Book III Unit 01 With Alzheimer’s, you meet a lot of new people
Aims: Identifying Signal Words
Bringing up Sensitive Topics; Asking for Details
kit: (运动队的)服装(a set of clothes and equipment that you use when playing a sport) photographic memory: 准确得惊人的记忆力
mental visualization: 头脑中形成图像、意象
association: 联想(a feeling or memory that is connected with a particular place , event, word, etc.)
con共同,联合-solidation: 巩固, 加强(the act of making something strong and secure) sieve: n+v筛子(a wire tool for separating small objects from large objects) toast: 烤面包; 吐司(bread that has been heated and browned in toaster or an oven) check over: 检查(examine; inspect)
bacon: 咸肉, 熏肉(salted or smoked meat from the back or sides of a pig, often served in narrow thin pieces)
stimulate: 刺激; 促进(encourage an activity to begin or develop further) memorize: 记住; 熟记(learn words, music, etc.)
characteristic: 特征, 特性
chef: chef cook kitchener cuisinier厨师(a skilled cook who manages the kitchen) recipe: 【ˈresəpi] 食谱, 配方(a set of instructions for cooking a particular type of food) Alzheimer's disease: 阿耳茨海默氏病, 早老性痴呆病
carton: 硬纸盒, 纸板箱(a box or container usually made of paperboard)
cereal: 谷类食物(如麦片等)(a breakfast food made from grain and usually eaten with milk) synthesize:【 ˈsɪnθɪˌsaɪz] 合成(make something by combining different things or substances) profusely: 丰富地(exhibiting great abundance)
pajamas: 睡衣(soft and loose clothes that you wear in bed)
im-plant: 灌输(strongly fix an idea, feeling, or way of behavior in someone's mind) visualize: 设想; 想像(form a picture of someone or something in one's mind; imagine) proficient: 精通(well advanced in an art, occupation, or branch of knowledge) She is proficient at swimming.她精通游泳。
antibody level: 抗体水平
mental decline: 智力下降
reverse: 使逆转(turn around to the opposite direction)
beta-amyloid ˈæmiˈlɔid] plaque: 贝塔-淀粉状蛋白血小板
undergo: 经历(go through)
II. Listening Skills
W: OK, it's your turn to pay the bill. I paid last time.
M: What? You have a selective memory. You tried to pay last time, but your credit card failed; so I ended up paying!
It's definitely your turn.
Q: What is true according to the conversation?
M: I'm having real trouble reviewing for this French exam. I just can't memorize all the vocabulary. W: Me too, I hate having to learn things by heart. I guess we just have to keep reading the texts over and over. Q: What does the woman prefer?
W: Oh look! There's that guy we saw last week, playing football in the park! He looked great in his kit, remember? M: Him? I don't remember him. I've got a terrible memory for faces. I have a hard time even recognizing people I've
been introduced to.
Q: According to the conversation, what is the man's problem?
M: Why is there a big sign on the back of your door that says "keys"?
W: It's to remind me to take my keys when I go out because I'm always locking myself out by accident! It doesn't
help though. Now I just forget to read the sign.
Q: Why is there a sign on the back of the door?
M: That history exam was really hard. The essay question was terrible!
W: I know, I wish I were like David. He has a photographic memory, you know.
How useful that would be!
Q: What is true of David?
III. Listening In
Task 1: Is your memory in good shape?
M: Tell me your secret. You're suddenly getting excellent marks in every subject, and you used to be a bottom-of-
the-class student just like me.
W: Simple enough. I read an article in a scientific journal that linked studying with remembering, based on recent
research into the brain.
M: Aw, that stuff's old hat: study at the same time every day, be sure your clothes are comfortable, make sure you
have enough light, blah-blah-blah.
W: Not so fast, wise guy. I'm talking about principles like "Mental Visualization", creating a picture in your mind
of what is to be remembered.
M" OK, that does sound different. Is "Association" a principle--you know, you connect what you want to
remember with something you're familiar with?
W: Right on! "Consolidation" is another. I review my notes right after class and consolidate---or absorb--the new
material into what I've already learned.
M: You're moving ahead fast with those principles. I swear this weekend I'm going to study sixteen hours a day
both Saturday and Sunday.
W: Whoa, big guy. That's not the way. Follow the principle of "Distributed Practice". Shorter study sessions
distributed over several days are better.
M: That system is all very well for you; you've got a good memory. But what about me? I've got a memory like a
W: You're too modest. There's nothing wrong with your memory. But memory is like a muscle; it needs exercise.
And don't forget it.
Key: While the man is wondering why the woman is suddenly getting excellent marks, she says she read an article on
studying and remembering. It talks about principles like "Mental Visualization", that is, creating a picture in
one's mind of what is to be remembered. This reminds the man of the principle of "Association", which means
connecting what one wants to remember with something one is familiar with. Then the woman adds the
principle of "Consolidation", or reviewing one's notes after class and absorbing the new material into what one
has already learned. When the man promises to study six-teen hours a day, the woman recommends the principle
of "Distributed Practice", which favors shorter study sessions distributed over several days. Finally, the woman
tells the man that memory is like a muscle, and that it needs exercise.
Task 2: You forgot my toast!
An 80-year-old couple was having problems remembering things, so they decided to go to their doctor to see what was wrong with them. They explained to the doctor about the problems they were having with their memory. After checking the couple over, the doctor told them that they were physically okay but might need to start writing things down to t~elp them remember. The couple thanked the doctor and left.
Later that night while watching TV, the old woman said to the old man, "Honey, will you please go to the kitchen and get me a dish of ice cream?"
Before the old man left, she added, "Why don't you write that down so you won't forget?"
"Nonsense," said the husband, "I can remember a dish of ice cream !"
"Well," said the wife, "I'd also like some strawberries on it. You'd better write that down because I know your memory is failing."
"Don't be silly," replied the husband. "There're only two things: a dish of ice cream and some strawberries. I can surely remember that!"
With that, he rushed into the kitchen. After about twenty minutes he returned from the kitchen and handed her a plate of bacon and eggs.
The wife took one look at the plate, glanced up at her husband, and said, "Hey, you forgot the toast!"
F 1. The couple went to their doctor to have a complete physical checkup.
T 2. At first the wife asked the husband to get her only ice cream.
F 3. The husband refused to write a note, for he believed he could remember the toast.
F 4. Finally, the husband brought the wife both ice cream and strawberries.
F 5. The wife blamed the husband for forgetting to bring her ice cream and strawberries.
1. He thought he could remember two things--a dish of ice cream and some strawberries.
2. She took one look at the plate, glanced up at him, and blamed him for forgetting her toast. Task 3: Memory-Improving Techniques
There are many techniques you can use to improve your memory. Some of them are introduced here.
First and foremost, you need to stimulate your memory all the time. To put it simply, you should use your memory as much as possible. It is especially important to try to learn something new. If you work in an office, learn to dance; if you are a dancer, learn to deal with a computer; if you work with sales, learn to play chess; if you are a programmer, learn to paint. These added activities stimulate the brain so that it continues to function.
Older people need to pay attention to things they are dealing with. Don't try to memorize everything that catches your attention; focus on what you consider important. For example, you can take any object such as a pen and concentrate on it. Think on its various characteristics: its material, its function, its color, and so on. Don't allow any other thought to occupy your mind while you are concentrating on that pen.
Another method that can be used is to relax yourself. It is impossible to remember things if you are tense or nervous.
So, try holding your breath for ten seconds, and then release it slowly.
Association is also a powerful tool to develop your memory. For example, if you cannot remember a person's name, you can think about a special feature of his face and then link it with his name. Questions:
1. What seems to be an especially important way to stimulate one's memory?
A) Learning different things.
2. What seems to be the best way to focus your attention?
C) Concentrating only on what is important.
3. How can you concentrate on a pen?
D) You can focus on its features.
4. How can you relax yourself according to the passage?
B) You can stop breathing in for a short time, and then breathe out slowly. 5. What is the main idea of the passage?
D) Memory-developing skills.
Stimulating one's memory, paying attention (or focusing/concentrating one's attention), relaxing, and making associations.
IV. Speaking Out
MODEL 1 It slipped my mind!
Amy: I sent out the invitations to the dinner party.
Bill: That's good. Now what should we do?
Amy: We've got to plan the menu.
Bill: Oh, that's right. Do you have anything in mind?
Amy: I think I'm going to make the chicken salad we had at the Christmas party. Remember I asked the chef for the
Bill: Yeah, but did you forget that Linda doesn't eat chicken?
Amy: Linda? Oh, my gosh! I forgot to invite Linda! It just slipped my mind. She'll be mad at me.
Bill: Well, everyone forgets something sometimes. It's not too late yet. I'll make a phone call. Don't worry. Amy: Thanks! You see, I'm getting forgetful. I think I'm getting old!
Bill: Looks like you are, sweetheart.
Now Your Turn
A: I'm going to throw a party, and I've sent out the invitations to my friends and relatives. B: That's good. But don't forget to invite everyone you should invite.
A: I think I've invited everyone. Do you have anybody in mind?
B: Did you invite John? He's lost his job after a recent quarrel with his boss. A: Oh, my gosh! I forgot to invite him! He'll be sad, thinking we look down on him. He just slipped my mind. B: Well, everyone forgets something sometimes. Don't worry. It's not too late. Make a phone call right away. A" Did I forget anybody else that I should invite?
B: There's yet another person you should invite--Julia. She's just moved to the city and feels lonely. A: Oh, good heavens, I forgot all about her. She's our new friend. You see, I'm getting forgetful. I think I'm getting
B: Looks like you are, buddy. You'd better start writing things down if they're important. MODEL 2 I can’t think of it off the top of my head
John: Hey, Sue. Do you know what Jack's home phone number is?
Susan: I can't think of it off the top of my head. I don't have my address book on me, and I don't have my mobile
phone with me, either.
John: That's too bad! I've got to find him now. It's urgent! If I can't find him today, I'll be dead! Susan: You might want to look it up in the phone book.
John: I've checked already, but it seems that his phone number is unlisted. Susan: Maybe it's under his roommate's name.
John: Well, I guess so.
Susan: Well, why don't you call Jane? She has his phone number.
John: I've tried, but no one answered!
Susan: Maybe call his office and ask his secretary.
John: I've already tried. She won't tell me. She says it's private.
Susan: Oh, that's right. They usually don't release private information over the phone.
John: It's a pity. You usually have a powerful memory, but you can't help today. What's wrong with you? Your
memory seems to be fading early.
Susan: It's not that my memory is fading. I do have a good memory for faces and names, but a poor one for
numbers and dates.
Now Your Turn
A: Hey, do you remember when is the lecture on the value of information by Professor Smith? B: I can't think of it off the top of my head. Maybe we can look it up in our notebooks, but I don't have mine with me.
A: That's too bad! I don't have it with me, either. Do you remember the number of the lecture hall? B: Sorry, I can't think of it off hand.
A: I'm terribly interested in the lecture. I can't miss it!
B: Well, why don't you call the dean who arranged the lecture?
A: I'm afraid it's not very wise to ask the dean directly.
B: Then maybe you can call the office of the department and ask the secretary. A: I've already tried, but no one answered.
A: You usually have a powerful memory, but you can't help today. Your memory seems to be fading early. B: It's not that my memory is fading. I do have a good memory for faces and names, but a poor one for numbers and
MODEL 3 What’s wrong with your memory?
Bill: Hi, honey! My trip to London was wonderful.
Amy: Tell me what thrilled you most.
[The telephone rings and Bill answers it....He hangs up. ]
Bill: Er, where was I?
Amy: You were talking about your tour in London.
Bill: Oh, yeah.
Amy: I bet you had a great time.
Bill: Yes, I particularly enjoyed visiting the Tower of London.
Amy: How did you get there? By bus or underground?
Bill: Let me see....Sorry, I can't remember any more.
Amy: What's wrong with your memory?
Bill: I hope it's not Alzheimer's disease. I don't want to forget my own name.
Amy: I don't think so. Perhaps it's just temporary forgetfulness. You'll be all right after a good sleep.
Bill: I hope so. But as this is happening so often recently, I think I must go to see a doctor and get some pills.
Amy: It's not as serious as that. Anyway, I wish you had a good memory for happy events, and a bad one for unhappy
Now Your Turn
A: Hey, my trip to Beijing was fantastic.
B: Tell me what interested you most.
[The door bell rings and A answers it....A comes back.]
A: Well, where was I?
B: You were talking about your tour in Beijing.
A: Oh, yeah.
B: I bet you had a great time.
A: Yes, I particularly enjoyed visiting the Forbidden City and the Great Wall, though the admission fees were a bit
too high for me.
B: What were the fees?
A: Let me see....Sorry, I can't remember any more.
B: What's wrong with your memory?
A: I hope it's not Alzheimer's disease. I don't want to see a lot of new people everyday.
B: I don't think so. Perhaps you only forget things momentarily. You'll be all right after a good sleep. A: I hope so. But as this happens so often recently, I think I have to go to see a doctor.
B: I don't think it's so serious. Anyway, a bad memory helps you to forget your troubles.
V. Let’s Talk
How to improve your Memory
Student: Professor, thank you for granting me this interview. I'm Susan, a reporter from the Student Union
magazine. Many students have difficulty memorizing things. Since you're an outstanding psychologist,
could you give us some tips on how to improve our memory?
Professor: Well, some people have better memories than others, but that's largely because they are better at
creating mental images.
Student: If I'm not good at creating images, what can I do?
Professor: Practice helps. And the mind remembers things better if they are connected with other images. For
example, if you have to pick up several items at the grocery store, say, carrots, eggs, bananas, and milk,
you can create a picture in your mind of a giant carrot, and hanging from it, a banana.
Student: Then I could have a giant milk carton pouring milk over the carrot and banana.
Professor: Certainly. Then what would you do with the egg?
Student: Hmmm. I'd visualize an egg-shaped UFO flying across the sky.
Professor: There you go. The more you apply the ideas, the easier it gets. Besides creating pictures, there's another
technique that is very useful.
Student: What is it?
Professor: Establishing an association. Suppose you are looking for lost keys. Relax, and let your mind look for all
the images connected with those keys -- their feel, the sounds they make.
Student: How will that help?
Professor: You might remember the sound the keys made when you placed them in a drawer or the cold touch of
the keys in your jacket where you left them.
Student: Oh my gosh! I have to run. It's time for my English class. I see an image of my teacher staring at my
empty seat in the classroom. Many thanks, Professor.
Professor: Not at all, and good luck with your memory.
Ways of Improving Examples One’s Memory
To remember the items Images that may help:
to buy at the grocery 1. a giant carrot and a banana hanging from it Creating images
store such as carrots, 2. a giant milk carton pouring milk over the carrot and
eggs, bananas, and milk banana
3. an egg-shaped UFO flying across the sky
To find your lost keys Associations with the sound and touch that may help:
1. The sound of the keys might remind you of having
placed them in a drawer. Establishing associations
2. The cold touch of the keys might remind you of them
in your jacket.
VI . Further Listening and Speaking
Task 1: The role Memory Plays in Our Life
Since memory plays a significant role in our life, scientists are increasingly interested in research on how to improve memory. Here are some factors they believe to be important in expanding memory capacity. To begin with, you must take special care in your daily life. Food for example, is very important. Some vitamins are essential for your memory to work properly. They are found in bread, cereal, vegetables and fruits. Some experts say that synthesized vitamins improve memory, but others have doubts about this, arguing that the studies have not confirmed they do work. Another essential factor is water. It helps to maintain the memory systems, especially in older persons. According to Dr. Rosewell, lack of water in the body has an immediate and strong effect on memory; it can cause confusion and other thought difficulties. Sleep also plays a significant role. To be able to have a good memory, we must allow the brain to have plenty of rest. While sleeping, the brain no longer controls the senses, and starts to revise and store the information one has received. Lack of sleep would make one feel exhausted and would weaken one's ability to concentrate. Also, one's ability to store information would be affected.
1. What is the passage mainly about?
A) Factors related to memory development.
2. Why are foods important in promoting memory according to the passage?
B) They contain vitamins.
3. To whom is water especially important in maintaining the memory system?
D) Older people.
4. What problem can a lack of water cause?
D) All of the above.
5. Why is sleep important to memory?
C) Sleep helps the brain to revise and store information.
Task 2: Where did the professor go?
This is a true story, which happened to friends of ours in a small town in South Africa. They were a hospitable couple who often entertained their neighbors for drinks, tea or dinner. On this particular spring night, they had invited a
retired professor to supper. During the evening, it began to pour with rain, and the heavens really opened. Because he
had walked there, they offered to put him up for the night. They pointed out that by staying overnight, he did not
need to go out in the bad weather. He agreed on the soundness of that idea, thanked his hosts profusely, and the matter seemed to be settled. But while they were washing the dishes after supper, the forgetful professor disappeared.
No one could find him anywhere. Eventually, after about 40 minutes, the front door bell rang. There was the professor, soaked to the skin. When he was asked what on earth he had been doing in the rain, he replied that because he was going to stay there overnight, he had gone home to get his pajamas and toothbrush.
Task 3: How to Remember Names
You just called the TV repair shop, and the voice on the other end of the line tells you, "This is Don Smith". About 5 minutes later you tell your wife that "this guy" will be out to fix the TV in the morning. You can't think of his name although you know he mentioned it on the phone.
This happens all the time to just about any of us unless we have learned to concentrate and implant a name in our memory, right at the time we hear it. To do this, you must make a habit of repeating the name back to the person. This action will remind you to store the name in your "memory bank" each time you hear someone's name, and within a short time the "repeating" process can be discontinued.
When you meet someone in person, use the same procedure, and in addition, visualize something different, unusual or ridiculous about his or her appearance, position, or actions that "ties in" with his or her name. Later, you may write the descriptive information on one side of a card and the name on the other side. Look at it repeatedly, see the "picture" in your mind's eye as you look at the name; or when you see the name, visualize the "picture" you have assigned to the name.
Getting this system to work will require changes in your thinking, and it may take several days or several weeks to become proficient.
1. Maybe we can't think of the name.
2. We can repeat the name back to the person.
3. We can repeat the name. In addition, we can visualize something different, unusual, or ridiculous about his or her appearance, position, or actions that "ties in" with his or her name.
4. The descriptive information on one side of the card and the name on the other side.
5. We can look at it repeatedly, see the "picture" in our mind's eye as we look at the name; or when we see the name, visualize the "picture" we have assigned to the name.
News Report: A Dolphin Exhibition
A recent art exhibition in Florida honored the animal often seen as man's most intelligent friend, the dolphin. The
"Dolphins on Parade" exhibition in the Florida Keys featured life-sized decorated dolphin paintings made of wood
and other materials. The dolphins were shown at area businesses and along the beach. Sponsors paid U.S.$750 to
cover the artists' fee and the cost of materials.
There were more than 100 dolphin themes, including a beer-belly dolphin. They showed the work of local artists,
as well as the beach atmosphere the Keys are famous for.
Probably the most unique was special because of its artist, Pandora. Pandora the dolphin painter is a real dolphin,
at the Dolphin Research Center, in Marathon, Florida. The playful artist streaks colors across a dolphin painting, holding a brush in its mouth.
The exhibition was held by the Monroe [Florida] Council of the Arts as part of a plan to make the Keys an international arts center. The paintings were to be auctioned off in March, with the money earned going to community art programs.