2009 WEST KINGDOM CA RULES
Last Updated 4/23/09
GENERAL NOTE PLEASE READ
Each archer should be familiar with the Society Combat Archery Rules and the West Kingdom Combat Rules before participating in combat.
See West Kingdom Combat Manual
Due to safety limits placed on combat archery equipment (low poundage bows and
crossbows) and the low mass of the ammunition, arrows and bolts strike with less force.
They need not strike with the same force as hand-held rattan weapons to be considered
Under no circumstances is an archer to determine whether or not a shot was a kill or good.
The determination of a blow is entirely up to the combatant receiving the blow. Often a
combatant will look at the archer and ask if a shot was good. An archer may then offer
his/her opinion quickly as not to impede active combat. If the shot was oriented correctly
and hit square, then it is good; glancing shoots are not considered good. Killing Convention
See West Kingdom Combat Manual
Note: An archer is killed like any other armored combatant. Like any other combatant an
archer has the option to yield rather than being struck.
Missile Combatant Shield Standards
1. Missile combatants may carry a light buckler, up to 15 inches (38 cm) in diameter, or
equivalent surface area, for warding off missiles. The buckler MAY NOT be used as a
shield for the purposes of blocking rattan weapons. A combat archer may carry and use a
shield or pavise; however, only if they can carry it on or off the field and they may not
use/span their weapon.
2. Missile combatants may carry or place on the field a pavise for warding off missiles.
A pavise shall be constructed of material equivalent or superior to ? inch plywood and
must be capable of being freestanding. Pavises can not be used as shields unless built to
minimum shield specifications (see West Kingdom Combat Manual).
3. Shields may be constructed with a leg(s) so that they can act as a freestanding pavise
during melee combat.
a. The leg(s) used to keep a pavise standing must be at least 1.25 inches in diameter or
1.25 inches square and be well attached.
b. Pavises are destroyed by a single hit from a siege engine or ballista. Combatants
behind the pavise are not killed. The pavise must then immediately be removed from the
field or dropped flat.
c. A pavise can be carried in a manner which does not require hand control (such as a shoulder strap). In this case, the fighter is not allowed to actively block with it, nor can they use their own weapon, and if struck by a hand weapon, the blow is counted as if the pavise was not there.
Missile Combatant - Armor Standards
1. Missile combatants will meet minimum Society and West Kingdom armor standards –
like any other heavy weapons combatant. The only exception is the “Archer’s Gauntlet”
which allows an archer to wear two demi-gauntlets. It is recommended that a full gauntlet or hockey glove be worn on the bow hand, See West Kingdom Armored Combat Manual, armor hand protection section for details and description.
Missile Combatant - Weapon Standards
Bows and Crossbows
1. Bows shall have a maximum draw weight of 30 pounds at 28 inches of draw
length, as measured from the center of the bow riser. Bows that are rated at a lower
pull or shorter draw are permitted if they do not exceed this maximum when tested -
Minimum draw weight for hand bows is 20 lbs.
All bows used in combat will be inspected before being taken out onto the field.
2. Crossbows shall have a maximum pull of 50 pounds at 12 inches of draw at the
nut. Crossbows with a draw length of other than 12 inches may not have an inch-
pound rating exceeding 600 inch-pounds. (Inch-pounds is determined by multiplying
the length of "draw" in inches by the pounds of pull at the locked position on the
string.) All crossbows, to be used in combat, MUST be inspected before being taken
out onto the field – Minimum draw weight for crossbows is 400 inch pounds.
3. Compound bows (bows with pulley mechanisms) are prohibited.
Missile Combatant - Ammunition
1. Metal, hollow fiberglass shafts and wooden shafts are prohibited.
2. ONLY SOLID PULTRUDED FIBERGLASS shafted arrows are permitted. Shafts
should have a minimum diameter of 1/4 inch.
3. Before attaching a blunt, the front end of the shaft must be flat, not pointed. Metal
points must be removed, leaving a clean, flat end. There shall be no metal anywhere
on the arrow. The shaft shall be tipped with an acceptable blunt head (see section
Blunts and Fletching).
4. The maximum length of the shaft is 28 inches, measuring from the base of the
blunt to the base of the string groove in the nock.
5. Shafts shall be wrapped with opaque electrical tape or strap tape (linear or spiral
wrap) from the Anti-penetration Device (APD) to at least the edge of the blunt. The
tape should be strong enough so that if the shaft should break, it will still be held
6. All arrows shall be marked to indicate ownership with the owner's name. For
inter-kingdom wars the name of the kingdom (West) shall be included as well to
make it easier to locate the owner.
7. If an opponent's arrow lands in the quiver, all arrows in the quiver shall be considered broken and may not be used without removing them from the field and re-inspecting them.
Fiberglass Shaft Blunts, Fletching and Nocks
1. All blunts must be securely taped to the shaft so that they cannot come off on impact or if the shaft is broken. A cable tie alone is not sufficient. All blunts must be secured by at least two strips of good quality electrical or fiber reinforced strapping tape that is a minimum of ? inch (12.5 mm) wide. This strip shall run over the face of the blunt and down the sides, and onto the shaft for at least 1 inch (25.4 mm). It shall be secured to the shaft by another strip of tape that wraps around it as well as the base of the blunt and the shaft.
2. Blunts which are acceptable for combat are as follows:
The “UHMW” and "Baldar" blunts are the only blunts allowed on shafted
arrows and bolts.
(A) UHMW: The main body of the core must be a minimum of 1 1/4 inch
diameter at the top most edge of the core. A UHMW blunt may be tapered at the
base; where the blunt attaches to the shaft. The blunt shall have at least ? inch
(12.5 mm) of padding between the striking surface and any rigid material in the
head and not more than 1 inch of padding. The padding should have progressive
give and should hold up under repeated impact. Closed-cell foam and neoprene
are recommended padding materials. The top edges of the UHMW blunt must
be rounded to avoid the potential for glancing injuries to combatants.
UHMW blunts MUST HAVE A SIDE WRAP OF FOAM the extends from the
tip of the padding to at least half an inch over the UHMW. The side-wrap foam
must bring the tip of the blunt to 1.5" in diameter after taping
The blunt core must be a minimum total length of 1 inch and must be drilled to a
depth of ? inch (12.5 mm) and have a minimum of ? inch of UHMW in front of
the shaft. The blunt core must be securely attached to the shaft. It is
recommended that the shaft hole be under sized ( 15/64" ) instead of 1/4" for a
friction fit to attach the core blunt to the shaft. All blunts must be secured by at
least one strip of 1/2 inch wide (minimum) good quality electrical or strapping
tape. This strip shall run over the face of the blunt and down the sides, and onto
the shaft for at least one inch. It shall be secured to the shaft by another strip of
tape which wraps around it as well as the base of the blunt and the shaft.
If all other standards are met, material may be removed from the core for
aerodynamic or weight reduction purposes.
(B) Baldar Blunts: Only the original 2-piece mold Baldar Blunt is allowed.
Blunts must be attached in such a way that the blunt can be inspected for the
parting line visible around the circumference of the thickest part of the blunt in
the 2-piece molds. If no parting line is seen the blunt cannot be used. All blunts
must be secured by at least one strip of 1/2 inch wide (minimum) good quality
electrical or strapping tape. This strip shall run over the face of the blunt and
down the sides, and onto the shaft for at least one inch. It shall be secured to the
shaft by another strip of tape which wraps around it as well as the base of the
blunt and the shaft.
All fletches on any arrows, bolts, or thrown weapons can project no further than 1/2" from the shaft, or must be 1.5" thick.
Nocks MAY NOT extend more than ? inch beyond the end of the APD so that no more than ? inch of the nock will penetrate into a helm.
Fiberglass Shaft Anti-Penetration Devices (APD)
All fiberglass shafted arrows are required to have an approved APD securely attached to the nock-end in such a manner as to prevent more than ? inch of penetration into any SCA-legal helm.
Only the Following are approved APDs:
Asgard APDs have only the following modifications allowed: Cutting the nock
off flush for use on a crossbow, making small holes for helping attachment, and
roughing surfaces for gluing.
2. Siloflex APDs -100, 160 and 200 psi APDs:
a. APD must be made from 100, 160 or 200 psi Siloflex tubing or equivalent
as permitted by Society combat archery rules.
b. The minimum inner diameter of the APD must be 1".
c. You must then use one of the following designs: external or internal tab
and/or routed channel.
i. External tab: This design has a ? inch tab sticking out from the
front, bottom of the APD. This APD and tab shall be made using
one solid piece of Siloflex tubing. The minimum width of the tab
is 3/8". The tab must be taped in a spiral wrap going around it and
the shaft. This spiral of tape shall cover the entire tab and extend at
least a 1" in front of the tape to prevent slippage of the APD.
ii. Internal tab: This is a tab cut at least .5" into the bottom edge of the
APD. This tab should be a minimum of 3/8" and a maximum of .5"
in width. This APD shall be taped in place, by overlapping the tab
and the shaft several times.
iii. Routed Channel: A channel is routed down the center bottom of
the APD. The minimum depth of the channel is 1/16". The
minimum width of the channel is a .25". These shall be glued
securely prior to taping.
Siloflex arrows and bolts
a) SHAFTS: Shafts must be constructed of at least 1? inches in diameter 100 psi
siloflex with an internal diameter of at least 1 inch. No more than 10% yellow
tape or markings shall be used on tubular ammunition. Maximum length is 28
inches measured from the base of the blunt to the nocking point.
b) NOCKS: All nocks must be cut such that the slot is no more than ? inch deep
so that no more than ? inch of the nock will penetrate into a helm. Pinch nocks
are no longer allowed. Siloflex needs no reinforcement (although you can do so
with 100psi or 160 psi siloflex or wooden plugs if you choose) and ? inch
grooves can be cut directly into the tube.
c) FLETCHING: Fletching protruding no more than ? inch and of soft material
such as foam, leather, plastic vanes or duct tape is allowed and must be securely
attached to the shaft and conform to any Society level requirements for the
d) APDs: APDs are not required on tubular arrows and bolts.
a) Classic Baldar – Only the original 2-piece mold Baldar Blunt is allowed. Blunts
must be attached in such a way that the blunt can be inspected for the parting
line visible around the circumference of the thickest part of the blunt in the 2-
piece molds. If no parting line is seen the blunt cannot be used. Cut away the
support fins to allow the blunt to slide over the Siloflex. Firmly seat a Baldar
Blunt and securely attached using electrical or strapping tape.
b) Tennis Ball - Using a strong cord of 1/8" or less diameter, tie the tennis ball to
the siloflex tubing by crossing two pieces of cord through the tube and over the
tennis ball. Be sure that the knots are located on the side of the tennis ball and
not at the tip. Securely tape the tennis ball to the tube using strapping tape. Be
sure that the cords are securely taped to the tennis ball to prevent slippage.
These cords will prevent the tennis ball from being torn loose when the arrow
strikes a hard surface. Tennis balls may be slit but such is not required.
c) Rubber Stopper (Omarad) - White/off white Rubber stopper (size 6.5) inserted at
least 1/2 inch into the Siloflex . Stopper must be secured with cord in the same
manner as the tennis ball blunt. Resilient padding of at least 1/2 inch and no
more than 1.25 inches after taping shall be added on top of the stopper. The
head must also have a side wrap of at least 1/8 inch foam that extends from the
tip of the padding to at least 1/2 inch over the rubber stopper. The finished head
after taping must be at least 1-1/2" in diameter.
Javelins and Darts and Throwing Axes
These weapons may be used for striking and may also be thrown in melee scenarios where thrown weapons are allowed. May include thrust-and-throw javelins, axes, knives, etc.
1. Shafts shall be constructed of rattan not less than 1 1/4 inch (31.8 mm) in diameter along its entire length or of two layers of Siloflex or equivalent. The outer layer shall be 1 inch (25.4 mm) inner diameter Siloflex (1 1/4 inch [31.8mm] OD) and the inner layer shall be 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) inner diameter Siloflex. All Siloflex used for Throwing Weapons must have a pressure rating of 160 PSI or greater.
2. If Siloflex is used, both ends of the shaft shall be covered with either a
schedule-40 PVC cap with an interior diameter the same as the outside diameter
of the shaft (1 1/4 inch [31.8 mm]), or with a rubber stopper or equivalent means
to prevent the tubing from penetrating the thrusting tip(s), fastened securely in
place by tape and/or glue.
3. Thrusting tips shall be used on any tip that can be reasonably assumed to
contact a fighter when the weapon is used or thrown. Tips shall be no less than 2
inches (50.8 mm) in diameter/cross-section and have 2 inches (50.8 mm) of
resilient material in front of the rigid tip of the weapon, thereby providing
progressively resistant give.
4. If the weapon has a head, it shall not be constructed of solely rigid materials. The head shall be firmly and securely attached to the haft or handle. The head shall allow at least 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of progressive give between the striking surface and the weapon haft or handle.
5. Vanes - Vanes shall be made of soft flexible material, such as closed-cell foam or equivalent, with no points or corners. Semi-circular shapes are recommended. Vanes may not protrude more than 4 inches (10 cm) from the shaft.
6. The weapon must have the owner’s name, kingdom, and group clearly and legibly printed on it in English characters for identification.
7. Total mass of the weapon shall not exceed:
(1) The overall weight of a javelin shall not exceed 2 pounds.
(2) The overall weight of a dart shall not exceed 11/2 pounds.
8. After a field inspection these weapons may be reused or gleaned.
Other Missile Weapons
a. New Missile Weapons
(1) Missile weapons of a new type or design not specifically permitted by these
guidelines may be used for a specified event if approved by the Marshal in
Charge, and the War Marshal and/or Earl Marshal. Such weapons may not be
considered permanently accepted until they have been incorporated into the
combat standards and published. All missile weapons being tested under this
guideline shall be marked to indicate ownership.
(2) Missile weapons must not use the combustion of flammable materials, nor
pressurized gases or liquids as a means of propulsion.
(3) All combatants and marshals must consent to the use of the experimental
weapon or material before combat begins. If any of the marshals or combatants
objects to the use of the material or weapon, the material or weapon may not be
used. All materials and weapons being tested/experimental shall be marked with
alternating bands of red and green tape totaling 6 inches in length. Bands shall
be visible during weapon use.
Gleaning and Inspection of Arrows and Bolts
a. Fiberglass shafted arrows and bolts MAY NOT BE GLEANED. Fiberglass shafted
arrows and bolts, must be inspected before they are brought onto the battlefield. Once an
arrow or bolt leaves an inspected quiver, shot or dropped, they must be taken off the battlefield and re-inspected before they can be shot again.
All combatants, dead or otherwise and wearing proper armor and hand protection, may assist in the gathering of spent arrows during a battle; being mindful not to interfere with active combat. Arrows must be brought to an inspection point off the battlefield and inspected before they can be used again.
b. Siloflex arrows and bolts Must be initially inspected before being taken on to the battlefield. However, they may be field inspected and gleaned from the battlefield and re-shot. Once the battle is over, they are to be taken off the battlefield and inspected.
Safety Buffer Zone
A buffer zone needs to be provided between the edges of the
battlefield and spectators at all times. This needs to be increased
when combat archery is included. The Marshal-in-Charge must ensure
that it is a safe distance, taking into account the type of scenario, to minimize the chances of deflected shots traveling into the
spectators. Physical barriers may eliminate the need for a buffer
zone or lessen the distance needed.