By Emily Jenkins,2015-01-29 00:53
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Unit 3

    Part One

    Language Structure

    The passive voice sentence

    1. General Introduction

    Voice is the form of the verb that shows the relations between the subject and of the sentence, indicating whether the subject is the doer or the receiver of the actions expressed. Verbs have two voices, active and passive. A verb is in the active voice when the subject is the doer:

     e.g. A mugger attacked me.

    A verb is in the passive voice when the subject is receiving the action.

     e.g. I was attacked by a mugger.

    2. Tenses and Aspects.

     In a passive sentence the main verb is always a past participle and the tense and aspect are expressed by a proper form of be. Be is in the same tense and aspect as the corresponding active form.

     The simple aspect The continuous tense The perfect aspect

    Present Is/am/are+done Is/am/are being done Has/have been


    Past Was/were+done Was/were being done Had been done

    Future Shall/will be done Shall/will have

    been done

    Past future Should/would be Would /should have

    done been done

    Modal verbs Modle verb+be done To have been done

    infinitives To be done

3. Occasions used

    Because of its impersonal tone and the convenient deletion of the doer of the

    action, the passive voice is commonly found in textbooks, in scientific,

    technical or business reports, and in newspaper stores. The passive may be

    used in the following cases:

    a) The speaker wants to stress the thing done rather than the doer of it.

    b) The doer is unimportant or unknown.

    e.g. Visitors are requested to leave their coats in the cloakroom.

    c) The speaker wants to avoid an awkard change of subject in the middle of

    a sentence.

    e.g. The Prime Minister arrived back in London last night, and was

    immediately besieged by reporters.

    d) The speaker does not want to identify the doer(Perhaps out of modesty,

    or when we have some unpleasant statement to make)

     e.g. You have been told so many times not to touch these things.

     We were told that you had taken a book from the library. 4. Verbs which cannot be passive

    1) We cannot use an intransitive verb in the passive pattern. These verbs

    have no passive equivalent.

    e.g. Something terrible happened to her family.

    The thief ran away.

     But we can use most phrasal and prepositional verbs with an object in

    the passive pattern.

     e.g. They ran over a dog on the road.

     A dog was run over on the road.

    2) We cannot use some state verbs in the passive. e.g. be, belong, exist,

    have, lack, resemble, seem. Suit

    Tim has its own car.

    The box seemed empty.

     But we can see some verbs either as action verbs or as state verbs. e. g. measure, weigh, fit, cost. We can use then in the passive when are thought of as action verbs.

     e. g. Action and active: The plumber measured the water-pipes.

    Action and passive: The water-pipes were measured by the plumber.

    State: One of the water-pipes measured 2 meters.

    5. The passive of phrasal verbs

    Some certain intransitive verbs can be made into transitive ones by the addition of a preposition. Such phrasal verbs are mostly treated as single word verbs and both the adverb particle and the preposition should remain immediately after the verb.

    e.g. The children are well looked after. (verb+preposition)

    When was the hospital set up. (verb+adverb)

    Such a state of things cannot be put up with(v.+adv.+prep)

    6. Active forms with a passive meaning

    Your room needs cleaning (to be cleaned)

     It’s a matter that requires handling with care.

     She had some housework to do.

     The book is selling like hot cakes.

     A porcelain sink cleans easily.

     Velvet feels smooth.

     She does not photograph.

     The meat cut easily.

     This sentence doesn’t read quite well.

    Part Two

    Dialogue ? A New Life on the University Campus Teaching steps:

    A. Listening to the recording

    B. Questions on the comprehension of the dialogue.

    C. Outline to help the students to retell the dialogue.

    Lu Hua tells her teacher about

    ----her life at Pujiang University

    ----the campuses of Pujiang University

    ----the orientation programme for the new students

    ----the resources and the facilities available to the students

    ----her life as a student majoring in English

    D. Reading aloud

    E. Language point pratice

    1. former a. of an early period e.g. former president早期的,前任的

     b. the first (of 2 people or things just spoke of)前者

     e.g. Did he walk or swim?

     The former seems more likely.

    2. challenging adj. a. Causing competitive interest, action, or thought, esp.

    because new, unusual, or difficult. 具挑战性的

    e.g. His new book is full of challenging ideas.

     b. causing great interest, fascinating, charming有吸引力的

    e.g. She is a challenging woman.


    n. a. an invitation to compete in a fight, match etc.

     Give/accept a challenge a letter of challenge

     b. the quality of demanding competitive action, interest, or thought e.g.

    This job is too dull; I want one with more challenge. vt to call sb to compete against one, esp in a fight, match etc

     challenge sb to sth/to do sth

     e.g. I challenged him to a game of tennis.

    Challenger n.挑战者,反对者 beyond challenge无与伦比

    Rise to the challenge 接受挑战,善于应付某种复杂局面

    challenge cup优胜杯

    3. authority n. a. the ability, power, or right to control and command权力,


    e.g. A teacher must show his authority.

    b. right or official power权力,职权, 许可

    e.g. What authority have you for entering the house?

    c. a person or group with this power or right

    e.g. The government is the highest authority in the country.

    Phrases: an authouity on方面权威 Authority over人的凌驾

    by the authority of 的许可

    4. permission n. an act of permitting, agreement允许

    e.g. With your permission, I’ll leave now.

    ask for permission请求许可 without permission未经许可

    with sb’ permission在许可下

    obtain/get permission from sb得到某人许可

    permit(permitted, permitting) vt. To allow

    e.g. Smoking is not permitted here.

    We’ll go, weather permitting.(=if the weather is good enough to

    allow it.)

     n. an official written statement give one the right to do something 正式


    5. prefer to vt. To choose one thing rather than another, like better

    e.g. “Would you like meat or fish?” I’d prefer meat, please.

    Prefer sth to sth prefer to die rather than surrender

    Preferable adj. e.g. The first choice is preferable to the second.

    Preference n. liking have a liking for

    e.g. have a preference for vegetable and fruit 6. a variety of = various

    7. profession n. vocation职业

    the teaching profession/the profession of a doctor

    be a carpenter by profession

    professional adj. 职业的, 专业的,业务的

    professional knowledge/skill

     a professional tennis player

    e.g. Many of the performers are of professional standard.

    8. basis n. foundation that from which sth is started, developed.基础

    e.g. Don’t evaluate a person on the basis of appearances

     bases the base of a building建筑物的基础,具体!

     basis the economic basis 经济基础,抽象!

    9. hustle and bustle consonance尾韵 more examples:

    health and wealth健康和财富,指人生两全

    near and dear 极其亲密的 fair and square光明磊落的

    by hook and by crook 千方百计的 tear and wear 磨损

    10. distraction and diversion alliteration头韵

    sweet and sour酸甜苦乐 forgive and forget既往不咎

    safe and sound平安无事

    11. have access to a.(c.n) means of entering, way in,进入,通路

    e.g.The only access to that building is along that muddy track.

    b. (u.n) means or right of using, reaching, or entering使用,接近,进入


    e.g. Students need easy access to books.

     Everyone should have access to education 12. facility a. means to do things that which can be used设备,设施

    e.g. One of the facilities our students have is a large library. b. an ability to do or perform sth easily才能,便利,方便

    e.g. She showed great facility in learning languages.

     A free bus to the airport is a facility offered only by this hotel. Equipment: 为一台一台的machine instrument等的统称,指为了生


    Facilities: 涵盖面比equipment宽,只使生活便利的一切东西或环境,


    13. whatever equals no matter what 引导让步状语从句,不管,无论

    whichever, however, whoever, wherever

    whatsoever whatever的强势语,意义相同,常用于诗文中

    e.g. Whatever happened, he would not mind.

    Whoever breaks the law will be punished.

14. adjust to a. to change slightly in order to make suitable for a particular job

    or new conditions调解,调整,使适应

    adjust oneself to sth使自己适合,使英于某事

    e.g. He adjusted himself quickly to the heat of the country. b. to put into order, put in place, set right使有条理,校正

    e.g. Your coat collar needs adjusting.

    15. available adj. a. able to be got, obtained, used, etc.可得到的,可用的,可


    e.g. I’m sorry, sir. Those shoes are not available in your size.

    b. able to be visited or seen, not too busy.可接受探访的,不太忙的

    e.g. The doctor is not available now.

     I’m available this afternoon.

    16. have difficulty (in) doing sth

    have a difficulty time (in) doing sth

    17. figure out a. work so that one can understand

    b. figure out at 150 yuan

     c. figure out the amount of moisture in the soil

    18. skip a. to pass over or leave out (sth in order), not do or deal with

    the next thing遗漏,漏掉,跳过

     to skip over an uninteresting description in a book b. to move in a light dancing way, as with quick steps and jumps轻快的跳,


    e.g. The little girl skipped along at her mother’s side.

    c. to fail to attend or take part in (an activity), miss缺席,未参加

     to skip a meeting/a meal

    Dialogue ?

    A. Listening to the recording

    B. Reading the dialogue aloud in pairs

    C. Practices and making new and creative dialogues by their own

    Language points

    1. comparison, compare to / with

    phrases: in comparison with与相比 by comparison比较起来

    London is large in comparison with Paris.

    2. incredible难以置信的,不可思议的,被动! credible可信的

    incredulous不可轻信的,主动! credulous轻信的

    e.g. The rumour is hardly credible.

     He is credulous enough to believe every rumour.

    Part Three

    Reading ?

    Background information Press in Britain

    Besides newspapers, periodicals, TV, and news agencies have been essential parts in Britain press. The most important periodicals are The Economist, New Statesman, New Society, Spectator, which are weekly reviews. Of the monthly magazines, Reader’s Digest has the largest, circulation running

    up to 1.7 million. BBC, that is, the British Broadcasting Corporation, dominates the airwaves. The BBC World Service broadcasts international news worldwide, using English and 38 other languages. Of TV , the four national channels are BBC1, BBC2, ITV, and Channel4. The most famous news agency in Britain is Reuters, which was played in 1851 by the German, Julius Reuters and has played an important role in news and information providing in the world. Questions:

    1. Which country has more newspapers per person, Britain or the U.S.?

    2. Is it possible to buy national newspapers published, in London

    anywhere in the country on the same day? Why?

    3. Are daily newspapers printed every morning in London only?

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