By Bertha Hart,2014-06-13 05:39
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    Executive Summary


Computers in manufacturing

    It has four main parts: Production Systems, Computer-aided Technologies, Internet-based Manufacturing, Computer-integrated Manufacturing Systems.

     Generally speaking, manufacturing systems include input, process, output, feedback and impacts. In manufacturing enterprise we need do market survey, product development, marketing, product planning and resource planning, production and execution. We may need some tools to help us, for example, CAD/CAM. And system planning approach, it is useful: To prevent duplication of effort, To enable vital information to pass efficiently through the system, To allow each production and control system to know its relation to the others and how it affects the others, To make the whole manufacturing system functions more efficiently and productively. As for computer-aid technology, it also has four parts: Terms, Concurrent Engineering, Production Engineering, Computer control of Manufacturing systems. Concurrent Engineering is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support. This approach is intended to cause the developers, from the outset, to consider all elements of the product life-cycle from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements. For production engineering, it is Process planning, Production machine programming, Tool and fixture engineering, Work and

    production standards, Plant engineering, Analysis for manufacturability and assembly, Manufacturing cost estimating.

     It is not enough to only have a computer. We need the internet. In Network

    Architecture, it include Bus Topology Structure, Star Topology Structure, Ring

    Topology Structure, Star-Bus Topology Structure, Star-Ring Topology Structure. Also we need some special hardware and software.

     At last is computer integrated manufacturing system, it is the integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems

    and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that improve organizational and personnel efficiency. Here we have a CIM model:

    1. The hub of the wheel , entitled Customer, is the primary target for all marketing, design, manufacturing, and support effort in the enterprise. 2. The next layer on the

    wheel focuses on the means of organizing, hiring, training, motivating, measuring, and communicating to ensure teamwork and cooperation in the enterprise. 3. The CIM

    concept focuses on the shared cooperate knowledge, system, and common data used to support people and processes4. There are three main categories of processes:

    product/process definition, manufacturing, and customer support. 5. An enterprise has

    resources that include capital, people, material, management, information, technology, and suppliers. 6. The final part of the wheel is the manufacturing infrastructure.

    CIM is the integration of all enterprise operations and activity around a common corporate database. CIM can also be recognized as: Contemporary-Integrated Manufacturing, Computer Intelligent

    Manufacturing .Although the concept of CIM is simple, application and implementation are difficult and complex..

     Nowadays .computer-aid is more and more important. It can be used in a lot of fields.

Product design and manufacturing

    It has four main topics: Principles of CAD, CAD Software, Components of CAM

    Systems, CAD/CAM Technology Trends.

     CAD is the application of computers and graphics software to aid or enhance the product design from conceptualization to documentation, it is consist of computer, inputs, outputs, storage display unit .and it has s lot of benefits: Increase productivity, Better quality, Better communication,

    Common database with manufacture, Reduced prototype construction costs,

    Faster response to customers. For CAD, there some great things: ICG: Interactive computer graphics, Through the use of ICG, designers develop a graphic image of the product being designed while storing the data that electronically make up the graphic image (2D or 3D). Three components for ICG: hardware, software human designers.

     We need Keyboard, Tablet, Digitizer, Joystick, Track Ball, Mouse to input, and COM (Computer Output Microfilm), Graphics Printer, Plotter to output.

     As for CRT, it is consist of Heating filament, Cathode, Control Grid, Focus System, Vertical Deflection, Horizontal Deflection, Phosphors coating.

     The computer has had a major impact on the way everyday tasks associated with design are accomplished. It can be used in many ways to do many things. However, all design tasks accomplished using a computer fall into one of then four broad categories: Design modeling, Design analysis,

    Design review, Design documentation.

     We need to do analysis and review. For Design Review: Checking the

    accuracy of all aspects of the design, The semiautomatic dimensioning

    capability, The laying capability Interference checking (for assembling), Zoom,

    Kinematics capability.

     I have learned CAD before, as far as I am concerned ,it is a very good tool. It makes a lot of things convenient. For product design and manufacturing, CAD really do a good job.

Virtual engineering

     In my opinion, virtual engineering is a very miraculous. It can do a lot of things that is very, you know , magical.

     It has four topics: Components of Virtual Engineering,, Applications of Virtual Engineering, Related Technologies, Application Cases and

    Research Issues in Virtual Engineering. It is consist of Virtual Reality and Digital Simulation Technology.

     But what is virtual reality? A synthetic 3D universe that is believable as the real physical universe and is created by computers and simulation technologies, A VR system creates a ‘cyberspace’ where it is

    possible to interact with anything and anyone on a virtual level

    Virtual also has some applications: Product design and manufacturing,

    Architecture, Human factors modeling, Industrial concept design, Entertainment, Science, Training.

    With the virtual assembly and maintain environment, assembly and maintenance design and training became convenient and cheap maintain engineer can simulate the possible situation in the office and make the best decision. U.S army is using this approach to solve their.

     These types of devices allow users to explore application areas that require force feedback in six degrees of freedom (6DOF) Examples include virtual

    assembly, virtual prototyping, maintenance path planning, etc

    With the SmartCollision collision check platform, engineers can simulate the assembly and maintain progress to check the possible collisions among the components and the workers. This platform is designed by U.S and Japan. Virtual Reality is also used for military simulation, the US is using this army this technique to simulate the battlefield and train soldiers how to use their weapons in different environment..

    The 3D Scanner instantly acquires three dimensional surfaces by gathering measurements made by smoothly sweeping a handheld laser scanning wand over an object - in a manner similar to spray painting. The

    object's image instantly appears on your computer screen and the finished scan is processed to combine any overlapping sweeps, significantly reducing the time to develop surface models virtually of any object. The three-dimensional data can then be saved in industry-standard.

    Maybe you may ask what we can do with virtual engineering ? let me tell you :

    One has the power to change the dimensions and shape of a design and study the overall impact of one’s changes. If designing a car, we can bring a

    customer in and let him/her virtually sit in and drive it. While in it, people can change the position of the controls on the dash and move the seats around to see if they like them better. The deployment of modeling and simulation tools allows product/system developers and their customers to share a "Virtual Vision" of a Manufacturing System well before its first components are built or assembled. Tolerances, efficiencies, cycle times, and ergonomics can all be simulated and checked in advance and all necessary adjustments can be implemented, enhancing value for the customer and improving time to market. A virtual environment allows engineers and personnel who are involved with manufacturing, testing and service of a product to participate in the design process from the beginning. Ideas that are not practical can be discarded early in the design process, letting designers discover ‘downstream’ problems early.

     Frankly speaking, I always want to learn how to use the virtual engineering. In my opinion, the man who do this job is very cool! And now through the learning of this class, I have a general idea of virtual engineering.

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