Pharmacognostic evaluation of the Sonchus asper L

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Pharmacognostic evaluation of the Sonchus asper L

收稿人;杜雯彬 收稿日期;2012- 1-31

    稿号; B44 全文共:8

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    112Ishfaq Hameed, Mohammad Ibrar and Farrukh Hussain

    1Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

    2Centre of Plant Biodiversity, University of Peshawar, Pakistan Abstract

     Sonchus asper Linn. (N.O. family Asteraceae) was studied to investigate macroand microscopical, vein islet and vein termination numbers, palisade ratio, stomatal index and different chemical parameters. The study helps to standardized various pharmacognostical parameters.


    Morphological and histological studies help exploring the diagnostic features of plants. Theses are ascertained through knowing the tissues and their arrangement, cell wall and cell contents. Kamal et al. (2009) reported that Sonchus asper is a weed

    of crop. It is used as a fodder. The milky alkaline latex from young plant stains cloth. Akhtar & Begum (2009) reported that leaf of the Sonchus asper is used in asthma and

    antipoison. Daly & Gastaldo (2010) reported the stomatal density and stomatal index in leaves of Quercus rubra. Mohy-Ud-Din et al. (2010) reported several

    glycoalkaloids (Solasonine, α-Solamargine, β-Solamargine and α-Solanine) and their

    aglycones (Solasodine and Solanidine) in S. nigrum. Putiyanan et al. (2009)

    reported that the macroscopic characters were studied for sample collecting and microscopic characters of transverse section of Fak khaao’s leaves were compared to

    the leaf powders showing the upper and lower epidermis, trichome, collenchyma, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, stoma (guard cell), vascular bundles, etc., which were similar to microscopic description of drug powders. The values of stomatal index, veinlet termination number, vein-islet number and palisade ratio were calculated for standardization of samples which were 11.84?1.77, 5.95?1.31, 2.38?0.40 and 4.49?0.73, respectively.

Materials and Methods

     Fresh specimens of Sonchus asper L. were collected from the Department of

    Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. The specimen was cleaned and washed and dried in air for 15 days to be used for different microchemical tests. The dried plant material was ground and meshed through 60 and stored in airtight bottles. Fresh specimens were used to study morphological and anatomical parameters (Wallis, 1985; Puruis et al. 1966). The macroscopical features were determined following Wallis (1985). The anatomical study on root and stem was made after Puruis et al.

    (1966), for leaf anatomy Subrahmanyam (1996) method was used. The vein islet numbers, vein termination number, palisade ratio was determined, stomatal number and index were determined by following Evans (2002). Qualitative chemical tests for alkaloids, mucilage, anthraquinone derivatives, calcium oxalate, tannin, lignin, starch, fats & oil, cutin, cellulose were made following Evans (2002). Protein was determined after Johnson (1940).

    Results and Discussion

    The colour of the root in both fresh and dry form was whitish. Odour was indistinct in fresh and irritant in dry form. Shape of the root was cylindrical in both forms. Rootlets were present in both forms. Direction of growth was vertical in both forms. Fracture was fibrous in fresh and uneven in dry form. Texture was smooth in both forms of the root. Yadav et al. (2007) the macroscopical characters like shape,

    colour, fracture, surface and taste of the root of the Chenopodium album Linn. Colour

    of the stem was dark green in fresh and light green in dry form. Odour was indistinct in both forms. Shape was cylindrical in fresh form and papery in dry form. Phyllotaxis was spiral in both fresh and dry form. Kind of the stem was herbaceous in both fresh and dry form. Direction of the growth was upright in both fresh and dry forms. Fracture was even in fresh and uneven in dry form. Surface of the stem was smooth in both fresh and dry forms. Badami et al. (2007) reported the macroscopical parameters

    like colour, taste, odour, surface texture and shape of the heartwood of Caesalpinia

    sappan. Colour of the upper surface of the leaf is dark green and that of the lower surface is light green in fresh while in dry form both surfaces are light green in colour. Taste was irritant in fresh and indistinct in dry form. Composition of the leaf was simple in both forms. Venation of the leaf was reticulate and unicostate. Margin was dentate in both fresh and dry forms. Apex was acute in both fresh and dry forms. Surface of the leaf was glabrous in fresh and papery in dry form. Shape of the leaf

was lanceolate in both fresh and dry form. Vidhu et al. (2007) reported that leaf of

    the Solanum nigrum is simple, 2.5 8.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, ovate, or oblong,

    sinuate, toothed or lobed, narrow at both ends, petiolate, thin and pubescent. Dorsal surface is green in colour but the ventral surface is slightly pale. Venation is reticulate. The odour is characteristics and the taste is bitter (Table 1).

    Epidermis of the root is rectangular in shape and is compactly packed. The mean length of the cells 32µ; mean width is 8µ. It is then followed by the cortical tissue. Mean length and width of the cell is 18µ and 13µ. Inner to the cortex is endodermis. Mean length and width are 23µ and 10µ. Single layer of pericycle is present, mean length and width of which is 29µ and 12µ. Xylem mean length and width are 12µ and 3µ. Mean length and width of phloem is 23µ and 6µ. In the center of the vascular bundle pith is present, mean length and width of which is 21µ and 4µ. Epidermis of the stem is spherical in shape and is compactly packed. The mean length of the cells 37µ; mean width is 13µ. It is then followed by the cortical tissue. Mean length and width of the cell is 25µ and 9µ. Inner to the cortex is endodermis. Mean length and width are 19µ and 13µ. Single layer of pericycle is present, mean length and width of which is 42µ and 20µ. Xylem mean length and width are 32µ and 17µ. Mean length and width of phloem is 42µ and 25µ. In the center of the vascular bundle pith is present, mean length and width of which is 50µ and 15µ. Epidermal cells; on adaxial one somewhat rectangular to hexagonal and polyhedral with smooth walls. The abaxial one is irregular with undulating walls. Size of epidermal cells; adaxail -133.75µ x 40µ. The abaxial one forming a network with the subsidiaries. Stomata; of anisocytic type on the abaxial side while staurocytic type on adaxial side, size of the stomatal complex; adaxial one, 148.5µ x 59.5 µ, abaxial 90µ x 68.5µ, aperture size adaxial one is 20.5µ and that of abaxial one is 21 µ (Table 2). Ferris et al. (2002)

    reported co-efficient of variance, stomatal density, stomatal index, epidermal cells area and number of epidermal cells per leaf. Kanwal et al. (2006) reported

    parenchyma cells, fibers, vessels, needle like elongated crystals and oil droplets in Pongamia pinnata. Khan et al. (2001) reported epidermal cells, collenchyma,

    tracheids and fibers in Cyrtomium caryotideum.

    Vein termination ranges from 13.65 28.57, vein islet number ranges from

    22.45 45.5 and the palisade ration ranges from 18.34 22.45. The stomatal index of

    the upper surface is 25.24 26.45 and of the lower surface of leaf of the plant 34.58

    37.51 (Table 3). Kumar et al. (2008) reported the vein islet number (13), vein

termination number (18) and stomatal index (3.6) of the Portulaca oleracea. Abere et

    al. (2009) reported the palisade ratio, stomatal number and stomatal index of the upper and lower surfaces, vein islet number and vein termination number of Dissotis


    Alkaloid was present in root and stem and was absent from leaf and flower. Mucilage was absent from root and was present in other parts of the plant. Gurbuz et

    al. (2005) reported mucilage from the infloresence of some Verbascum species.

    Anthraqunone derivatives, lignin and cutin were absent from all parts of the plant. Anke et al. (2006) reported new proanthocyanidins from Rumex acetosa. Different

    proanthocyanidins, a polymer fraction and the new phenolglycoside 1-O-β-D (2,4-

    Dihydroxy-6-methoxyphenyl)-6-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoyl)-glucopyranoside were obtained. The isolated proanthocyanidin fractions contain mono-, di-, tri-, and tetramers consisting of catechin, epicatechin and epiafzelechin as flavan-3-ol components. A- and B-type interflavan-linkage was found as well as substitution with gallic acid. Ca-oxalate, saponins, fat & oil, protein and cellulose were present in all parts of the plant. Hadjiakhoondi et al. (2005) reported essential

    oils from three wild varieties of Mentha longifolia. Udayakumar et al. (2005) reported

    protein from Tridax procumbens. Ansari et al. (2007) reported saponins from

    Balanites aegyptiaca. Tannin was absent from root and stem and were present in leaf and flower. Starch was absent from flower and was present in other parts of the plant (Table 4).

    Table No.1. Macroscopical features of the different parts of Sonchus asper L.

    Plant Part Parameters Fresh Dry

    Root Colour Whitish Whitish

    Odour Indistinct Irritant

    Shape Cylindrical Cylindrical

    Rootlets Present Present

    Direction of growth Vertical downward Vertical downward

    Fracture Fibrous Uneven

    Texture Smooth Smooth

    Stem Colour Dark Green Light green

    Odour Indistinct Indistinct

    Shape Cylindrical Papery

    Phyllotaxis Spiral Spiral

    Kind Herbaceous Herbaceous

    Direction of growth Upright Upright

    Fracture Even Uneven

    Surface Smooth Smooth

    Leaf Colour Upper surface dark green Both surface light

    lower surface light green green

    Taste Irritant Indistinct

    Composition Simple Simple

    Venation Reticulate unicostate Reticulate


    Margin Dentate Dentate

    Apex Acute Acute

    Shape of leaf Lanceolate Lanceolate

    Table 2. Anatomical features of the different parts of the Sonchus asper L. Plant cell Value Root Stem

     L(µm) W(µm) L(µm) W(µm)

    15 6 25 10 Epidermis Minimum

    45 9 41 15 Maximum

    32 8 37 13 Mean

    10 4 25 15 Xylem Minimum

    16 7 39 22 Maximum

    12 3 32 17 Mean

    25 8 35 23 Phloem Minimum

    36 14 55 38 Maximum

    23 6 42 25 Mean

    18 12 21 14 Endodermis Minimum

    29 15 28 19 Maximum

    23 10 19 13 Mean

    25 14 41 16 Pericycle Minimum

    37 19 58 34 Maximum

    29 12 42 20 Mean

    12 5 42 19 Pith Minimum

    35 8 60 28 Maximum

    21 4 50 15 Mean

    14 10 20 10 Cortex Minimum

    29 16 35 14 Maximum

    18 13 25 9 Mean

    Table 3. Microscopic characteristics of the leaf of Sonchus asper L. S. No Parameters Values

    Vein Islet Number 22.45 45.5 1

    Vein Termination Number 13.65 28.57 2

    Palisade Ratio 18.34 22.45 3

    Stomatal Index (Upper surface) 25.24 26.45 4

    Stomatal Index (Lower surface) 34.58 37.51 5

    Table 4. Microchemical screening tests of the different parts of Sonchus asper L.

    Plant Alk Muc Anth Cao Sap Tan Sta Fat Pro Lig Cut Cel


    + - - + + - + + + - - + Root

    + + - + + - + + + - - + Stem

    - + - + + + + + + - - + Leaf

    - + - + + + - + + - - + Flower

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