MicroStrategy Tips and Techniques

By Kyle Robinson,2014-12-27 22:44
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MicroStrategy Tips and Techniques

    MicroStrategy Tips

    MicroStrategy Tips and Techniques

    Reporting Essentials

    Five Styles of Business Intelligence:

    Enterprise Reporting, Cube Analysis, Ad-hoc query analysis, Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, Report Delivery and Alerting

    Basic Components:

    Project Sources : Database location for multiple projects (metadata)

    Server Project Sources: Same as above, but in 3-tier mode using Intelligence Server

The Administration node shows Intelligence Server tools only if you connect to a server project source. The Administration

    node contains the Job Monitor, Project Monitor, User Connection Monitor, Database Connection Monitor, Schedule Monitor, Cache Monitor, Cluster Monitor, Database Instance Manager, Schedule Manager and User Manager

    The Desktop Interface contains the Folder List, Object Viewer, Shortcut Bar, Menu Bar and Toolbar

There are three categories of objects in MicroStrategy:

     Schema Objects: Attributes, Facts, Hierarchies, Transformations, Partitions

     User Objects: Templates, Filters, Metrics, Custom Groups, Consolidations, Prompts, Searches

     Reports and Documents

The Project Preferences page (My Preferences) contains the following tabs: (Tools Menu)

     Home Page: set html home page, background color, image etc.

     Reports: Grid (autostyle, column width, outline mode wrapping, drilling …)

    Graph (default graph type, num rows/cols, size …)

    Grid Graph (position and sizing of a grid display 7.5 only)

    Export (auto export to Word, Excel, Access, Text or HTML)

     Editors: Document (measure units, alignment, grid density, selection behaviour…)

     HTML Document (select layout, update messages, default XSL …)

     Prompts: Add long value to list of prompts, Use Server Cache, Client Object Cache …

The Desktop Preferences page contains the following tabs: (Tools Menu)

     Home Page: Enabling home page for projects (the actual html file is set in My Preferences)

     Browsing options to specify type of headers to display in Object Viewer, show Hidden Objects

     Choose to Show the Data Explorer and System Hierarchy

     History Options (cancel running reports, delete read messages, show only unread, limit warnings

     General: Auto login to last used project, load dependent editor dialogs, default object templates

     With report templates, one can customize headers and footer globally

     Reports: Execution (resize based on rows, cols or use standard size)

     Details (show filters, metric details …)

     Close (prompt for save on closing)

     International: set default language and character set

     Warnings: warn on object delete, when server version is newer than client, when metadata requires update Report

     A report contains attributes, metrics and filters it always has a template and filter

     Report editor has Object Browser, Shortcuts, Objects, Filter, View Filter, Report View

     Template and Filter can be saved separately after report is designed


     Double click an element, right-click on one or more elements, data menu(drill), Toolbar (drill)

     The Keep Parent option lets you see the object from which you drilled

    Page By

     Sections the report. Page By is done using View Page By option. Page By can use:

     Attributes, Metrics, Hierarchies, Consolidations, Custom Groups, Object Prompts (of these)

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    Data Pivot

     Drag and drop rows to cols and vice versa. Also available from Move option


     Only one row or column is used in basic sort.

     Advanced Sort option allows setting up more complex sorts (from Data menu)

     Can choose criteria, Total Position (top, bottom, mixed [as dictated by level], inherit [from report])

    Parent Position (only for custom groups choose where header label appears)

     Hierarchical Sort allows sorting of subtotals with the groups (only when report uses subtotals) Subtotals

     Subtotals can be turned on for specified levels only

     Totals can be specified by

    position (grand totals only, subtotals or none)

    across levels

    group by (takes one level and groups across all levels)

    Outline Mode

     Used for collapsing and expanding sections. Use subtotals to see data for collapsed attributes.

     Accessed from Grid menu or Grid-Options-General tab


     Accessed by right-click menu (for the object) or Toolbar

     Can format Headers, Values, Subtotal Headers, Subtotal Values for each object AutoStyles

     Applies a style to the report. Available from Grid menu. Custom formats can be saved as an AutoStyle. Thresholds

    Thresholds (or stoplights) are conditional formats on metrics. Can use attributes or metrics to define

    thresholds on metrics. Unlimited number of conditions with simple or complex expressions.

    Accessed from Grid menu or Toolbar.


     Banding on reports can be done by row headers or number of rows. Accessed from Grid menu.

    Resizing and Locking Columns and Rows

     Auto column widths, word wrap, fixed widths etc. Turn on View Column handles from Grid menu to do this.

    Graph Properties

     Accessed from Gallery menu.

    Export and Email

     Reports can be exported to Excel, Word, Access, Text, HTML or PDF

    Choose to show application after export

    Basic Filters

Filters can be report filters or View filters. Report filters affect SQL and can use any object. View filters do not change the

    SQL and can only use objects in the Report Objects window. View filters operate on report results at the lowest attribute.

Filter Types

     Attribute Qualification

     Element List Qualification: qualify on a list of element values

     Form Qualification: qualify on an attribute form

     Date Qualification: qualify on date or date range

     Set Qualification (also called Metric Qualification filters) (metric need not be in report)

     Metric Value: qualifies on a metric value

     Rank: qualify on numerical rank (Bottom 20)

     Percent: qualifies on percentage of rank (top 10%)

     Report As Filter: use result set of existing report (should not contain custom groups or consolidations)

     Filter Qualification: use an existing filter to define a new filter

     Set Operators:


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    MicroStrategy Tips


Metrics can be of various types:

     Simple: single function applied to a fact Sum(Cost){Report Level}

     Nested: Uses multiple aggregate operators Min(Sum(Cost)){Report Level}

     Compound: Combination of simple, nested and compound Avg(Sum(Profit){Region, Report Level}){Report Level}

     Derived: Report specific metrics with existing Report Objects (Sum(Cost){Report Level}+Sum(Profit){Report Level})

Metric Properties:

     Level: The level at which the metric is computed. Default is {Report Level}.

     Level is defined for filter and grouping separately (see later)

     Condition: Specify a filter used directly in the metric definition

     Transformation: Specify time-series or other transformation

    {~+} in the metric means it is calculated at the lowest report attribute level Nested metrics use temporary tables for intermediate result evaluation

    Levels, Conditions and Transformations are not allowed in Compound metrics

    Derived metrics can use only Report Objects and are local to that report

Metric Editor:

     Contains Object Browser, Shortcuts, Definition area

     Can specify function to be used in Total subtotal, dynamic aggregation

    Can also specify different total functions available for this metric

    Subtotals can be suppressed from this editor if it does not make sense to total the metric Smart Totals:

     Smart totals can be used with compound metrics using the Allow Smart Metric checkbox

     This computes total on final results

    Shortcut Metrics:

     MicroStrategy provides commonly used derived metrics such as percent-to-total and rank


Prompts can be of various types:

     Filter Definition: allows selection of filtering criteria from hierarchies, attributes (forms and lists) and metrics

     Object: allows selection of which objects to use on templates

     Value: allows creation of single value prompts (date, number or string). Max and Min limits can be specified.

     Level: allows specification of the level of the metric

    All prompts can have default answers specified and can be optional. That is, an answer is not required. Prompted Report can be saved as „static‟ or to be re-prompted. A „static‟ report uses the prompt values and will never re-

    prompt the user.

Searches can also be created as objects. They can search by name and location as well as contained and contained by.

    Search objects can be included in Prompts.

    Prompt Qualification:

    A prompt can use a static list, search object, filter or a relationship filter to qualify the list of elements to display as choices

    for the user. The prompt answer can be used to build Reports, Templates, Filters, Custom Groups or Metrics. A Level prompt is defined and dragged into the level qualifier of a level metric A report as filter can be used as prompt by creating the prompt with this filter and using it in a report Prompt with an imported list can be created using a prompt on attribute qualification and selecting the „Modify‟ and „Text

    File and Shopping Cart‟ style. This will cause a prompt to ask for a text file when the report is run.

    What-if analysis can be performed using value prompts on a metric

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    Advanced Reporting

Report Query Flow:

Object Level Security:

    Security can be set only at Object Level by the Report Designer. Permissions that can be set are Browse, Read, Write,

    Delete, Control, Use and Execute.

    A Security Filter can be assigned to a user. Only an Administrator can assign Security Filters. Connection Mapping:

    Connection Mapping refers to the ability to assign different database logins and connections to users. Can be used to direct

    users to different data stores.

    Intelligent Cubes:

    The ability of users to change their report views using the Report Objects.

    SQL is required for removing/adding objects from/to Report Objects, drilling to objects not in Report Objects and changing

    filters. SQL is not required for formatting changes, adding/removing objects from view, modifying the view filter or

    drilling to objects in the Report Objects.

    An Intelligent Cube is identified by:

     Report Objects + Report Filter + Report Limits + Conditional Metrics

    A cube cannot exceed about 60,000 cells in a 512Mb machine.

    Cache Sharing:

    The cache can be shared by different users of the similar report. Any report non-SQL manipulations of the report can also

    share the cache. It is implemented by using shortcuts to both templates and filters in the reports that need to share a cache.

    Cache sharing is preserved by revoking permission to change report objects (which will not allow changes to templates).

    Report cache is identified by: Rep&Ver id + Template&Ver id + Filter&Ver id + SecurityFilter&Ver id + user id + DB conn id + DB login id + Prompts answers Aggregation:

    „Normal‟ aggregation is where SQL is generated to roll-up report to level not in Report Objects. „Dynamic‟ aggregation is

    done within the Intelligent Cube and should be at a level in the Report Objects.

    Following functions generate temporary „NULL‟ values for dynamic aggregation by default (can be changed in Report

    Data Options):

     Avg, Count Distinct, Geo Mean, Std Dev, Mode and Variance

    Grouping and Filtering Options in the level for metric:

    Grouping: Standard: groups by attribute level of the target

    None: does not group by target. Calculates one total for all related attributes

    Filtering: Standard: allows filter to determine elements for the metric

    Absolute: raises the filter to the level of the target

    Ignore: completely ignores related report filter criteria

    None: points the metric to the fact table

    Standard filtering uses the filtered report sub-levels and absolute filtering uses only the target level elements of report filter

    but all sub-levels irrespective of report filters. Ignore filtering ignores all report filter levels

    Both absolute and ignore filtering produce the same result when grouping is standard

    Removing report level is useful for setting target level to all levels

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    Non Aggregatable Metrics:

    They are created by setting the grouping to Beg/End(fact/lookup) for the hierarchy that they should not aggregate by.

    When boundary facts/lookups are specified, one can choose which fact or lookup table to use. Transformations:

    There are 2 types of transformations: Expression-based and Table-based. A transformation has member attributes, member

    expressions, member tables and mapping type as components. A single transform can use both expression-based and table-

    based methods. Mapping type can be 1-1 or n-n. Transformation metrics can be set using the Metric Editor or using derived

    metrics. (shortcuts).

    Base Formulas:

    Base formulas can be created from any metric and then used as shortcuts in other metrics. Base formulas can only be

    defined from simple or nested metrics, not compound metrics.

    Conditional Metrics:

    These are metrics with a filter applied.

    By default, related report filter is ignored. This can be changed by disabling „Remove related report filter elements‟ option.

    Embedding methods for conditional metrics:

     Merge report filter into metric (default): Evaluates report filter first and then the metric filter

     Merge into new: Evaluates metric and report filters independently

     Merge metric condition into report: Evaluates metric filter and then the report filter Count Metrics:

    These are used for counting attributes. You can choose whether count is distinct and which fact column to use as reference.

    This table is then used for the count.

    Other Metrics:

    Rank metrics can rank other metrics. It inherits the level of the simple metric.

    Running sum metrics can generate a running sum of another metric.

    Rounding can round a metric (break-by does not apply).

    N-tile metric distributes values into buckets (such as quartiles).

    A break-by level can also be specified with these metrics.

    Pass Through Functions:

    These are functions used to pass through function calls to the database:

     ApplySimple: simple arithmetic operators ApplySimple(“ROUND(#0,1)”,[Metric1])

     ApplyAgg: apply aggregate functions ApplyAgg(“SUM(CASE WHEN #1 IN „N‟) THEN #0 ELSE 0 END)”, Money Owed, [Received Flag])

     ApplyOLAP: OLAP functions

     ApplyComparison: >, >=, LIKE etc. ApplyComparison(“ComparisonFunction(#0,#1)”, att1@ID, at2t@ID)

     ApplyLogic: Logical operators (AND, OR etc.)

    The syntax is ApplyFunctionName(pattern, Arg, Arg, … Arg). [n] represents metric n. Attribute forms are specified as

    attribute@form. No [] means treat as text.

    Consolidations and Custom Groups


    Consolidations enable grouping of attribute elements as virtual attributes and for performing row level math.

    Heterogeneous formatting can be applied to consolidation elements (groups). Simple math can be also applied on the

    consolidation elements. For example, season fall, spring etc. can be defined as consolidation elements using month

    attribute elements. We can also define ratio of spring to fall as a consolidation element.

    Consolidation elements can be made up of:

     Elements of the same attribute

     Elements of attributes from different levels in a hierarchy

     Elements from unrelated attributes

     Existing consolidation elements from the same or other consolidations in the project

    Multiple consolidations can be used in a report. The order is important as it determines grouping.

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    Custom Groups:

    Custom group is a set of custom group elements made up of attribute elements, each with its own filter. Any qualification

    based on metrics, attributes or existing filters can be used.

    An output level must be set for each custom group element. This level determines what gets displayed in the report

    irrespective of the report level.

    Each element of the custom group can have different formatting. One can also control the display of element header (above

    or below child elements) and whether subtotals display. A hierarchical display of the custom group elements under the

    custom group header can also be enabled.

Custom Group Banding:

    Custom groups banding applies to how a report is banded. The banding requires a metric and can be set up to band by:

     Metric value, rank or percent

    Each band must specify the band size, band count and banding points. A level must also be selected to qualify the metric

    values used in a banding set.

Differences between Custom Groups and Consolidations:

     Consolidations Custom Groups

    Differences Based on attribute element groupings Based on filters

    Usage Create virtual attribute or row level math Apply different filters to different report rows

    Examples Seasons Top 5, Bottom 10 in same report

    Advanced Filters

Metric to Metric comparisons:

    One of the Set Qualification is a metric to metric comparison. This is setup using the type of „metric‟. It can compare the

    value of one metric to another as a filter for the report.

Relationship Filters:

    Attributes may have direct or indirect relationships. If they are related in an explicit hierarchy, then there is a direct

    relationship. If they are related through a fact table, then there is an indirect relationship. Filters can be created using the

    indirect attribute relationship as a qualification.

    The fact or a relationship table or metric needs to be specified in addition to the output level and any input filtering criteria.

    An example of using a relationship filter is to find all customers who bought item A and item B. The report is resolved

    through the revenue fact by selecting customers who have both purchased the items.

    The relationship filtering criteria may or may not be applied to the report filtering criteria by checking the advanced option

    Also apply this qualification independently of the relationship filter‟.

    Generally, a „report as filter‟ can be used in place of relationship filters – except when the relationship exist only in a

    relationship table with no direct facts associated with it.

    Attribute-Attribute Filters:

    Used to compare two attributes through their forms. For example, finding orders that were shipped within 7 days of their

    order date by comparing ship_date to order_date+7. An attribute-to-attribute filter is created in the Attribute Qualification

    panel by choosing operator „custom‟ and specifying the compared-to attribute and form.

    Joint Element List:

    The joint element list allows you to choose attributes elements from different attributes to qualify the report set. A filter can

    be set on the attribute argument pairs. Other tuples than pairs are also supported. This is setup from the Advanced

    Qualification panel.

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    Dynamic Date Filter:

    This is used for dates or date ranges that are relative to current date. This is setup in the Attribute Qualification by choosing

    the little calendar icon next to the operator and value. The date arithmetic always does the addition or subtraction first

    before the dynamic date. For example, if today is Feb 13, „today minus 7 days‟ is Feb 6 and „the first of the month of today

    minus 7‟ is Feb 1.

    Importing filter elements:

    Filters can also be created by importing filter elements from Excel or a MicroStrategy specified format text file. It is setup

    through the Attribute Qualification panel and must use „In List‟ or „Not In List‟ as the operator.

    Pass Through Functions for Filters:

    Pass through functions can be used for filters.


    Drill Maps

    Drill Maps can be created using the Drill Map Editor. Need to specify the origin, up, down, across paths and any templates.

    Templates (for drill down) can be used as a drill path. Attributes, Custom Groups and Consolidations can be drill paths.

    Drill Map Properties:

     Apply using filter conditions: uses the filter created by user while drilling

     Apply original report filtering conditions: drilling will keep the original filter

     Keep Parent Object: retains the parent attribute when drilling

     Keep thresholds: thresholds are retained when drilling

     Consider other filter qualifications when resolving metric qualification in the new report:

     Default: Report filter‟s setting is used

     Yes: Other qualifications will be considered

     No: Other qualifications are ignored

    This option is used only if „apply user filtering conditions‟ and/or „apply original report filter conditions‟ is selected.

    Report Data Options

Report Limits:

    Report data can be limited using Value, Rank (top 3) or Percent (top 10%). Report limits are defined in the Report Limit

    Editor. Unlike metric qualification, report limits are attached to the template and not a filter. So they are specific to a report

    and cannot be shared. They are also applied to the report level and cannot contain a level qualifier. Metric Join Type:

    Metric Join Type can be inner or outer. Inner join includes only rows where every metric has data. Outer includes rows

    where one or more metrics can be null. Default is inner. This can be set globally and can be overridden at the report level. Attribute Join Type:

    Attribute join type can be set per attribute. The values are:

     Preserve common elements of lookup and final pass result table

     Preserve lookup table elements joined to final pass result table based on fact table keys

     Preserve lookup table elements joined to final pass result table based on template attributes without filter

     Preserve lookup table elements joined to final pass result table based on template attributes with filter Evaluation Order:

    Evaluation order is customizable to set the order of evaluating Compound Metrics, Consolidation, Report Limit and

    Subtotal. Metric qualification is always done first. Sorting and Page By is always last.

    View filters evaluation order can be customized for subtotals, derived metrics and metrics with smart totals.

    Subtotals Over Consolidation Compatibility (VLDB property):

     Evaluate subtotals over consolidation elements and their corresponding attribute elements (7.2.x and below)

     Evaluate subtotals over consolidation elements only (7.5 and above) PREFERRED

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    Display Options:

    Alias: Aliases can be defined for any report object and is specific to the report Object Display: Allows you to change the custom group display to flat or hierarchical Null Values: Set WH null, CrossTab null values

    Grid Graph Mode: Sets Grid position and percentage

    General Options:

    Drilling: Enables/Disables drilling, drill anywhere or down only, Keep parent and Keep Threshold

     Can also choose to add the current or all page-by fields to the report filter when drilling

     Can also choose to include only attribute elements to the left and above selection in filter or all

     Drill attribute join type can be set to inner or outer

    Advanced: Retain Page-By selections when you save the report

     Rerun prompt included in objects in the report definition. Choose to retain changes to metrics when

     saving a report to be re-prompted.

    Find and Replace:

    Allows you to set certain Report Data Options (Display:Null Values, General:Drilling and Advanced) to a set of reports.

    Project Documentation Wizard:

    Accessed from the Tools menu in Desktop. Generates documentation.

    Report Services

    Three Major Requirements of Enterprise Reporting:

    Rich Data Access, Complex Formatting, Scalable/Secure Platform Architecture.

    Report Services:

    Report Services (as of 7.5) leverages a formatting engine to precisely format reports. Output currently is only to PDF and

    requires Version 5.0 or higher. It works closely with other MicroStrategy tools. There are five types of reports supported by

    Report Services:

     Scorecards and Dashboards

     Managed Metric Reports

     Operational Reports

     Statements and Invoices

     Business Reports

    Report Services is used to create PDF documents. Documents from older versions of MicroStrategy are now called HTML documents.

Report Services supports the following layouts;

     Zoned : reserves specific areas for content

     Banded: groups data into defined banding categories (not to be confused with report banding)

     Combined: Uses zones within bands

    Report Services Documents are created using the Document Editor. This contains the Dataset Objects window, Document Editor Work Area and the Document Property list.

DataSet Objects Window:

    A dataset can be any report and this window lists the objects. A Document needs one primary dataset, but it can

    reference multiple dataset. But only one is to be set primary.

    Editor Work Area:

     Contains the following standard sections. Custom Sections can be added.

     Page Header, Document Header, Detail Header, Detail, Detail Footer, Document Footer, Page Footer Inputs:

     A document can have any of the following inputs:

     MicroStrategy Objects, text, concatenation of the two, Autotext, concatenation of autotext and text

     Images, Lines, Rectangles

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    An entire report can be dragged and dropped into a section, except the Detail. Derived metrics and view filters

    will not be available when a report is placed into the document editor. There is no connection between the

    document and the original report except that an object removed from the original report will also be removed from

    the document.

    Attributes, Metrics, Custom Groups and Consolidations can be added to any section. They can come from any

    dataset and are denoted with braces {}. Object names with spaces must be surrounded by []. These can be drag

    dropped or one can use a text box and type in the name.

    Text and MicroStrategy Objects can be concatenated using {} and []. There are also pre-defined autotext fields

    such as user and page numbers that can be used. These properties begin with &. Examples are



     The {Region} region showed a profit of {Profit} on {&DATE}.


    Detail Section:

    When attributes and metrics are placed here, a row will be displayed for each row in the dataset. Report objects

    are not allowed in this section.

    Custom Sections (Grouping):

    Grouping is performed by adding attributes to the grouping area of the Document Editor. For each attribute

    dropped here, a custom header and footer is created. Only objects from the primary dataset can be used for

    grouping. The primary dataset can be changed by right-clicking the desired dataset. The order in which attributes

    are placed in the grouping is important.

    There are several controllable Group Properties:

     Keep group together: keeps groups in one page (but may span more than one page)

     Page break between groups: breaks between groups

     Restart page numbering: will restart page numbering after each group

    Headers and Footers:

    This is suitable for labeling, displaying entire grids and graphs or for totals and subtotals. The rules are:

    Page Header and Footer:

     Attribute: The first attribute element of the result set is displayed

     Metrics: A sum of the metric is displayed

    Detail Header and Footer:

     Attribute: If grouping is not used, first element of result set appears

     If grouping is used, first element of level of grouping will appear

     Metric: Displays a subtotal for the grouping level

    Layout Behaviour:

    Zone based:

     Simply drag and drop an object to a section. No grids and graphs in detail section.

    Band based:

     Use sections as described above


     Dragging a grid or graph within a banded section will repeat it within bands.

    Designing Appealing Documents:

    Stacked Metrics: Simply place on above the other

    Dynamic Lines and Rectangles: Place in a section. They are resized dynamically.

    Prompts: A prompt can be placed by {&PROMPTn&}. n represents the number of the prompt. All prompts within a

     dataset are resolved in the order in which they appear. If multiple datasets use the same prompt, then the prompt

     is executed only once.

    Subsections: Any number of subsection can be created within a section

    Page Breaks: Every section except the Page Header and Page Footer can have the Page Breaks properties.

     Properties are Force New Page, Keep together, Repeat horizontally, Repeat on each page

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    MicroStrategy Tips

    Document Templates: Templates are created in a hidden folder. Enable this from the Desktop Preferences. Static Links: HTML code can be typed into text boxes. Enable „Is Hyperlink‟ for the text box property.

    Dynamic Links: Same as above and can use any variable

    Passing Dynamic Prompt Answers:



    Images: This is a new attribute form. Store images in a shared location accessible by IServer. Name it with

    element attribute values. Define form with ApplySimple to construct path to the image file.

    ApplySimple(“‟\\fileserver\images\‟ & #0 & „.jpg‟”, [ITEM_ID]).

    In the Form, change category used to none and type to picture.

    Enable form to display (add it to displayable list for attribute in Desktop)

    Update Schema (select Update Schema Logical Information)

    Using Multiple Datasets:

    All datasets are outer joined. This may result in null values for some metrics and attributes.

     Same Attributes, Same Filter: datasets are joined

     Same Attributes, Different Filter: datasets are joined. Some data may be missing

     Dataset with superset of attributes in another: The detail is at the level in the superset

     Different Attributes: Results are meaningless

     Project Design

    MicroStrategy Objects:

    There are 3 types of objects:

    Schema Objects: Logical objects that map to the physical data warehouse: Facts, Attributes, Hierarchies

    Application Objects: Reports and report related objects such as filters, templates and metrics

    Configuration Objects: Administrative, security and connectivity objects

    Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Tables:

     Fact and lookup tables can have columns with different names representing the same entity. Schema Types:

     Highly Normalized, Moderately Normalized, Highly Denormalized

Attributes Terminology:

     Cardinality is the number of unique elements. Ratios are the ratios of cardinalities between related attributes.

     Attributes can have direct or indirect (through fact or relationship tables) relationships.

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