Balanced Scorecard 相当重要的一个考点;涉及的考题有2009-Jun-Q1;2010-Jun-Q1;2011-Jun-Q2
The Balanced Scorecard is a tool to translate the overall vision of company into objectives and performance metrics. It aims to ensure that the Introduction: goals of the company flow form the strategy and that the performance measures on the scorecard are those that will serve the long-term
interests of the business.
How does an organization appear to the customers?
Customer % of sales from new clients
perspective % of clients from whom repeat business is gained
Ratings from client satisfaction surveys
What must an organization excel at? Internal % of client projects completed on time and within budget business % of bids for new clients which are successful perspective % of employee time billed to clients
Innovation Can an organization continue to improve and create value?
and learning % of time used for staff development Four Perspectives perspective % of revenues earned from new products or services
How does an organization appear to the shareholders? Growth in operating cash flow Financial Gross margin earned form clients perspective Percentage increase in operating costs EVA generated in related to the budget
The internal logic of the balanced scorecard is the goal-setting originates with customers. Then an organization must determine what is must excel at in order to
satisfy customer expectations. The innovation and learning perspective contains goals which related to how an organization will maintain progress and develop its
processes, products and services. The results from these three perspectives will be mirrored in the financial perspective.
The directors will need to agree the ‘vision’ of the organization strategy with middle management and to ensure that the vision is also shared by all employees within
the organization thereby creating an ‘understood environment.’
It focuses on both internal and external factors and links performance measures to key elements of a company’s strategy. Benefits It requires a balanced consideration of both financial and non-financial measures and goals to prevent improvements being made in one area at (Features) of the expense of another. Balanced It attempts to identify the needs and concerns of customers to identify new products and markets and focuses on comparison with competitors Scorecard to establish best practice.
Some measures in the scorecard such may naturally conflict. It is often difficult to determine the balance between measures which will achieve
the best results. Problems of It is difficult to select the measures those which actually add value to an organization, not just those that are easy to measure. Balanced The scorecard only be effective if senior managers commit to it. If they revert to focusing solely on the financial measures they are used to, then Scorecard the value of introducing additional measures will be reduced.
The cost of implementation of the scorecard may be very high.
The objectives at N-F-P organization are less obviously financial than at private company. The use of the balanced scorecard approach will be of
great use to N-F-P organization as it emphasizes non-financial performance which fits with N-F-P organization’s objectives to quality of service Non-for-profit and the relationship with key stakeholders. This can lead to difficulty in setting quantifiable measures due to the soft issues involved. organization As a public service organization, the customer perspective may be more significant. The principal stakeholder is the government and so there
will be a complex, political dimension to measuring performance.