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The Effect of Planting Oilseed Rape and Compost Application on Heavy Metal Forms in Soil and Cd and Pb Uptake in Rice

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The Effect of Planting Oilseed Rape and Compost Application on Heavy Metal Forms in Soil and Cd and Pb Uptake in Rice

    The Effect of Planting Oilseed Rape and

    Compost Application on Heavy Metal

    Forms in Soil and Cd and Pb Uptake in

    Rice

    AgriculturalSciencesinChina

    2011,1O(2):267274

    AvailableonlineatwwwsciencedirectcOm

    ScienceDirectbcience1.9irectFebruary2011

    TheEffectofPlantingOilseedRapeandCompostApplicationonHeavy

    MetalFormsinSoilandCdandPbUptakeinRice

    WUFeilong'.LINDaiyanandSUDechun

    lCollege()fResourcesandEnvironmentalSc.iencesChinaAgriculturalUniversity.Beijing100193,PR.China

    !InstituteqfAgricultzzralEngineering,FujianAcademyAgric.uhuralScienc'es,Fuzhou350013,P.RChina

    Abstract

    PotexperimentswereconductedundergreenhouseconditiontoinvestigatewhetherCdandPbuptakebyrjcecouldbe

    reducedwhenitwasrotatedwithoilseedrapeandcompostapplication.Theresultsshowedthatthericegrownafter

    oilseedrapehadsignificantly1owerCdandPbconcentrationsinbothstrawandgrains.CdandPbconcentrationsinthe

    grainsofthericerotatedwithoilseedrapedecreasedbyapproximately46

    80%and17-86%,respectively,althoughtheCd

    andPbremovalbyoilseedraperangedonlyfrom2_393.67and0.032

    0.13%ofthetota1contentinsoil.Compostamendment

alsodecreasedthebioavailabi1itvofCdandPbinthesoi1andreducedCdandPbuptakebyoils

    eedrapesandrice.The

    concentrationsofCdandPbsignificantlydecreasedintheexchangeableandcarbonatefracti

    onsandPbconcentration

    decreasedintheorganicmatterandsulfidefractionsinthecontaminatedsotlafterplantingoils

    eedrapes.

    Keywords:heavymetal,croprotation,compost,oilseedrape,rice INTRODUCTloN

    Heavymetalcontaminationofsoilsisofseriousconcern. becausesuchmetalshavetoxicologicalimportancein ecosystems.animalandhumanhealth.Longtermex.

    posuretohighleveIofcadmiumcancauseskeletaldam

    age(Lars2003).Cdaccumulationhadcausedmore

    than100deathsinJapanfrom1922to1965(Yeung

    andHsu2005).Leadexposureinchildrenmaylcadto diminishedintellectua1capacity(WHO1995).1nChina. ricegrowninCdcontaminatedsoilscancontainas

    manyas3mgkg'.Cd,exceedingtheWorldHealth

    Organization'srecommendationsofleggthan0.2mg kg..(Schnoor2004).Therefore,itisurgenttodevelop cost..effectivesolutionstoremediatesoilsthatarecon.. taminatedwithheavymetals.

    Physicalorchemicaltechnologiestodecontaminate themetalcontaminatedsotlareexpensiveandcanren

    derthelanduselessforgrowingplants,astheyalso removeallbiologicalactivities,includingusefulmicrobes, suchasnitrogenfixingbacteriaandmycorrhizalfungi,

    aswellasfauna(Khaneta1.2000).Phytoremediation isaneffective.1owcost.andinsitumethodofremov. ingheavymetalsfromcontaminatedsoils(Bakereta1.

1994;Salteta1.1998).However.itisatime.consunl

    ingprocess,takingatleastseveralgrowingseasonsto decontaminateasitefMorikawaandErkin2003).The remediationtechnologythatcanquicklyremoveheavy metalsfromcontaminatedsoilsisurgentlyrequired. Currenteffortsarenowfocusedonminimizing remediationtimebyselectingheavymetalaccumulator speciesandusingappropriatesoilamendments.Rota

    tioncropsystemhassignificantcontributiontoSUS

    Received30April,2010Accepted20July,2010 WUFeilong,MSc,E-mail:wuf182@yahooconlon;CorrespondenceSUDe

    chun,Professor,Tel:+8610-62733497,E-mail:dcsu@caucducn @2011CAASAllrightsreservedPublishedbyElsevierLtd doi:l010t6/$16712927(111600047

    268WUFeilongetal

    tainablecropproductionandsoilhealthinChinarLi a1.2007).Knighteta1.f1997)revealedthatthere wasasignificantdecreaseinsolubleandexchangeable Zninthesoilsolutionaftergrowinghyper?-accumulat-- ingplantsThlaspicaerulescens.KellerandHammer (2004)alsoreportedthatcontinuouscroppingwith ThlaspicaerulescensreducedCdandZnavailabilityand toxicityinthesoil.Amethodusingaheavymetalaccu. mulatorcroptodecreaseheavymetalavailabilityinthe contaminatedsoilmayofferarapid,low.cost,sustain

    ablesolutionfortheremediationofslightlymeta1..con.. taminatedsoils.Thethreatofheavymetalstotheenvi

    ronmentalsocanbereducedbyapplicationoforganic materialssuchasmanurecompost,yardwastecompost, etc..whichcanlowerbioavailabilityandfurtherreduce

    mobilityofthemetals(Browneta1.2003:Chiueta1. 2006;Delleta1.2007).Theobjectiveofthisstudy wastoinvestigatewhethertheconcentrationsofCd andPbinricecanbereducedbyplangtingoilseedrape andaddingcomposttothemetalcontaminatedsoil.The chemicalformsofCdandPbchangeinthesoilunder theoilseedrape.ricecultivationsystemwerealso determined.

    MATERIALSANDMETHoDS

    Soilandtreatments

    Theexperimentswereconductedinagreenhousein paddysoil,whichwascollectedfromJiaxing,Zhejiang Province,China.Thesoilpropertieswereasfollows: pH5.6,totalorganicmatter35.0gkgandcationex-

    changecapacity13cmolf?kg'..Thesoilcontained

    34%clay,56%silt,and10%sand.Thetotalmetal contentofthesoilwas23mgkgPband0.72mgkg

    Cd.Thesoi1wasaddedwithCdat3mgkgusing

    3CdSO4.8H,OandwithPbat300mgkgusingPb

    (CHCOO)2"3H,O.Thesoilmixtureswerepreparedby sievingsoilthrougha2-mmgridsieve,airdrying,and manuallymixingwithCdSO4andPb(CH3coo)2solu tionstoensurehomogeneity.Thesoilwasequilibrated for7dbeforethestartoftheexperimenttosimulatea soilcontaminatedbyminingsewageirrigation. Treatmentsconsistedofthecontrol(nooilseedrape rotationwithrice)andtwooilseedrapecultivars (BrassicacampestrisL.),Zhucang(ZC)andChuanyou II10(CY)(SuandWong2004),rotationwithrice (OryzasativaL.).Allofthetreatmentswiththreedif-

    ferentratesofcompostapplication(0,1,and2%).The CandNconcentrationsofthecompostwere146and 8.50gkg.respectively.Thetotalmetalcontentsof thecompostwere21.7mgkg.Pband0.52mgkg' Cd,whichwerelowerthanthatinthesoil.Allpots werearrangedinacompletelyrandomizeddesignwith threereplicationsforeachvarietyandeachceramic potcontained4kgofthepreviouslyairdriedsoil.Basal

    fertilizerwassuppliedatarateof0.15gN,0.1gP20, and0.15gK,Okgsoilforoilseedrapes.Nutrients

    wereprovidedinthefollowingforms:Nas(NH,),O, P205asKH2PO4,andK2OasK2SO4.Aftergermination ofoilseedrape,theseedlingswerethinnedtoeightplants perpot.OilseedrapegrowingseasonwasfromMarch 22toMay10.Duringtheoilseedrapegrowth.no morefertilizerwasapplied.Potswerewatereddaily withtapwater(Cd<0.002mgL.;Pb<0.005mgL.). Afteroilseedrapeswereharvested,thesoilwasfertil

    izedwith0.15gN,0.1gP2O,and0.15gofK2Oper kgsoilinpreparationforricecultivation.Nutrients wereprovidedinthefollowingforms:Nas(NH4)2SO4, P205asKH2PO4,andK2OasK2SO4.Afterfertilizing, thesoilsweresubmergedinwaterfor2wk,afterwhich 4riceseedlingsweretransplantedintoeachpot.Pots werewatereddailywithtapwatertokeepthesoil submerged.Riceshootswereharvestedatmaturity andricegrowingseasonwasfromJune5toOctober 8.Duringricegrowth,nomorefertilizerwasapplied. Sampleanalysis

    Harvestedplantswerewashedwithtapwaterandrinsed

withdoubledeionizedwater.Plantswereovendried

    at70.Cfor48handdryweightyieldswererecorded. Oyendriedplanttissuesweregroundusingastainless steelmil1.Subsamplesofgroundmaterialsweredi

    gestedwithHNOusingthemicrowave(Mars5,CEM

    Co..USA)andtotalCdandPbconcentrationswere determinedbyatomicabsorptionspectrometry(TAS

    990.PuxiAnalyticalInstrumentalCo..China).Acerti

    fledreferencematerial(GBW08510)wasobtainedfrom theResearchCenterforChineseStandardMaterialsand wasusedforqualitycontrolofCdandPbdeterminations. TheamountsofCdandPbuptakenbyoilseedrapeand @2011CAASAllfightsreservedPublishedbyElsevierLtd TheEffectofPlantingOilseedRapeandCompostApplicationonHeavyMetalFormsinSoila

    ndCdandPbUptakeinRice269

    ricewerecalculated.

    Thesampledsoilswereairdried,ground,andpassed

    througha1mmmeshsieve.Sievedsoilsamples

    (1.000geach)wereaccuratelyweighedandplaced intoa100mLpolypropylenecentrifugetubeforspe

    ciationanalysis.AmodifiedBCRthreestagesequen

    tialextractionprocedure(Raureteta1.1999)wasused topartitionCdandPbinthesoilsintoseveralfractions. Fractionswereasfollows:Bl,watersoluble,exchange

    ableandcarbonatebound;B2.FeMnoxidebound;B3.

    organicmatterandsulfidebound.TheCdandPbcon

    centrationsineachfractionweredeterminedbyatomic absorptionspectrometry.

    ThemodifiedBCRsequentialextractionprocedure wasperformedasfol1OWS:

    Stepl(B1fraction):Soilsample(1g)wasplacedin a100mLcentrifugetubeand40mL0.1molL

    CHCO0Hwasadded.Themixturewasshakenfor 16hatf22~51.C.Shakingwasstartedassoonasthe extractantwasadded.Themixturewasseparatedby centrifugationat3000xgfor20min.Thesupernatant wasdecantedintoapolyethylenecontainerandstored at4.Cunti1analysis.Theresiduewasshakenwith20 mLdistilledwaterfor15rain.centrifugedandthe washingswerediscarded.

    Step2(B2fraction):Theresiduefromstep1was extractedwith40mL0.5molLNH0H?HC1(adjusted

    withnitricacidtopH2),asdescribedabove. Step3(B3fraction):Theresiduefromstep2was extractedwithl0mL30%HOwhichwasaddedcare

    fullyinsmallaliquotstoavoidlossesduetotheviolent reaction.Thecentrifugetubewascoveredwithawatch glassandthecontentsdigestedatf22i5).Cfor1h withoccasionalmanualshaking.Thedigestionwas continuedbyheatingthecoveredtubeforlhat(85?2).c

    inawaterbath,thenthecoverwasremovedandthe mixturereducedtoasmallvolume.

    Asecond10mL

    aliquotof30%H2O2wasaddedandthedigestionpro

    cedurewasrepeated.Finally.50mLNHOH'HC1ad

    justedwithnitricacidtopH2wasadded.Thesample wasshaken,centrifugedandtheextractwasseparated asdescribedinstep1.

    Dataanalysis

    AlldatawereanalyzedusingaSASstatisticalpackage

byanIBMpersonalcomputer.Univariateandmulti

    variateanalysisofvariance(ANOVA)wereapplied. Duncan'smultiplerangetestwasusedatP=0.05to separatemeans.

    RESULTSANDDISCUSSION

    CdandPbuptakebyoilseedrapeandchangein chemicaIforms0fCdandPbinthesolI

    ShootdryweightandCdandPbconcentrationsin oilseedrapesBoththegrowthofoilseedrapecultivars, ZCandCY.appearednormalwhengrowninthecon

    taminatedsoils.Thetwocultivarshadsignificantly highershootdryweightinthetreatmentsof1and2% compostamendmentthanthecontrolwithoutcompost (Table1),with2%compostamendmenthavingthe greatestshootdryweight.Therewasnosignificant differencebetweenthetwocultivarsinshootdryweight withinthesamecomposttreatment.

    Concentrati0nsofCdandPbintheshootsofthe twooilseedrapecultivarsdecreasedwithincreasing ratesofcompostapplication(Fig.1.Thelowestcon

    centrationsofCdandPbintheshootswereobtained whengrowninsoilwith2%compostapplication. ShootsofbothcultivarshadsignificantlylowerCdand Pbconcentrationswhengrowninsoilwith2%corn

    Table1Shootdryweight,CdandPbuptake,

    andshootremovalrateoftwooilseedrapecultivarsgrownincontaminatedsOilwithdiflferent

    composttreatments

    val...."oflhreereplicatesThedilI~'rcntcapitalletterswithinthesamecultivarrepresentsignif

    icantdifferencein0

    ,1,and2%compostapplicationat5%f005)

andthedifferentlowercaselettersuitbinthesamecompostapplicationrepresentsignificantd

    ifferencebetweencultivars(zc,CY).Thesameasbelow @2011.CAASAllrightsreservedPublishedbyElsevierLtd 270WUFei

    longetal

    postamendment,comparedwiththosegrowninsoil withnocomposttreatment.HeandSinghfl993)and Browneta1.(2003)alsoreportedthatCdandPbup

    takebyplantsdecreasedwithincreasingratesofor

    ganicmatterapplication.ThereductioninCdandPb concentrationinplantsgrowninsoilamendedwith compostmaybecausedbylowerbioavailabilityof metalsinthesoil.ormaybearesultoftheincreased biomassyield.

    ConcentrationsofCdandPbintheshootsofoilseed rapeZCwerehigherthanthoseofoilseedrapeCYin thesamecomposttreatment,buttheywerenotsignifi

    cantdifferentexceptofPbconcentrationinthe0% composttreatment.

    Phytoextractionofcontaminantsdependsonshoot biomassproductionandmetalc0ncentrati0ninthe shoots(Ebbseta1.1997;EbbsandKochian1998).Cd andPbuptakeandremovalratebyshootsofthetwo oilseedrapecultivarsweremeasuredandcalculated 5O

    45

    40

    35

    3)

    25

2()

    I5

    IIJ

    5

    O

    A

    z(

    ()

    (Table1).Atthesamerateofcompostapplication, uptakeofCdandPbwasgreaterinoilseedrapeZC thaninCY.TheCdandPbuptakeratesbyshootsof oilseedrapeZCweresignificantlyaffectedbycompost anddecreasedwithratesofcompostapplication,but theCdandPbuptakeratesbyshootsofoilseedrape CYwerenotdifferedinthedifferentcompost applications.

    ShootsofoilseedrapeZCremoved2.553.67%Of

    totalsoilCd,butonly0.049.0.131%oOftotalsoilPb. ShootsofoilseedrapeZCremovedmoreCdandPb thanshootsofoilseedrapeCY.Shootsofoilseedrape CYremoved2-392.62%oftotalsoilCdandonly0.032

    0.062%oftotalsoilPb.Theseresultssuggestthatboth cultivarsofoilseedrapehaveamuchhigherpotentialto removeCdfromcontaminatedsoilthanPb.Thereare twomajorlimitationstoPbphytoextraction:theIowPb bioavailabilityinsoilandthepoortranslocationofPb fromrootstoshoots(Pulfordandltson2003).

    ^

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