?The necessity of word-teaching:
?How to teach the words
1. How to teach and learn the words systematically;
1.1 To know the rules of pronunciation and spelling;
1.2 To know the knowledge of word-building;
1.3 To induce and sum up the verbs,pronouns and other words;
2. How to make the English class lively and interesting;
2.1 Using the realia to teach words;
2.2 Using models and pictures to teach words;
2.3 Using physical languages to teach words;
2.4 Using drawings to teach words;
3. How to develop the English extracurricular activities;
3.1 Making and guessing puzzles;
3.2 Playing ganmes;
3.3 Teaching and learning proverbs;
3.4 Learning English songs and poets;
? How to learn the words by students themselves;
Word-teaching is basic and very important teaching.But many English teachers ignore it,and the Chinese students,especially the Junior Middle School students,are hard to learn English words well.As the great differences between English and Chinese,and the lack of good environment to use and speak English,the students feel the-words-learing dull and they are easy to be bored at it .In order to promote the English teaching and help the learners have a good base of vocabulary,I’d
like to talk about how to teach English words according to my experience of teaching.
English word-teaching should aim to stir and keep the interest of the students in English learning, and help them learn in a scientific way. So,in this article, I mainly talk about hou to make the word-teaching in class lively and attractive, adapting to the character of the students, how toguide the students to learn the words systematically, how to guide the students to learn the words systematically, how to memorize the words cientifically, and how to develop extracurricular activities to consolidate their knowledge of English words.
The word-teaching in class should be vivid and interesting.The teaching forms and methods should be varied. Using the rrealia ,pictures, models, drawings to teach words. These ways not only draw the students’ attention to the class,but also teach them how to learn scientifically, help them connect the objects directly with target language, reducing the interfering of their mother tongue and have a good beginning of tingking in English.
The scientific way must be based on knowledge of phonetics, spelling, the habit of revision and the correct comprehension of the words. The students shoule induce the words, classify the words, compare the words and learn them systematically.
Moreover, they must learnthe rules and features of memory , have a righe attitude towards forgetting, and arrange a reasonable time to memorize the words.
Extracurricular activities shoule be simple, lively, funny and effective. Such as playing games, guessing puzzles, learning English songs and poets.
In addition,English teachers should learn the internel or externel foreign language teaching methods, link theory with practice, ande combine the word-teaching with other parts of English teaching well together ,In this way, both the quality of teaching and learning are developed.
How To Teach English Words In Junior Middle School
Word teaching is a basic, necessary and important part in English teaching . But as the great differences between Chinese and English, it’s hard for the Chinese students to memorize English words. And there isn’t a good environment for the students to listen and speak English quite often, evern they remembered some words fist, they are easy to forget soon. So they often feel the study dull and are easy to get bored and tired at learning English words. But one must be based on a certain number of vocabularies if he wants to continue his later English study. So how to guide the students to learn the words is quite necessary for the English teachers to study and discuss.English words should be learned systematically,especially when the students get more and knowledge about the spelling and the sounds, they will find more scientific ways to learn the words by heart , They should know that English words and Chinese words are not corresponded one to ont. Memory must bu based on comprehension. So the students should learn some knowledge of the homonyms, synonyms and polysemants.
Homonyms should be collcted and be compared. Such as, two-too, sea-see, wear-where, hour-our, hear-here etc.
Synonyms should be collected and be differed. Such as complete, finish, end, be over.They all have meaning”come to an end, reach and end”.But they are different in
the way of using.”Complete”is a transitive verb.For example, the railway is not competed yet. “Finish” can both be a transitive verb and an intransivtive verb.For example, finish one’s work, finish reading a book.Term finishes next week.”End” can both be a transitive verb and an intransitive verb. For example,”How does the story end? Let’s end our quarrel”. “Over” is a preposition. For example, “Class is over”.
Polysemants are very common in English words. So we must know something about it . Such as the word “run” can be used as a noun or a verb It has many meanings. It has three meanings as a noun, a) act of running on foot. For example, they are going for a short run across the fields. b) in flight. For example, he is on the run from the police. c) continuously active and moving about. For example, I’ve been on the run ever since I got up. As a verb, it also has three meanings. a) men or animals move with quick steps, faster than when walking . For example, he ran to meet us .b) escape or avoid by going away, take to flight. For example, Run for your lives! c) organize, manage, cause to be in operation.For example,he ran a theatre at that time.
The students should learn something about the rules of word-building. Some adjective en with the suffix-y ,such as, windy, snowy, healthy, happy, etc. Some
adjectives en with the suffix-ful, such as beautiful, careful, useful, dreamful etc. Most of the words that end with the suffix-ly are adverbs, such as quickly, carefully, usually, but some of them are adjectiver: lovely, lonely, friendly etc.
They are many derivatives. A derivative is formed by adding a suffix to a headword, such as eatable, assistance, dryness, development childlike, childish. Sometimes a derivative is formed by adding a prefix to a word, such as disvover, unlucky, mistrust, photocopy, television. Uphill. Besides those, there are manay compoud words. A compound is formed by adding anothere word to a headword ,such as, nightdress, night-time, night life, headmaster, shopkeeper, football etc. So the students should be guided to find out the features of different words and classify them into different groups.
Summing up and inducing is very necessary and important during the words teaching and learning period. For example, the plural forms of some special words can be divided into the following groups: a) man-men, woman-women,
policeman-policemen, Englishman-Englishmen, Frenchman-Frenchmen(change-man into-men).
b) knife-knives, wife-wives, life-lives, shelp-shelves, half-halves, leaf-leaves.(
Change “-fe” or “-f” into “-ves”).
c) potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes, d) zoo-zoos, photo-photos,
radio-radios,kilo-kilos, e)Some plural forms are the same with the single forms. Such as sheep, deer, Japanese, Chinese, people etc.
While revising the past tense and the past participle forms of the verb, the students can divide the irregular changing forms of verbs into several parts. a)Pattern AB: can-could, shall-shoule, will-would, many-might, b) pattern ABB: teach-taught-taught, meet-met-met, sit-sat-sat, buy-bought-bought, atch-caught-caught, think-thought-thought, win-won-won c) pattern ABC: ring-rang-rung, sing-sang-sung, drink-drank-drunk, begin-began-begun, rise-rose-risen, write-wrote-written, forget-forgot-forgotten speak-spoke-spoken, d) pattern AAA: let-let-let, cut-cut-cut, cost-cost-cost, hit-hit-hit, hurt-hurt-hurt, put-put-put.
To revise the pronouns, you can make a form sa following:
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
主I We You she he it they
宾me us you her him it them
容my our your her his its their
词mine ours yours hers his its theirs
反myself ourselves yourself herself himself itself themselves
To revise the names of countries, their languages and people, you can make a form as following:
Countries Languages People
China Chinese Chinese
Japan Japanese Japanese
England English Englishman
France French Frenchman
America English American
Russia Russian Russian
Canada English Canadian
Australia English Australian
During the period of the word teaching, the most important things are to arouse and keeo the students’ interest in learing English words. So a successful word-teaching class will help the pronunciation, the spelling, and the use of the words. Also we must study the Child Psychology, the general character of the students and their individual personalities, so that we can find the better ways to make our class interesting, vivid and attractive. Especially, when we first introduce the words to the students, we must give the students a correct and deep impression of the words so that they can have a gooe and fast memory of the words. There are many different ways to teach different English words, which are adapted to the needs of Junior Middle School students.
From the Direct Method, we see that concrete vocabulare can be taught through demonstration, objects and pictures. These ideas and methods were widespread in
th Europe at the end of the 19century. Even today using realia, gestures and pictures to teach words is also the most popular means. It is useful to help the students think in English, and use English to express themselves directly without referring to their mother tongues.
The realia can be the cakes, bread, dumplings, apples, oranges, bananas, tea, milk, coffee and other things that you can bring into class. Here is an example of using realia to teach words, the teachier shows an apple to the students and says:“ apple! apple! an apple!”The students listen an repeat, Then the teacher shows two apples and says:“apples, apples, two apples!”Students repeat again. Make sure that all
the students in class know the thing which you’re showing is called “apple”in
Englisn and everyone can pronounce the word “apple”correctly. The teacher should
be more slow and more patient to the learners. Do remenber that everything done in class should be helpful to stir and keep the student’s interest in English. However, the realia can be the school things, such as bags, pens, books, etc; And the realia can be the clothes that the students are wearing, such as coat, hat, shoes, socks etc. Try your best to use anything whichcan be seen in class as your realia to teach words. That is the best way to bring English into our real life. The students will copy your examples to call the real things that they see in life in English, naturally and immediately.
Sometimes it is necessary to use models or pictures to teach words. When you teach planes, cars, trucks and other traffic tooles, you’d better find some models of
them. You can buy them in the children’s toy shops. Models are more directly perceived through the senses than pictures. But pictures are easier to get. You can buy them in shops, find them in books or magazines, or you can draw them by yourself. Pictures should be colorful, vvivid and bia enough to be seen clearly by all the class. When wu teach figures, animals, plants and many other things, we need a lot of pictures is necessary and helpful in Endlish teaching.
You can write down the word at the back of each picture. When the students forget how to spell the word, ou can show it to them. For example, yu are teaching some vegetable words with the pictures of peas, cabbages, carrots, potatoes. First, you show the pictures one by one and say the words in turn . Students listen and repeat. Then, you show one of the ictures to the class and ask.“what are in the picture?”
Students may answer:“They are peas.”Then teach another word in the same way.
Thirdly, you can get the students to use the pictures to practice asking and answering in the same pictures one by one in front of the class, and get the students to say out the English names of the vegetables in turn as quickly as possible. So you see, pictures make your teaching lively and effectively.
James Asher’s Total Physical Response method attempts to teach language through physical acvivities. It emphasizes the use of physical actions to teach a foreign language at introductory level. This method has been widely received by English teachers today, especially in the word-teaching in primary school and Junior Middle school.
You can teach the verbs, such as run, jump, dance, fly by demonstration, also you can teach some verb phrases in this way. For example, when you teach the phrase “play football”, you can act as running and kicking a ball and then throwing it into a basketball net. These demonstrations will draw the students attention to your class, and make them become interested in English. If necessary, the teacher can ask the students to demonstrate these verbs or verb phrases as they think.
All the methods above aim to connect the objects with the target language directly, reducing the interfering of the mother tongue as much as possible. The use of the abbreviated drawing is an necessary complement to this aim. Especially when you teach some abstract words, such as hot, hool, you can draw as picture I and picture?
in a minute and explain them in English:“The man walks in the sun. He is very hot.
Then the sun is behind the cloud, the man feels cool now.”
? ? ?
You can use the same way to teach “warm”(see picture ?)
The more words the students learnt, the easier they mistake the words. So it is time for the teacher to tell them the rules of word pronunciation and word spelling, so that they can learn the words in a scientific way. Though the mechanic memory is unavoidate , these rules can help the students learn the words more easily and more effectively.
The students must know that a letter can be pronounced as several sounds. For example, the letter “a” can be pronounced as [ei] in open syllables, such as cake, tape,
te, fate, make, lake, late, same etc. It is often pronounced as [æ] in closed syllables, da
t, cap, hat, map, pan, Sam, etc. Sometimes it is pronounced as [e ] or , such as ca
such as many and data..On the other hand, the
Students should know that a phonetic symbol may be the sound of different letters or letter combinations. Such as the phonetic symbol [i:], it may be the sound of letter e (she he), or the sound of letter combination ee (bee see) or ea (sea tea) etc. So
when the students remember the sound of a word, he also needs to remember the exact form of the word at the same time.
However, the students should classify the words into different groups by their sound and compare them. They can do some exercises like this. There are four words with “oo” in them.A. cook B.food C.foot D.book Get the students to choose out the
different one according to their sounds. The students should know that oo is
pronounced [u:] before the voiced consonant, but [u] before the voiceless consonant, so the answer is B.food.
Also the teacher should often connect the new words with the old words in their English words teaching, so that the students can gradually form the habit if revision. And the words learnt before can’t be forgotten so quickly as usual by the students. For
example, when you teach a new word, you can explain it in old words. Such as museum, a building which objects illustrating art, history, science etc. are displayed. “Market”, an open place or a building where people meet to buy and sell goods.
In order to reinforce the memory of vocabularies that the students have learnt. The teacher can have some English extracurricular activities which can both help the students remembet the words and help them better understand the western humor and the character of English culture.
Word puzzle is the most ususl and simplest way. Here are several kinds of word puzzles. a).Use the similar sound to make a puzzle, for example, R.U.18? What does it mean? It means “too wise you are!” Another example, what does it mean?
You see “I” is under “stand”-so it means I understand. More examples what letter is a drink? –T(tea) what letter is a vegetable? –P(pea) what letter is a question?
-y(why)b)use the character of word-building to make puzzles. Such as , “Why is letter
T most like an island?” Because an island is in the middle of water, and the letter “t” is also in the middle of the word “water”. Another example, “Take three letters away
from sweaters, what drink can you get ? The answer is “water”, after you take away
the three letter “s,e,s” away, the letters left can form a word “water”. There are many compound words which end with “-man”, for example, milkman, policeman, postman,
so you can make a puzzle, “What man can not live inside the house?” the answer is
“snowman ”. There are also many compound words which end with “-room”, then
there is a puzzle as this “What room can no one enter?” the answer is “mushroom”. c) Here are many other puzzles. For example, “what star is not seen in the sky?” a film/sport/TV star. “What match can not be put in a match-box?” a
football/basketball/volleyball match. “What is always full when it is used and empty while atrest?” a pair of shoes.
Playing games is another useful way to reinforce the memory of words and stir the learnera’ interest in remembering words. JEC has provided many games to play. The English teacher still to find more games for the students to play.
For example, you can pu an apple, an orange, a banana or any other fruit into a paper box. Then ask a student to come and put his hand into the box to touch the fruit an guess what it is, Change the fruit into another and ask another student to do the same and guess.
“Who is the fastest?” is another game for student to play, the students should be divided into five or six groups. The teacher give the letter “K”, which is the last letter of the former word “book”, such as “kite”, the last letter of kite is “e”, such as “egg” , the last letter of egg is “g”, so the fourth student must say a word which begins with
letter “k”,which is the last letter of the former word “book”, such as “kite”, the last letter of kite is “e”, so the third student must say a word which begins with the letter “e”, such as “egg”, the last letter of egg is “g”, so the fourth student must say a word
which begins with letter “g”, such as “gift”, and so on . They can’t say two same words in one group. In five minutes,, the group which has said out the most words is the winner. Different word games can be played in class or after class.
Moreover, it’s best to let the students know more about the English culture settings. You may tell them that some English names come from colours, such as White, Brown, Black, Green, some names are form buildings, such as Church, Bridge, House, Hell, some are from plants, such as Rose, Cherry, Rice, Cotton; some names are from jobs, such as Cook, Baker, Hunter, Miller etc. With these knowledge, students not only remember the words clearly, but also come to realize the advantages of studying words comprehensively.
Many proverbs are simple and interesting, Students like to learn and easy to remember them. Proverbs can help the students to better understand the meanings of words and play important roles in learning and studying English. For example, “As silly as a goose. A cat with nine lives. Astame as a chicken. All for one, one for all. Early to bed, early to rise. Easy come, easy go,East or west, home is best. Like father,
like son. Love me, love my dog. Once bit, twice shy, etc.”
In addition, English songs and poets also play important roles both in classroom activities and outdoor activities. Many English songs for children are easy to teach and learn. Such as “Do-Re-Mi”, “Jingle Bell” “How do you do” etc. The English
teacher can play the tapes of English songs for the students to listen before the English class. That will help the studentget ready for Englishlessons psychologically. English poets can be used in duty report by the students. The teacher should help and encourage the students to do so . Many poets are simple and funny, for example, Good better best, never let it rest. Till good is better, and better best.
These activities will guide and encourage the learners to speak English as a native speaker. At last, they will help the learners pronounce the English words more naturally and fluently.
However, as people says, “Teaching how to fish is better than giving fish”, so the English teacher must teach the students how to learn the words by themselves.
First of all, they must know how to read the word, that means they must study the phonetic and spelling of the word, then they should memorize the meaning of the word; thirdly, they should know how to use the word in sentences. That means they must know the exact semantic of the word and they should do some exercises and a lot of reading.
Exercises include using the word to make phrases and sentences. A dictionary can help the students to do the exercises. There are many examples of making phrases and sentences for each word. For examjple, if a student wants to learn the use of the word “have”, he may look it up in an English-Chinese Dictionary, then he will see the
phrases such as “have supper, have a good time, have a walk, have a swim, have a party, have a rest” etc. And he will find the sentences such as “I have a pen . They
have gone to Beijing. We had a good summer holiday ” etc. The student had better memorize the phrases and sentences first, then he can make sentences after the models.
It is good for the students to do lots of reading . It will help them strengthen the memory of old words and guess out the meanings of new words, this can enlarge their vocabulary knowledge in a fast way.
Moreover, the students should know how to memorize the words after class. As Abinhouse Diagram shows that the memory disappeared quickly at first and then slowly. So the memory should be often reinforced. The words should be memorized again and again . The students should often revise their old words. And the best time to memonrize is different for everyone . But students have a lot of lessons to learn in the daytime, they had better memorize the words at night before going to bed, and revise the words again nex morning. The teacher should give the students dictations at times to help them find out the problems they have and devise methods to solve the problems.
English teachers should learn more methods of foreign language teaching, internel or externel, especially the English teaching methods, combine the word-teaching with other parts of the teaching in a better way, and make a perfect, successful English lesson. Theory comes from practice, and practice tests the theory.
Each English teacher should link theory with practice well and improve their work.