收稿人;杜雯彬 收稿日期;2012- 1-31
稿号; B44 全文共:8 页
PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF SONCHUS ASPER L.
112Ishfaq Hameed, Mohammad Ibrar and Farrukh Hussain
1Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
2Centre of Plant Biodiversity, University of Peshawar, Pakistan Abstract
Sonchus asper Linn. (N.O. family Asteraceae) was studied to investigate macro–and microscopical, vein islet and vein termination numbers, palisade ratio, stomatal index and different chemical parameters. The study helps to standardized various pharmacognostical parameters.
Morphological and histological studies help exploring the diagnostic features of plants. Theses are ascertained through knowing the tissues and their arrangement, cell wall and cell contents. Kamal et al. (2009) reported that Sonchus asper is a weed
of crop. It is used as a fodder. The milky alkaline latex from young plant stains cloth. Akhtar & Begum (2009) reported that leaf of the Sonchus asper is used in asthma and
antipoison. Daly & Gastaldo (2010) reported the stomatal density and stomatal index in leaves of Quercus rubra. Mohy-Ud-Din et al. (2010) reported several
glycoalkaloids (Solasonine, α-Solamargine, β-Solamargine and α-Solanine) and their
aglycones (Solasodine and Solanidine) in S. nigrum. Putiyanan et al. (2009)
reported that the macroscopic characters were studied for sample collecting and microscopic characters of transverse section of Fak khaao’s leaves were compared to
the leaf powders showing the upper and lower epidermis, trichome, collenchyma, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, stoma (guard cell), vascular bundles, etc., which were similar to microscopic description of drug powders. The values of stomatal index, veinlet termination number, vein-islet number and palisade ratio were calculated for standardization of samples which were 11.84?1.77, 5.95?1.31, 2.38?0.40 and 4.49?0.73, respectively.
Materials and Methods
Fresh specimens of Sonchus asper L. were collected from the Department of
Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. The specimen was cleaned and washed and dried in air for 15 days to be used for different microchemical tests. The dried plant material was ground and meshed through 60 and stored in airtight bottles. Fresh specimens were used to study morphological and anatomical parameters (Wallis, 1985; Puruis et al. 1966). The macroscopical features were determined following Wallis (1985). The anatomical study on root and stem was made after Puruis et al.
(1966), for leaf anatomy Subrahmanyam (1996) method was used. The vein islet numbers, vein termination number, palisade ratio was determined, stomatal number and index were determined by following Evans (2002). Qualitative chemical tests for alkaloids, mucilage, anthraquinone derivatives, calcium oxalate, tannin, lignin, starch, fats & oil, cutin, cellulose were made following Evans (2002). Protein was determined after Johnson (1940).
Results and Discussion
The colour of the root in both fresh and dry form was whitish. Odour was indistinct in fresh and irritant in dry form. Shape of the root was cylindrical in both forms. Rootlets were present in both forms. Direction of growth was vertical in both forms. Fracture was fibrous in fresh and uneven in dry form. Texture was smooth in both forms of the root. Yadav et al. (2007) the macroscopical characters like shape,
colour, fracture, surface and taste of the root of the Chenopodium album Linn. Colour
of the stem was dark green in fresh and light green in dry form. Odour was indistinct in both forms. Shape was cylindrical in fresh form and papery in dry form. Phyllotaxis was spiral in both fresh and dry form. Kind of the stem was herbaceous in both fresh and dry form. Direction of the growth was upright in both fresh and dry forms. Fracture was even in fresh and uneven in dry form. Surface of the stem was smooth in both fresh and dry forms. Badami et al. (2007) reported the macroscopical parameters
like colour, taste, odour, surface texture and shape of the heartwood of Caesalpinia
sappan. Colour of the upper surface of the leaf is dark green and that of the lower surface is light green in fresh while in dry form both surfaces are light green in colour. Taste was irritant in fresh and indistinct in dry form. Composition of the leaf was simple in both forms. Venation of the leaf was reticulate and unicostate. Margin was dentate in both fresh and dry forms. Apex was acute in both fresh and dry forms. Surface of the leaf was glabrous in fresh and papery in dry form. Shape of the leaf
was lanceolate in both fresh and dry form. Vidhu et al. (2007) reported that leaf of
the Solanum nigrum is simple, 2.5 – 8.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, ovate, or oblong,
sinuate, toothed or lobed, narrow at both ends, petiolate, thin and pubescent. Dorsal surface is green in colour but the ventral surface is slightly pale. Venation is reticulate. The odour is characteristics and the taste is bitter (Table 1).
Epidermis of the root is rectangular in shape and is compactly packed. The mean length of the cells 32µ; mean width is 8µ. It is then followed by the cortical tissue. Mean length and width of the cell is 18µ and 13µ. Inner to the cortex is endodermis. Mean length and width are 23µ and 10µ. Single layer of pericycle is present, mean length and width of which is 29µ and 12µ. Xylem mean length and width are 12µ and 3µ. Mean length and width of phloem is 23µ and 6µ. In the center of the vascular bundle pith is present, mean length and width of which is 21µ and 4µ. Epidermis of the stem is spherical in shape and is compactly packed. The mean length of the cells 37µ; mean width is 13µ. It is then followed by the cortical tissue. Mean length and width of the cell is 25µ and 9µ. Inner to the cortex is endodermis. Mean length and width are 19µ and 13µ. Single layer of pericycle is present, mean length and width of which is 42µ and 20µ. Xylem mean length and width are 32µ and 17µ. Mean length and width of phloem is 42µ and 25µ. In the center of the vascular bundle pith is present, mean length and width of which is 50µ and 15µ. Epidermal cells; on adaxial one somewhat rectangular to hexagonal and polyhedral with smooth walls. The abaxial one is irregular with undulating walls. Size of epidermal cells; adaxail -133.75µ x 40µ. The abaxial one forming a network with the subsidiaries. Stomata; of anisocytic type on the abaxial side while staurocytic type on adaxial side, size of the stomatal complex; adaxial one, 148.5µ x 59.5 µ, abaxial 90µ x 68.5µ, aperture size adaxial one is 20.5µ and that of abaxial one is 21 µ (Table 2). Ferris et al. (2002)
reported co-efficient of variance, stomatal density, stomatal index, epidermal cells area and number of epidermal cells per leaf. Kanwal et al. (2006) reported
parenchyma cells, fibers, vessels, needle like elongated crystals and oil droplets in Pongamia pinnata. Khan et al. (2001) reported epidermal cells, collenchyma,
tracheids and fibers in Cyrtomium caryotideum.
Vein termination ranges from 13.65 – 28.57, vein islet number ranges from
22.45 – 45.5 and the palisade ration ranges from 18.34 – 22.45. The stomatal index of
the upper surface is 25.24 – 26.45 and of the lower surface of leaf of the plant 34.58 –
37.51 (Table 3). Kumar et al. (2008) reported the vein islet number (13), vein
termination number (18) and stomatal index (3.6) of the Portulaca oleracea. Abere et
al. (2009) reported the palisade ratio, stomatal number and stomatal index of the upper and lower surfaces, vein islet number and vein termination number of Dissotis
Alkaloid was present in root and stem and was absent from leaf and flower. Mucilage was absent from root and was present in other parts of the plant. Gurbuz et
al. (2005) reported mucilage from the infloresence of some Verbascum species.
Anthraqunone derivatives, lignin and cutin were absent from all parts of the plant. Anke et al. (2006) reported new proanthocyanidins from Rumex acetosa. Different
proanthocyanidins, a polymer fraction and the new phenolglycoside 1-O-β-D – (2,4-
Dihydroxy-6-methoxyphenyl)-6-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoyl)-glucopyranoside were obtained. The isolated proanthocyanidin fractions contain mono-, di-, tri-, and tetramers consisting of catechin, epicatechin and epiafzelechin as flavan-3-ol components. A- and B-type interflavan-linkage was found as well as substitution with gallic acid. Ca-oxalate, saponins, fat & oil, protein and cellulose were present in all parts of the plant. Hadjiakhoondi et al. (2005) reported essential
oils from three wild varieties of Mentha longifolia. Udayakumar et al. (2005) reported
protein from Tridax procumbens. Ansari et al. (2007) reported saponins from
Balanites aegyptiaca. Tannin was absent from root and stem and were present in leaf and flower. Starch was absent from flower and was present in other parts of the plant (Table 4).
Table No.1. Macroscopical features of the different parts of Sonchus asper L.
Plant Part Parameters Fresh Dry
Root Colour Whitish Whitish
Odour Indistinct Irritant
Shape Cylindrical Cylindrical
Rootlets Present Present
Direction of growth Vertical downward Vertical downward
Fracture Fibrous Uneven
Texture Smooth Smooth
Stem Colour Dark Green Light green
Odour Indistinct Indistinct
Shape Cylindrical Papery
Phyllotaxis Spiral Spiral
Kind Herbaceous Herbaceous
Direction of growth Upright Upright
Fracture Even Uneven
Surface Smooth Smooth
Leaf Colour Upper surface dark green Both surface light
lower surface light green green
Taste Irritant Indistinct
Composition Simple Simple
Venation Reticulate unicostate Reticulate
Margin Dentate Dentate
Apex Acute Acute
Shape of leaf Lanceolate Lanceolate
Table 2. Anatomical features of the different parts of the Sonchus asper L. Plant cell Value Root Stem
L(µm) W(µm) L(µm) W(µm)
15 6 25 10 Epidermis Minimum
45 9 41 15 Maximum
32 8 37 13 Mean
10 4 25 15 Xylem Minimum
16 7 39 22 Maximum
12 3 32 17 Mean
25 8 35 23 Phloem Minimum
36 14 55 38 Maximum
23 6 42 25 Mean
18 12 21 14 Endodermis Minimum
29 15 28 19 Maximum
23 10 19 13 Mean
25 14 41 16 Pericycle Minimum
37 19 58 34 Maximum
29 12 42 20 Mean
12 5 42 19 Pith Minimum
35 8 60 28 Maximum
21 4 50 15 Mean
14 10 20 10 Cortex Minimum
29 16 35 14 Maximum
18 13 25 9 Mean
Table 3. Microscopic characteristics of the leaf of Sonchus asper L. S. No Parameters Values
Vein Islet Number 22.45 – 45.5 1
Vein Termination Number 13.65 – 28.57 2
Palisade Ratio 18.34 – 22.45 3
Stomatal Index (Upper surface) 25.24 – 26.45 4
Stomatal Index (Lower surface) 34.58 – 37.51 5
Table 4. Microchemical screening tests of the different parts of Sonchus asper L.
Plant Alk Muc Anth Cao Sap Tan Sta Fat Pro Lig Cut Cel
+ - - + + - + + + - - + Root
+ + - + + - + + + - - + Stem
- + - + + + + + + - - + Leaf
- + - + + + - + + - - + Flower
Key: Alk = Alkaloids; Muc = Mucilage; Anth = Anthraquinone derivatives; Cao = Calcium oxalate; Sap = Saponins; Tan = Tannins; Sta = Starch; Fat = Fats; Pro = Protein; Lig = Lignin; Cut = Cutin; Cel = Cellulose
Abere, T. A., D. N. Onwukaeme and C. J. Eboka. 2009. Pharmacognostic evaluation
of the leaves of Dissotis rotundifolia Triana (Melastomataceae). African Journal
of Biotechnology. 8 (1): 113-115.
Akhtar, N. and S. Begum. 2009. Ethnopharmacological important plants of Jalala,
District Mardan, Pakistan. Pak. J. Pl. Sci., 15(2): 95 – 100.
Anke, J., F. Petereit and A. Hensel. 2006. Proanthocyanidins and phenolglycosides
from Rumex acetosa L. Planta Medica. 72: 109-115.
Ansaari, M. M., J. Ahmad and S. H. Ansari. 2007. Pharmacognostical evaluation of
the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Delile “Hingot”. Hamdard Medicus.,
50(1): 82 – 94.
Badami, S., S. R. Rai, S. Moorkoth, S. Rajan and B. Suresh. 2007. Pharmacognostic
evaluate on of Caesalpinia sappan. Hamdard Medicus. 50(1): 103 – 108.
Bokhari, M. H. 1971. Morphology and Taxonomic Significance of Sclereids in
Limonium. Notes. R.Bot. Gbn. Edin., 30: 43-53
Clark, J. 1960. Preparation of leaf epidermis for topographic study. Stain Technol., 33:
Cotton, R., 1974. Cytotaxonomy of the genus Vulpia. Ph. D Thesis, University of
Daly, R. G. and R. A. Gastaldo. 2010. The effect of leaf orientation to sunlight on
stomatal parameters of Quercus rubra around The Belgrade Lakes, Central
Maine. Palaios. 25(5): 339 – 346.
Dengler, N. G., 2002. Book Review: An integral part of botany. American Journal of
Evans., W. C. 2002. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 13th ed. Bailliere Tindall,
London. Pp. 654 – 656.
Fang, Y.M. and Y.W. Fan, 1993. Variation and evolution of laef trichomes in Chinese
Hamamelidaceae (in Chinese with English). Acta Phytotaxon. Sin., 31: 147–152.
Ferris, R., L. Long, S. M. Bunn, K. M. Robinson, H. D. Bradshaw, A. M. Rae and G.
Taylor. 2002. Leaf stomatal and epidermal cell development: identification of
putative quantitative trait loci in relation to elevated carbon dioxide
concentration in poplar. Tree Physiology. 22: 633-640.
Gurbuz, I., A. M. Ozkan, E. Yesilada and O. Kutsal. 2005. Anti-ulcerogenic activity
of some plants used in folk medicine of Pinarbasi (Kayseri, Turkey). Journal of
Ethnopharmacology. 101(1-3): 313-318.
Hadjiakhoondi, A., N. Aghel, Y. Yamini and Z. N. Bokaee. 2005. A comparative
study of essential oils composition of three varieties of Mentha longifolia (L.)
Huds. Growing in India. Hamdard Medicus. 68(4): 101-104.
Hardin, J.W., 1979. Pattern of variation in foliar trichomes of Eastern North America
Quercus. American J. Bot., 6: 576–585.
Johnson., D. A. 1940. Plant microtechnique. McGraw Hill Book Company. New York
and London, pp. 189 – 202.
Kamal, M., S. M. Wazir, M. Hassan, M. Subhan, S. U. Khan, A. Muhammad and S.
Taj. 2009. Ethnobotanical important plants of District Bannu, Pakistan. Pak. J.
Pl. Sci., 15(2): 87 – 93.
Kanwal, A., M. Ahmad, R. Asghar, M. J. Noor and S. Pervez. 2006. Pharmacognostic
studies of a local medicinal plant, Pongamia pinnata L. Hamdard Medicus.
Khan, Z., A. Zuhail and K. Khan. 2001. Pharmacognostic studies of some ferns of
Azad Kashmir-I comparative cytomorphological and irritant studies of
Asplenium dalhousiae, Cyrtomium caryotideum and Hypodematium crenatum.
Hamdard Medicus. XLIV(4): 62-71.
Kumar, B. S. A., V. Prabhakarn, K. Lakshman, R. Nandeesh, P. Subramanyam, S.
Khan, D. Ranganayakalu, N. V. Krishna. 2008. Pharmacognostical studies of
Portulaca oleracea Linn. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 18(4):
Mohy-Ud-Din, A., Zaheer-Ud-Din Khan, M. Ahmad and M. A. Kashmiri. 2010.
Chemotaxonomic value of alkaloids in Solanum nigrum complex. Pak. J. Bot.,
Puruis, S and T. Collier and J. Wallis. 1966. Laboratory techniques in botany. Butler
wertis London, pp. 66 – 68.
Putiyanan, S., K. Nantachit and S. Okonogi. 2009.
Standard Pharmacognostic Characterisation of Fak
khaao as Pharmaceutical Preparation for Skin Diseases
8(2): 189 – 200. Treatment. CMU. J. Nat. Sci.
Raven, P. H., R. F. Evert, AND S. E. Eichorn. 2005. Biology of plants. W. H.
Freeman, New York, New York, USA.
Roth-Nebelsick, A. 2007. Computer-based studies of diffusion through stomata of
different architecture. Annals of Botany 100: 23–32.
Scotland, R.W., R.G. Olmstead and J.R. Bennett, 2003. Phylogen Reconstruction: The
Role of Morphology. Syst. Biol., 52: 539–548.
Subrahmanyam, N.S., 1996. Labortary Manual of Plant Taxonomy, pp: 153–6. Vikas
Publishing house pvt., Ltd., New Delhi
Taia, W.K., 2005. Modern trends in plant taxonomy. Asian J. Plant Sci., 4: 184–202.
Udayakumar, R., J. S. Rao and R. R. Krishna. 2005. Important mineral and
biochemical analysis of various parts of Tridax procumbens L. (Compositae).
Hamdard Medicus. XLVIII(1): 50-52.
Vidhu, A., R. Kumari, M. Mujeeb and B. Priyanka. 2007. Pharmacognostic
standardization of leaves of Solanum nigrum Linn. Hamdard Medicus. 50(1):
109 – 114.
Wallis., T. E. 1985 . Text book of pharmacognosy. S. K. Jain for CBS Publisher &
Distributors, 485 Jain Bhawan Bhola Nath Nagr, Shahdara, Delhi-11 00 32.
(India). Pp. 368.
Yadav, N., N. Vasudeva, S. K. Sharma and S. Singh. 2007. Pharmacognostic and
phytochemical studies on Chenopodium album Linn., root. Hamdard Medicus.
50(1): 95 – 102.
Youngken, H. W. 1950. A Text Book of Pharmacognosy. The Blackiston Co Toronto,
Philadelphia. Pp. 1675 – 1676.