By Craig Burns,2014-11-22 07:53
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    RFP #105620


    15.1 GENERAL

    15.1.1 QUALITY

    North American transit equipment experience indicates that construction must be to a high standard to achieve satisfactory vehicle service under the environmental and operating conditions which prevail. Specific standards with respect to material and workmanship are necessary. This section defines the minimum performance requirements for materials to be used in the construction of the streetcars and establishes minimum guidelines for workmanship. It identifies mandatory government requirements and industry specifications controlling the quality of specific materials and components and the construction methods. Alternatives will be considered.

    The Contractor shall ensure that all equipment, materials, manufacturing, assembly, and installation processes and practices are in full conformance with the intent and the requirements of this Specification as well as with proven and recognized industry practices and recommendations.

    15.1.2 STANDARDS

    All materials shall conform to the appropriate industry standards for use on rail transit equipment. These standards include Federal or Military Specifications or Standards, the Specifications of the Aluminum Association of America, AAR, ANSI, ASME, ASTM, FRA, IEEE, IEC, EN, or other requirements as specified herein. Foreign or international standards are encouraged to be proposed by the Contractor as alternatives. The Contractor shall submit proposed standards in English for review by the City. A service history of equipment built to these standards may be included to demonstrate the applicability of the standard.


    All equipment and material intended for use in these cars shall be shipped and stored such that damage or reduction in life is prevented. All stored material subject to corrosion shall be protected by waterproof covers or coatings. Materials and equipment shall be stored under cover and off the floor or ground.

    All equipment shall be stored with all ports, covers, and all other enclosure openings closed to prevent ingestion of dirt or moisture.

    All dated material shall be clearly marked with the expiration date and shall not be used beyond the expiration date. All material with special handling or storage requirements shall be handled or stored according to the manufacturers requirements.

    All material shall be clearly marked and/or stored with appropriate nomenclature to prevent misapplication.

    Rejected material shall be clearly marked as such and stored in an area specifically designated for that purpose.


    The following materials are prohibited for use in the construction of these cars, except where specifically permitted:


    ; Asbestos

    ; Lead in brake shoes

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    ; Urethane Foam

    ; Aluminum Threaded Fasteners


    In this context, dissimilar materials refers to materials that corrode or otherwise become damaged when in contact with other materials.

    Connection of dissimilar materials is permitted only at permanent connections and with suitable electrochemical isolation. All such isolation treatments shall be permanent and not require maintenance or replacement for the life of the car.

    Dissimilar materials are not permitted at electrical connections or connections requiring disassembly for maintenance or for removal and replacement of equipment.



    All bolts, screws, nuts, washers, and other related fastening devices shall be plated steel, stainless steel, or aluminum. All threaded, 1/4-turn, or otherwise non-permanent fasteners shall have Phillips, tamper proof, hex socket, or hex heads. Slotted-head fasteners shall not be used unless specifically approved by the City for application inside equipment enclosures and for bolts 5 mm diameter or less.

    Except for fasteners internal to electrical or electronic components, plastic screws, bolts, nuts, or other plastic fastening components shall not be used unless approved.

    Protruding screws, mounting bolts or similar items will not be permitted either on the interior or exterior of the car, except for those appointments which can not be built into the structure in any other manner. Interior or exterior screws, bolts, and nuts exposed to passengers shall be used only if approved.

    All fasteners used for access panels, equipment box covers, or other areas requiring frequent operator or maintenance access shall be captive to the cover.

    Fasteners shall not be used near heat sources that will exceed the fastener manufacturer's recommended operating temperature or otherwise damage or reduce the life of the fastener. THREADED FASTENERS

    Threaded fasteners shall have screw thread conforming to ISO-metric standards. Metric fasteners shall be identified as required by applicable ASTM specifications, abstracted in "Metric Fastener Standards", Industrial Fasteners Institute, latest edition.

    Self-tapping screws shall not be used except as approved for a specific application. All fastenings on access panels, plates, covers, of other components accessible by passengers, shall be a tamper-resistant type.

    Stainless steel screws or bolts, nuts, flat washers, and lock washers shall be used in mounting, and in making connections at power resistors and other heat-producing apparatus where copper, stainless steel or other high expansion alloys are connected. For carbon steel or other low expansion materials that produce heat, connections shall be made with Grade 5 zinc plated hardware. Cadmium plated fasteners shall not be used to connect heat producing devices.

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    All structural or load carrying bolts shall be a minimum of Grade 5 and the bolt diameter shall be no less than M10, regardless of design load. Stronger fasteners shall be used if the application requires.

    When bolts are used to secure apparatus where the bolt head is inaccessible, a reusable mechanical locking device shall be used to prevent the bolt head from turning when the nut is being removed.

At least 1a screw threads shall project beyond all nuts. WASHERS AND LOCK WASHERS

    Washers shall conform to ANSI B18.22M, latest revision, as is appropriate for the application.

    Flat washers shall be used on both sides of all electrical connections, that is, under the bolt head and the nut.

    Lock washers shall not be used in structural applications or in fatigue applications where the fastener must be torqued and marked. All lock washers shall conform to International Fastener Institute (IFI) 1970 Fastener Standards. NUTS

    Predominant type nuts shall be regular-height, nylon-insert, self-locking ESNA stop nuts or approved equal. Self-locking nuts shall be used throughout, where practical. Non-self-locking nuts with lock washers may be used in non-structural applications upon approval by the City or where required by the Specification.

    Nylon insert lock nuts shall not be used near heat sources that will exceed the manufacturers recommended operating temperature. TORQUING

    All threaded fasteners shall be torqued to a value assigned by the designer or to standard torque values recommended by the fastener manufacture. All safety related fasteners, including truck and brake equipment bolts, shall be "torque-striped" after torquing by paint or equal approved means. 15.2.16 RIVETS

    Rivets and lock pins exposed to passengers shall be stainless steel or aluminum as appropriate to the materials being joined.

    15.2.2 JOINT FITTING

    Joints shall be properly fitted, whether exposed or concealed. Gaps between joints shall be held to a minimum and be uniform in width. The edges of panels shall have a smooth, finished appearance. 15.2.3 METAL-TO-METAL CONNECTIONS

    Where metal is riveted or bolted to metal, contact surfaces shall be free of dirt, grease, rust and scale, and shall be coated with a metal base primer.

    If aluminum parts are used for any purpose, metal-to-metal connections shall be in accordance with the latest revision of "Specifications Covering Use of Aluminum in Passenger Carrying Rail Vehicles"; Technical Report Number 524 by the Aluminum Company of America.


    Where wood and ferrous metal surfaces are placed together, the wood shall be coated with aluminum paint conforming to Federal Specification TT-P-38, and the metal, shall be coated with a primer which conforms to Federal Specification TT-P-664

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    All bolts or rods passing through wood shall be coated with aluminum paint conforming to Federal Specification TT-P-38.

    If aluminum parts are used for any purpose, wood-to-metal connections shall be in accordance with the latest revision of "Specifications Covering Use of Aluminum in Passenger Carrying Railway Vehicles" per Technical Report Number 524 by the Aluminum Association of America.


    Where wood and wood are placed together, both abutting surfaces shall be coated with aluminum paint conforming to Federal Specification TT-P-38.


    Structural stainless steel components shall be of AISI type 201L or 301LN and shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A 666 except that the carbon content shall not exceed 0.03 percent and type 301LN may contain up to 0.25 percent nitrogen. Other high strength stainless steels proposed by the Contractor may be used if approved by the City.

    Stainless steel used in non-structural applications shall be AISI types 201, 202, 301, 302, 304, 316, 430 or as proposed by the Contractor and approved by the City.


    Structural shapes, plates and bars shall conform, as a minimum, to the requirements of ASTM A 588. General requirements for delivery of LAHT shapes, plates, and bars shall be as required by ASTM A 6.

    Welded LAHT steel shall develop 20 foot-lbs Charpy V Notch impact strength in the CGHAZ (Coarse grain heat affected zone 1mm from fusion area) at 0EF.

    Hot rolled or formed structural shapes may be used for non-structural applications including equipment supports, jack pads, and clip angles.

    Cold and hot rolled LAHT sheet and strip shall, as a minimum, conform to the requirements of ASTM A 606, Type 4. General requirements for delivery of these products shall be as required by ASTM A 568.

    Other low-alloy, high-tensile steels which meet or exceed the above requirements may be used, provided their detailed specifications are submitted and approved as equivalent, or better material, for the proposed applications.

All LAHT steels shall be applied according to their specification properties.


    Steel castings used in any location throughout the car shall be selected by the Contractor for composition, heat treatment, and design best suited for the intended service.

    All steel castings shall be sound throughout and shall be suitably marked with pattern and serial numbers in a manner that will not impair their strength.

    All steel castings used in the truck structure, bolster, and center bearing arrangement shall meet AAR Specification M-201 latest revision, Grade "B", plus 2% nickel, minimum. These castings shall be heat

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    treated to develop a minimum tensile strength of 517 MPa, a minimum yield strength of 331 MPa,

    elongation of not less than 25% in 50.4 mm, and reduction of area of not less than 50%.

    Magnetic particle inspections of all surfaces of all castings shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM E 709, by personnel certified to MIL-STD-410A, latest revision.

    Where specified or required, radiographic inspection meeting the requirements of ASTM Standard E 94 and using reference radiographs to ASTM E 446 shall be applied.

     Welding of castings is permitted, provided the casting supplier performs all repair welds in accordance with an approved written procedure and uses welders qualified to ASTM A 488.

    15.6 ALUMINUM

    Aluminum alloy mill products shall be identified by designations prescribed by the Aluminum Association of America and shall conform to specifications contained in the Association's publication "Aluminum Standards and Data". Castings shall conform to ASTM B 26, B 85, and B 108 for sand, die, or permanent mold castings respectively. Aluminum alloy forgings shall conform to ASTM B 247.

    Protection shall be provided at the contact surface of all connections to aluminum. The following instructions are provided for general guidance and shall not be construed to supersede conflicting recommendations by the aluminum manufacturer or by the Aluminum Association of America Technical Report No. 524.

    The contact surfaces of aluminum alloy with aluminum alloy shall be etched or anodized before securing. Aluminum alloy surfaces shall not be secured to, nor make direct metal to metal contact with the surfaces of copper, copper bearing aluminum alloy, brass, bronze, silver, nickel and nickel plated parts or alloys thereof, lead, tin, ferrous materials and wood.

    The surfaces of aluminum alloy parts secured to steel parts shall be protected as follows:

; With a one-part polysulphide sealant or zinc chromate paste.

    ; Alternatively, an approved insulation joint material, which completely covers the fayed surfaces,

    may be used. The material shall be non-hygroscopic and, if fibrous, shall be impregnated with

    bitumen or some other approved water and moisture-repellant substance. Fasteners shall be

    primed and painted with red oxide or aluminum paint after installation.

    Wood-to-metal connections shall be as specified above. The wood shall be thoroughly dried and then coated with varnish or other comparable sealant, as approved.

    Carbon steel fasteners shall be cadmium plated as required above. The entire fastening, including washers and nuts, shall be plated and where possible, the head and unthreaded portion of the shank of the bolt shall be in contact with the aluminum part when secured in place. Suitable bushings may be used.

    Rivets driven hot may be considered as covered by a protective oxide coating due to the heating, but the method of riveting shall, if possible, always be with the formed rivet head in contact with the aluminum alloy.


    The Contractor shall control the quality of all welding and brazing, including that of its subcontractors. Prior to performing work under this Contract, all welders shall have been tested to confirm their ability to operate the welding equipment and to make the types of welds required by the design or this document.

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    All structural welding practices not specifically covered in other sections of this Specification shall be in accordance with requirements of EN287-1 for steel; EN287-2 for aluminum;; and the AWS Handbook. Resistance welding shall be in accordance with MIL-W-6858. Requirements for dynamically loaded structures shall have precedence over those for statically loaded structures.

    Structural welding of stainless steel by the fusion-arc process shall be governed by ASME Section IX and ASME Section VIII, Part UHA. AISI 201L and 301LN stainless steels shall be treated as P-No. 8, Group-No. 3 category for reference to ASME requirements. Weld heat affected-zones (HAZ) and weld metal shall be limited to maximum allowable stress values in ASME Section VIII, Table UHA-23 for UNS S20100 stainless steel and Table UW-12 rating of welds, regardless of strength level of the base metal. Ferrite number for welds shall be between WRC4 and WRC10, or as proposed by the Contractor and approved by the City.

    Additional information on definitions, processes or other questions pertaining to welding shall be referred to AWS Welding Handbooks, latest edition.

    The Contractor may propose the substitution of other standards as detailed in Section 15.1.2 above. 15.7.2 WELDER QUALIFICATION

    Welders shall make only those welds for which they have been qualified in accordance with the requirements of the AWS, ASME Section IX, EN 288, or other approved qualifying procedures. Records of welder qualification tests shall be made available for review upon the City's request. 15.7.3 WELD PENETRATION

    Full penetration welds are required for all structural welds unless otherwise approved by the City. Where partial penetration welds are proposed for structural welds, the Contractor shall provide design calculations supporting the penetration required and conduct tests to prove that production welding achieves this required penetration with a margin of safety suited to the design application. Partial penetration welds in structural connections may be made only with approval of the Contractor's formal detailed proposal.

    All full penetration welds made from one side without backup shall be considered partial penetration welds. In no case shall partial penetration welds be used where they experience alternating tensile or bending loads at the weld root.

    15.7.4 INSPECTION

    The Contractor shall inspect all structural welds. In addition to visual inspection requirements specified by the AWS welding code, nondestructive surface inspection (dye penetrant or magnetic particle methods, as appropriate) shall be used to inspect all first production welds. The Contractor shall specify additional nondestructive inspection requirements for subsequent welds.


    All welds exposed to passengers or on the surface of truck frames and bolsters shall be completely cleaned of all spatter.


    All welding rod or wire shall be purchased to AWS Specifications. Where special materials are required that are not covered by these or other applicable AWS welding material specifications, the Contractor shall submit the purchase specifications for approval.

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    Welding rod and wire shall be purchased in packages of convenient size, which shall be marked with the manufacturer's name and the specification, diameter and net weight of the material.

    The material shall be stored in accordance with recommendations to the AWS "Structural Welding Code" to protect it from damage, and so that it can be easily identified. Material shall be issued and handled in such a way as to prevent it from being mixed with that of another specification.


    Procedures for structural welding of stainless steel to LAHT, or other combinations of metals or conditions not covered by AWS specifications or codes, shall be submitted for approval.

    Austenitic stainless steel electrodes or wire shall be used to join carbon or LAHT steels to stainless steels. 15.7.8 RESISTANCE WELDING

    Resistance welding of stainless or carbon steels shall be in accordance with MIL-W-6858, Class B for structural applications and Class C for non-structural applications. The Contractor shall control current, time, electrode size, shape, and tip force to produce uniform welds of specified strength which are not subject to intergranular, stress-corrosion cracking. Resistance welds shall be arranged to avoid tension or "peeling" forces on the welds under any anticipated loading condition.

    Surface indentation shall not exceed 20 percent of material thickness (t) or 0.01 inch, whichever is greater; however, for exterior resistance-welded areas exposed to passenger view, indentation shall not exceed 10 percent of t or 0.005 inch, whichever is greater. Surface burn and discoloration shall be removed by an approved method.

    Any deviation desired by the Contractor from the MIL-W-6858 standards including, but not limited to, weld nugget diameter, tension shear strength, and minimum spacing, shall be submitted and approved prior to inclusion in the design or in production procedures.


    Galvanized steel shall not be welded to stainless steel. Brazing shall not be used to join stainless steel to itself or to other metals unless specifically permitted by the City.


    Spacing of resistance and spot welds shall be appropriate to the design. Spacing shall not exceed 50 mm plus twice the weld nugget diameter for any structural application, including car body side sheets. Intermittent weld spacing shall not exceed 125 mm for 50 mm weld length (40 percent minimum). 15.7.11 TORCH BRAZING

    All brazing (above 840EF) shall follow the recommendations contained in the AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 2, latest issue. Procedures and personnel who perform brazing work shall be qualified in accordance with AWS B2.2-85, Standard for Brazing Procedure and Performance Qualification.

    Brazed joints shall present a workman-like appearance in accordance with AWS quality standards. The inner surfaces of air conditioning tubing shall be protected from oxidizing contaminants during and after brazing operations have been completed.


    All soldering (below 840EF) shall follow the recommendations contained in the AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 2, latest issue. Procedures and personnel who perform torch soldering shall be qualified through the preparation and testing of test samples, as follows:

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    ; Copper piping into fittings Each worker designated to perform this work shall prepare 3 copper

    piping connections in the vertical position. The sample joints shall present a smooth, workman-

    like appearance, without excess solder reinforcement. Each joint shall be pressure tested using a

    water or air system to confirm that it is leak-free.

    ; Stainless Steel Lap Joints (Trim Seams) One typical trim seam sample, using the same

    stainless steel materials, finish and thicknesses as used on the actual car, shall be prepared by

    each person doing this work. The seam for evaluation shall be a minimum of 36 inch in length

    and shall be setup in the horizontal, flat position during soldering. Specimen width shall be

    selected, or the test setup arranged, so that premature overheating of the joint does not occur.

    Finished samples shall be saw-cut into 4 pieces so that 8 cross-sections of the joint may be

    examined. Exposed solder surfaces shall display a uniform, smooth contour and shall meet or

    exceed all applicable AWS quality standards.


    The Contractor shall prove that all safety related welded structures such as, but not limited to, end underframes, fabricated truck frames and bolsters, and welded coupler components, have adequate toughness for the specified environmental exposure. Specifically, the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal shall resist service impact loads at the lowest specified operating temperature. Criteria for acceptance shall be shown by the Contractor to be adequate.

    In the absence of prior operating history, and if no analysis requires greater toughness, the minimum impact value for Charpy V-notch specimens shall be 20 Joules of absorbed energy at the lowest specified operating temperature.


    All elastomeric parts shall be of neoprene unless otherwise specified or approved. Elastomers shall be compounded and cured to perform as intended in the Portland environment specified in Section 2 of these TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS. Elastomers shall have high resistance to ultraviolet and other solar radiation, all vehicle washing fluids, and long life. All elastomeric parts shall be resistant to ozone, oxidation, heat, oil, grease and acid.

All resilient parts shall have a design life no less than ten (10) years.

    For all parts made by vulcanizing and elastomer to metal, any premature failure (less than five years) between metal and the elastomer or in the elastomer, occurring when the parts are used in normal service and according to the provisions of this Specification, shall be considered as having been caused by defect of materials or workmanship.

    Metal parts to which neoprene or other such material is cured shall be made of SAE 1020 or 1045 hot-rolled steel or approved equal, suitable for brass plating after pickling.

    All door mating edges, door and window seals, and glazing strips shall be of neoprene material and shall be free of defects of material and workmanship. The durometer hardness measured with a Shore Type "A" durometer at a temperature between 20EC and 30EC shall be 70 " 5.


    The manufacture of glass panes for use in the vehicles shall insure maximum safety, as well as considering comfort, economic use, and aesthetics. Safety glass shall meet the requirements under Item 1, Table 1 of the latest revision of American National Standard ANSI Z26.1, "Safety code for Safety Glass for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways" or other approved standards as appropriate for the application.

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    All safety glass shall be of the laminated sheet type. All windshield material shall be clear.

Corners and burrs shall be ground smooth and all edges shall be seamed.

    The bond between the glass and the membrane shall be such that when the glass is broken by twisting or by direct impact, there will be no separation between the laminations.

    Safety sheet glass shall produce minimal distortion on a line of 45 degrees to the plane of the glass. Safety plate glass shall meet the requirements under Item 2, Table 1 of the latest revision of American National Standard ANSI Z26.1, "Safety Code for Safety Glass for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways".

    All safety glass shall be marked with proper identification in accordance with ANSI Z26.1, and other appropriate designation.

Plastic glazing is not permitted for use on these cars.


    The floor covering shall have a static coefficient of friction of at least 0.6 measured in accordance with ASTM D 2047, using leather and rubber shoe materials. Leather shoe material shall be in accordance with Federal Specification KK-L-165C. Rubber shoe material shall be in accordance with ASTM Method D 1630.

    Rubber floor covering shall contain 20 percent (nominal, by weight of compound) butadiene styrene rubber, shall be non-staining, non-discoloring, and 100 percent non-oil extended. Only high quality hard clay shall be used as a filler.

No whitening (limestone) shall be used in the compound.

    At room temperature, the rubber flooring shall bend around a 20 mm diameter mandrel without breaking, cracking, crazing, or showing any change in color. The rubber flooring material shall be fully homogeneous throughout, and shall meet the requirements of Federal Specification SS-T-312.

Rubber flooring shall conform to the criteria below.

    (a) A thin skinned blister is a blister, which when finger-pushed, will collapse upon itself. Thin skin

    blisters of the indicated sizes are permitted as follows and shall be repaired as indicated:

    ; Maximum Size - 0.75 mm height, 0.500 mm? area with longest dimension of 50 mm.

    ; Maximum Population - 3 blisters in a 300 mm? by 300 mm? area, there shall be only one

    other blister within 1 m of this area.

    ; Repair Method - using a hypodermic needle, apply just enough Super Bond 420 or Bostik

    1685 to bring to a flush surface.

    (b) A thick skinned blister is a blister, which when finger-pushed, will collapse and then return to its

    original condition. Thick skin blisters of the indicated sizes are permitted as follows and shall be

    repaired as indicated:

    ; Maximum Size - 0.75 mm height, 0.500 mm? area with longest dimension of 50 mm.

    ; Maximum Population - 3 blisters in a 300 mm? by 300 mm? area, there shall be only one

    other blister within 1 m of this area.

    ; Repair Method - no repair authorized.

    (c) A lump is a blister without a void, consisting of solid material. Lumps of the indicated sizes are

    permitted as follows and shall be repaired as indicated:

    ; Maximum Size - 0.75 mm height, 0.500 mm? area with longest dimension of 50 mm.

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    ; Maximum Population - 3 lumps in a 300 mm? by 300 mm? area, there shall be only one

    other lump within 1 m of this area.

    ; Repair Method - no repair required.

    (d) A hole is a defect which is 100% through the material. Holes of any size or population are not

    permitted nor shall holes be repaired.

    (e) A thin area is a defect where the sheet is below thickness locally. Thin areas of the indicated

    sizes are permitted as follows and shall be repaired as indicated:

    ; Maximum Size - 0.75 mm deep at the lowest point, 2000 mm? with the longest dimension

    of 125 mm.

    ; Maximum Population - one thin area in a 1 m by 1 m area, and there shall not be another

    thin area within 1 m of this area.

    ; Repair Method - rub with #00 steel wool to blend this area into the normal thickness

    material and then buff to a normal surface finish.


    15.11.1 GENERAL

    All piping, valves, fittings, installation methods and testing shall be in accordance with the latest edition of ANSI B31.1 Pressure Piping. Straight runs of pipe shall be continuous and without fittings unless otherwise approved. All piping systems shall be cleaned after installation by flushing with an approved cleaning solutions. All piping systems shall be pressure tested after installation in accordance with the latest edition of the code for Pressure Piping, ANSI B31.1. All leaks shall be repaired and the system retested until leak free.

    Piping shall be rigidly clamped where it passes through holes in fixed members. Clamps shall not be welded, brazed or otherwise permanently fastened to any piping. Piping clamps shall be insulated with an approved elastomeric or woven mineral fabric tape to protect and acoustically insulate the piping from structure. All pipe clamps shall rigidly clamp piping to support structure. Cantilevered or other flimsy piping supports are prohibited.

    Piping connections to resiliently mounted or moving equipment shall be via hose or other resilient device, as appropriate. Piping shall be clamped within 50 mm of the resilient connection.

    Truck piping shall not be run on the bottom of truck side frames, transom, or bolster. 15.11.2 HYDRAULIC PIPING, TUBING, AND FITTINGS

    All hydraulic pipes shall be sized in accordance with the function intended. Tubing shall be seamless cold drawn steel, SAE 1010 or as approved, and designed for hydraulic applications. Wall thickness shall be schedule 80 for truck mounted piping and sufficient to maintain a safety factor of 6 at the maximum system pressure. Wall thickness in other locations shall be sufficient to maintain a safety factor of 6 at the maximum system pressure.

    All hydraulic pipe or tube connections shall be via steel or stainless steel fittings. All piping and tubing connections shall utilize the same type of fitting. Fittings may be either JIC 37? flare or flareless.

    All hose utilized within the hydraulic system shall be rated to withstand four times the maximum operating pressure without bursting. Hose shall not be used in locations where the temperature may exceed 100? C. All hose fittings shall be permanently fitted to the hose and the hose openings shall be capped immediately after fabrication and cleaning.

    Joints shall be kept to a minimum and there shall be no inaccessible joints. Instead of elbows, tubing may be bent utilizing a bending tool designed specifically for bending of the tubing to be used. All piping shall

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