Engineering: Introduction to mechanical
TABLE OF CONTENTS
“Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of
physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical
systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the design, production, and operation of machines and tools. It is one of the
oldest and broadest engineering disciplines.
Applications of mechanical engineering are found in the records of many ancient and medieval societies throughout the globe. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287 BC–212
BC) deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng ( 张 衡) (78–139 AD) improved a water
clock and invented a seismometer, and Ma Jun ( 张张 ) (200–265 AD)
invented a chariot with differential gears. The medieval Chinese
horologist and engineer Su Song (1020–1101 AD) incorporated an
escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two
centuries before any escapement can be found in clocks of medieval
Europe, as well as the world's first known endless power-transmitting
Education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science. Not to say it is a specific branch of them.
Many of us ( students ) begin to studying engineering because we are attracted to the field of theses sciences, just a few parts of us are motivated by the interest in technology and how everyday things work or by enthusiasm , in how not-so-everyday things work. Either way, it is important to recognize that the engineering is distinct from the fundamental subjects of mathematics and science.
At the end of the day, the objective of an engineer is to “ to have a built that performs a
task that couldn’t previously have been completed or that could not been completed so accurately,quickly or safely ”.
Mechanical engineers work in the automotive, aerospace, chemical, computer, communication, paper, and power generation industries. Mechanical engineers will be found in virtually any manufacturing industry. Increasingly, mechanical engineers are needed in the environmental and bio-medical fields. Indeed virtually every product or service in modern life has probably been touched in some way by a mechanical engineer.…
2.1Mechanical engineering : The field
Mechanical engineering is one of the largest, broadest, and oldestengineering disciplines. Mechanical engineers use the principles ofenergy, materials, and mechanics to design and manufacturemachines and devices of all types. They create the processes andsystems that drive technology and industry.
The key characteristics of the profession are its breadth, flexibility,and individuality. The career paths of mechanical engineers arelargely determined by individual choices, a decided advantage in achanging world.
Mechanics, energy and heat, mathematics, engineering sciences,design and manufacturing form the foundation of mechanicalengineering. Mechanics includes fluids, ranging from still water to hypersonic gases flowing
around a space vehicle; it involves the motion of anything from a particle to a machine or
Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, manufacture,and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical
devices. Mechanical engineering is one of the broadest
engineering disciplines. Engineers in this discipline work onpower-producing machines such as electric generators,
internal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines.They also work on power-using machines such as refrigerationand air-conditioning equipment, machine tools, material
handling systems, elevators and escalators, industrial
production equipment, and robots used in manufacturing.
Mechanical engineers also design tools that other engineersneed for their work. In addition, mechanical engineers work inmanufacturing or agriculture production, maintenance, ortechnical sales; many become administrators or managers.Analysis, design, and synthesis are the key functions of mechanical engineers. The question is
often how devices and processes actually work. The first step is to visualize what is happening
and clearly state the problem. A mechanical engineer will then use computer-based modeling,
simulation, and visualization techniques to test different solutions.Design is one of the most satisfying jobs for a mechanical engineer. To design and build a new car, you must reckon with power, weight,
size and shape, materials, reliability, and safety.
"Synthesis" is when
you pull all the factors together in a design that can
manufactured. Design problems are challenging
because most are
open-ended, without a single or best answer. There
is no best
mousetrap -- just better ones.
The field is notable for emphasizing versatility. A mechanical engineering education is an
excellent foundation for work in other fields. Some mechanical engineers work on medical
problems, such as the mechanics of bones and joints, or the fluid dynamics of the circulatory
system. Mechanical engineers deal with economic issues, from the cost of a single
component, to the economic impact of a manufacturing plant. M.E.'s can be found in sales,
engineering management, and corporate management. Versatility is a decided asset in a world
that is undergoing constant economic, political, industrial, and social change. Mechanical
engineers are educated and positioned, not only to adapt, but to define and direct change.
A successful mechanical engineering career is the result of abuilding process that starts during the undergraduate years, ifnot earlier. Once on the job, the process continues through
networking, on-the-job training, graduate studies, and
continuing professional education.
Practicing engineers tell us two things: First, today's engineeris expected to be more self-reliant and more self-managed inplanning and doing work. Second, and more important,
employers will not plan your career -- nor do you want that to happen. Once you find a
company and job that you like, you still need a strategy for moving ahead. Your career building
efforts will be more successful if you understand how your aptitudes mesh with your
surroundings. Are you doing the work you are best suited for, or are you headed that way
2.1Manufacturing and materials developments2.1.1Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the
of machines, tools and
labor to produce goods
for use or sale. The term
may refer to a range of
from handicraft to high
tech, but is most
to industrial production,
in which raw
transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such
asaircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers,
who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".
Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a
free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In
a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In free market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation.
Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required for
the production and integration of a product's components. Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the
term fabrication instead.
The manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major
manufacturers in North America include General Motors
Corporation, General Electric, and Pfizer. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group,Siemens, and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Samsung, and Bridgestone.