with multi-

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    faceted implications of an economic nature and business potential also. Increasingly, hosting of international events is also seen by countries and cities as a means of positioning and show casing themselves in the international arena as tourism, business and investment destinations; significantly, many countries/cities are using these events as an opportunity to revitalize the poorer areas of the cities. The phenomenal growth of satellite television has not only brought international sports events into the bedrooms of billion of viewers across the world, but in the process opened the doors for huge revenue generation through sale of broadcasting rights, advertising, etc. Equally importantly, these developments have a significant impact on the perceptions and expressions of national aspirations and pride, mass participation, and bringing communities together. The furore in Parliament over the recent poor performance of the India‟s Cricket and Hockey teams, at one level, and the crowds thronging around television sets to see the Football World Cup in Germany (an event in which India was not even a participant), at another, are testimony to the place that sports have come to occupy in our lives.

    1.1.4 The hosting of the inaugural Asian Games in Delhi in 1951 heralded the pioneering role of India in promoting the Olympic movement in Asia, at a time when long colonized and oppressed nations and peoples were beginning to express their independence and aspirations. It is an irony that, at the conclusion of the XV Asian

    thGames in Doha, Qatar, India was in the 8 position, behind Uzbekistan, with a total

    medal tally of 54 medals (10 Gold, 18 Silver and 26 Bronze), as compared to a tally of 316 medals earned by China, 198 by Japan, 193 by South Korea and 85 by Kazakhstan and at the level of the Olympic Games, we have yet to get a single Gold medal (other than in Hockey in the distant yesteryears) and got a solitary Silver medal in the last Games in Athens.

    1.1.5 When it comes to professional excellence at the level of individual sportspersons, it is observed that the consistently rising level of performance in various disciplines is not only related to basic training and grooming at the early stages (which, of course is of vital importance), but is also a product of a complex interaction of scientific back-up comprising, physiological, biomechanical, nutritional and psychological elements, use of state of the art equipments/accessories, adoption of research based modern techniques

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    and a well planned and strict regimen and schedule. During the past two decades several countries, such as Australia and China, have committed substantial financial and human resources to identifying and developing their sporting talent, which is reflected in the exponential growth in their medal tallies in the Olympics and other mega international events. In short, in today‟s world, an international medal-winner is not just

    found, or born, but is created through a well-researched, discipline-specific, scientific processes and education, backed up by appropriate incentives. What also emerges from this is that achieving excellence is not something that can come about as a subsidiary activity, but is a full time occupation. This, in turn, has a range of implications in terms of the need for incentives and career options, etc., for talented sportspersons.

    1.1.6 India has, of late, been positioning itself as an important host country/destination for organizing a variety of multi-discipline, mega, international sports events. After holding the Afro-Asian Games in 2003 at Hyderabad, the World Military Games are proposed to be held at Hyderabad in 2007, the Commonwealth Youth Games will be held in Pune in 2008, followed by the main Commonwealth Games, 2010 in Delhi, and India has also made a bid to host the Asian Games, 2014. On more than one occasion, the aspiration to host the Olympic Games in India has also been expressed at various levels. While, the hosting of such mega events has a great value in terms of projecting the status and position of the country in the comity of nations, and the legacy, in terms of development and up-gradation of sports and urban infrastructure, together with a variety of other socio-economic spin offs, a major legacy and aim behind the organization of such games has to relate to development of a sports culture and facilities all across the country, and a significant improvement in the levels of excellence, in terms of performance and medal winning abilities of our sportspersons at the national and international levels. Clearly the present levels of performance and attainment would indicate that much remains to be done in this area, and unless steps are taken in a focused manner, questions could well be raised about the efficacy and desirability of committing substantial resources for staging mega international events.

    1.1.7 All this calls for a comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy, and carefully crafted programmes, backed by the allocation of commensurate resources, and a well oiled organizational structure with clearly defined roles for the various stakeholders. It is in

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    above stated background that the existing policy and programmes need to be seen and reviewed, and the strategy and approach for the Eleventh Five Year Plan conceived and formulated.

    1.1.8 Planning Commission had initially constituted a single Working Group for Youth Affairs and Sports with reference to the formulation of the Eleventh Five Year Plan, and a separate Working Group for the Development of Adolescents. Later, it was decided to constitute a combined Working Group for Adolescents‟ Development and Youth, and a separate Working Group for Sports and Physical Education. A copy of the Planning

    thCommission OM No. M-12015/3/2006-Edn dated 13 October, 2006 indicating the

    composition of the Working Group and its terms of reference, is enclosed at Annex I.

    stthThe Working Group held meetings on 21 November, 2006, 27 November, 2006 and

    th20 December, 2006 to deliberate upon various issues related to planned promotion of

    thsports and development in the country. In its meeting held on 15 January, 2006, the

    Group extensively discussed the „Draft Report‟ and gave final shape to it.

1.2 Evolution of Sports Policy

    1.2.1 Physical education, games and sports have been receiving attention over successive Plans. During the Second Five Year Plan, the National Institute of Physical Education was established in Gwalior in 1957. In 1961, the National Institute of Sports was established with a vision of promoting excellence in sports up to international standards and a number of steps were initiated towards this end. During various Plan periods emphasis was laid on developing facilities for coaching, promotion of physical fitness programmes, promoting rural sports, development of sports infrastructure, and centers for training and excellence for the sub-junior, junior and senior levels, development of indigenous games, and scouting and nurturing sports talent, including special schemes for the tribal, coastal, hilly and far flung areas with respect to the nurturing of talent in specific disciplines, etc. However, till 1982, sports continued to be looked at as a secondary or a residuary activity under the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

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    1.2.2 It was only after India hosted the IX Asian Games in 1982 that sports as a subject of policy started receiving attention. In the wake of the Asian Games, 1982, a number of steps were taken in this direction, which included, the creation of a separate Department of Sports under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MoHRD), which was later expanded into a Department of Youth Affairs and Sports in 1985, and upgraded to a full-fledged Ministry in May, 2000. In 1984, the Sports Authority of India was created as an autonomous registered society under the Department (now Ministry) of Sports. For the first time steps were also initiated for developing a comprehensive, National Sports Policy, and a Resolution in this regard was tabled in both Houses of

    stParliament on 21 August, 1984. This led to the National Sports Policy, 1984, and can be seen as the first move towards developing an organized and systematic framework for the development and promotion of sports in the country, and the precursor of the present National Sports Policy, 2001. The Policy, apart from bringing out the need for establishing a network of sports infrastructure and facilities in the rural and urban areas, inter alia, also emphasized the need for making sports and physical education an integral part of the curriculum. This resolve has also been stated in the National Policy of Education (NPE) 1986, which calls for making sports and physical education an integral part of the learning process, and provides for its inclusion in the evaluation of performance. It also underlines the need for making physical education a part of the school improvement programme.

1.2.3 The Preamble to the National Sports Policy 2001 states - “Activities relating to

    Sports and Physical Education are essential components of human resource development, helping to promote good health, comradeship and spirit of friendly competition, which, in turn, has positive impact on overall development of personality of the youth. Excellence in sports enhances the sense of achievement, national pride and patriotism. Sports also provide beneficial recreation, improve productivity and bolster social harmony and discipline”. The twin planks of the Policy are “Broad-basing” of

    Sports and “Achieving Excellence in Sports” at the National and International Levels. The Policy states that while the broad-basing of sports will, primarily, remain the responsibility of the State Governments, the Union Government will actively supplement their efforts in this direction and for tapping the latent talent, including in the rural and tribal areas. The Union Government and the SAI, in association with the Indian Olympic

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    Association (IOA) and the National Sports Federations (NSF), will focus specific attention on the objective of achieving excellence at the National and International levels.

    1.2.4 The National Sports Policy 2001 set out the framework for the action plan, on the eve of launch of Xth Plan, as follows:

    (a) According high priority to the development of sports in the rural areas by

    mobilizing village panchayats/gaon sabhas as well as rural youth and sports

    clubs - (i) to facilitate development of the requisite infrastructure; and (ii) to

    harness the available talent and potential through an appropriate competition

    structure in rural areas as also in the disadvantaged and remote parts of the


    (b) Giving special consideration to the North Eastern Region under various schemes;

(c) Promoting indigenous games;

    (d) Actively pursuing the integration of Sports and Physical Education with the

    educational curriculum, making it a compulsory subject of learning up to the

    Secondary School level and incorporating the same in the system of student


    (e) Introducing a National Fitness Programme in all Schools and initiating steps to

    augment the required resources both material and human;

(f) Setting up of specialized sports schools;

    (g) Introducing an appropriate inter-school and inter-college/university competition

    structure at the National, State and District levels;

    (h) Involvement of various agencies, apart from the Government (Central & States),

    including the Panchayat Raj Institutions, (PRIs), Local Bodies, Educational

    Institutions, Sports Federations/Associations, Clubs, Private/Public sector entities

    and Civil Society for creation, utilization and proper maintenance of the sports

    infrastructure at all levels;

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    (i) Introducing a system of review-based periodic prioritisation of various sports

    disciplines on the basis of proven potential, popularity and international

    performance, with a view to put special emphasis on development of such priority

    disciplines in collaboration with IOA and State Governments;

    (j) Setting up centres of excellence to identify and train outstanding sportspersons

    and sports academies where young and talented sportspersons could be

    groomed to achieve higher levels of performance in the international sports arena;

    (k) Working together of Government, IOA and NSFs in a harmonious and co-

    ordinated manner;

    (l) Ensuring that the IOA and the NSFs demonstrate orientation towards

    achievement of results and tangible progress, and their functioning is transparent,

    professional and accountable;

    (m) Preparing Long Term Development Plan (LTDP) for each sports discipline,

    including a proper calendar of competitions at various levels;

    (n) providing the requisite scientific back-up in terms of nutrition, psychology,

    medicine, pharmacology, physiology, bio-mechanics, anthropometry, etc.;

    (o) Initiating suitable measures, including tax-exemptions on imports of raw materials

    as well as finished goods through OGL route, and sales tax exemptions by State

    Governments on sports goods, to ensure access to high quality sports


    (p) Taking concerted steps to train Coaches, Sports Scientists, Judges, Referees

    and Umpires, in line with international standards;

    (q) Providing adequate incentives to provide both social recognition and financial

    security to distinguished sportspersons during and after their sporting careers;

    (r) Drawing up joint / unified sports tourism plans for various parts of the country;

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