Sample Test for ICC Course ;随堂测试时间？12月31日；
I. Multiple Choice (20 points, 2 points each)
Directions: There are some statements in this section. For each statement there are four choices marked A, B, C, D, choose the ONE that best complete the statement.
1. _____ refers to belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers regarded as
creator and governor of the universe.
A Belief B Religion C Ideal D Value
2. _____ deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately
refers to man’s search for Truth.
A Cultural values B. Power distance C. Cultural dimension D. Uncertainty avoidance 3. In the _____ culture, the interest of the individual prevails over the interests of the
A masculinity B femininity C individualist D collectivism 4. The _____ dimension measures a culture’s dominant values ranging from aggressive masculine traits to nurturing feminine traits.
A cultural values B power distance C masculinity-femininity D uncertainty avoidance
1.B 2.D 3.C 4.C
II. Terms (15 points, 3 points each)
Directions: There are five terms in this section. Try to explain the following terms in your own words. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet.
III. Case Analysis (20 points, 5 points each)
Directions: In this section you are supposed to analyze the following cases from the perspective of intercultural communication. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet.
IV. Short Answer (30 points, 5 points each)
Directions: In this section you are supposed to answer the following questions with the knowledge of intercultural communication. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet. For example
1. What are the potential problems in ICC? List at least three problems with your own examples.
(1). Avoidance of the unfamiliar. Because culture often separates you from people with a history different from your own, so many people may feel uncomfortable when confronted with strangers. One time I attended an activity, in which there are 3 foreigners and 3 Chinese. Our task was guiding the foreigners to tour the Houhai park and one of us should accompany one foreigner. This is many first time to be so close with a foreigner that I felt very comfortable and nervous. On the way, we didn’t have much communication. I think this feeling must be the avoidance of the unfamiliar.
(2). Stereotyping. Stereotyping is a complex form of categorization that mentally organizes your experience and guides your behavior toward a particular group of people. It will do harm to the ICC if you judge people unfairly with stereotype. In my experience, I always hold the stereotype that the people from northern China are very strong, very rude and have no care about other. Until the time I came to Beijing for study, I found that what I thought before was totally wrong. With long time communicating with them, I found them are gentle and always careful about other, so I have changed my opinion towards them.
(3). Misuse of power. What makes power an important dimension a potential problem is that power usually means controlling not only your own life but also the lives of others’. Misuse of power is a big headache to successful intercultural communication. The first semester when I came to university, I was a new comer and felt unfamiliar and helpless. At that time, I was afraid of communicating with people sophomore and junior, because I felt a cold atmosphere that they always used tone of commend and order to talk with me, which made me nervous and frightened. Maybe
they thought they are more experienced and superior than me, so they were misusing the power to control me unconsciously in the chatting or talking.
2. What is cultural shock? What are the four stages that people normally go through in the area of cultural shock?
Cultural shock is precipitated by the anxiety that result from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. It can be described as the feeling of confusion and disorientation that one experiences when faced with a large number of new and unfamiliar people and situations.
Four stages people normally go through in the area of cultural shock: (1). honeymoon phase. (2). Cultural shock phase. (3). Recovery phase. (4). Adjustment phase.
3. What is ethnocentrism? What are the negative impacts of ethnocentrism? Please give a small example.
Ethnocentrism is the belief that your own cultural background, including ways of analyzing problems, values, belief, language, and verbal and nonverbal communication, is correct. Ethnocentrists believe their culture is the central culture and other cultures are incorrect, defective, or quaint.
The negative impact of ethnocentrism on intercultural communication is obvious: it shapes social sense of identity which is narrow and defensive; it normally involves the perception of members of other culture in terms of stereotypes; ethnocentric judgment usually involve invidious comparison that ennoble one’s culture while
degrading those of others. For example, the Nazi Germany always advocated that their people and culture are superior to others’. They wanted to show the world that German is the best and despised other race and other people. The leader of Nazi, Hitler, even evoked the world war and massacred Jews, which made him be considered as the sinner of human being. I think the stereotype of Nazi is one typical type of ethnocentrism. The negative impacts of it are easy to be seen and even it is
4. What does the Hall’s high- and low-context orientations refer to? Please give
Hall calls communication that occurs mostly through language low context and communication that occurs in ways other than through language as high context. In high-context culture most of the information is in the physical context or is internalized in the people who are a part of the interaction. Very little information is actually coded in the verbal message. In low-context culture, such as German and American, however, most of the information is contained in the verbal message, and very little is embedded in the context or within the participants. In high-context cultures, people tend to be more aware of their surroundings and their environment and do not rely on verbal communication as their main information source. The context of the message is well understood by both sender and receiver.
For example, Chinese culture is a high-context culture. We are likely to use few words to express various meanings and prefer to avoid expressing something directly. Chinese value personal relations and goodwill and negotiate slowly. If we want someone to help us do some business, we should establish a good relations with him firstly, such as invite him to have a dinner. In the dinner, we can tell him about our request indirectly. In this way, we can have the business done. Contrarily, Americans prefer to get down to business first. They act what they said.
5. In China, it is rare that a successful performance of invitation is realized in a single utterance. Do you think that the inviter is downright imposing and the invitee act hypocritically, i.e. making fake refusals (refer to the dialogue on page 143).
In Chinese culture, I think the inviter is not imposing and the invitee act hypocritically.
If A wants to ask B he doesn’t familiar with to help him on some business. A may invite B to have a dinner or a coffee, etc, which is considered as a polite way to show A’s sincerity. In Chinese culture, it is easily known that the purpose of A’s invitation is
just to let B to have the business done. Due to politeness, Chinese don’t like to owe others. In Chinese logic, if I invite you to have a dinner and you accept my invitation, that means you owe me a dinner but you can help me do the business as a return. In this kind of situation, A’s action is hypocritical and insincere. Similarly, B, as an invitee, feels it is impolite to refuse A’s invitation, because B holds the consideration
that I may also need A’s help in the future. Though B is not willing to accept the invitation, he accepts it at last. In Chinese culture, there is one ambiguous thing called “guanxi” or “renqing”, which is a little similar to relations in western culture.
In a summary, both A and B are not sincere because they just want to take advantage of each other.
V. English—Chinese Translation (15 points, 3 points each)
Directions: In this section you are supposed to translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Then write down the answers on the Answer Sheet.