Non-Violent Crisis Intervention
Advice and model policies
？ Introduction 2
？ Model school policy 3
？ Parental Guidance on Physical restraint 7 ？ Guidelines for reducing likelihood of incidents 9
？ Risk Assessment for staff 11 ？ Risk Assessment for children and young people. 14
？ Post Crisis Procedure 17 ？ Weapons in school 18
？ Intimate Care 20
？ Record keeping 23
？ Report on restraint 23
？ Report on unwelcome physical contact 25 ？ Review procedures 27
？ Request for training 29
For further information or training please contact:
Family Support Advisory Teacher
Mulberry Place (3rd Floor)
5 Clove Cresent
Ph: 020 7364 0731
Fax: 020 7364 072205002
Dec 2006 - Page - 1 -
TOWER HAMLETS GUIDANCE ON PHYSICAL INTERVENTION AND INTIMATE
CARE - May 2006
As part of their Safeguarding Children responsibilities, all establishments involving children and young people should have a physical intervention strategy in place. This may be part of other strategies, but should have been agreed by governors or management following consultation with children, young people, parents and staff.
Tower Hamlets has published guidance on Physical Restraint (2002), through circulating a minimum requirement policy document.
This document updates that guidance to reflect recent safeguarding advice, it is an interim document produced to ensure schools and other settings have up-to-date guidance, whilst London-wide guidance is finalised. You can access this draft guidance at: www.londoncpc.gov.uk
Schools and settings are advised to check that any physical intervention guidance they have in place is reviewed to ensure it complies with the minimum draft policy.
There are a number of new government initiatives being discussed, in particular regarding the right to search. This guidance describes the situation as at present. Additional circulars will keep you up to date if and when the situation changes.
Family Support Advisory Teacher
Mulberry Place (3rd Floor)
5 Clove Cresent
Ph: 020 7364 0731
Dec 2006 - Page - 2 -
Lawdale Policy on the Use of Force to Control or Restrain Behaviour
Following consultation with Staff, parents, children and young people the following policy was adopted by Lawdale Junior School in 2006
In unusual or extreme situations all Staff may have to use reasonable force to control dangerous or criminal behaviour particularly when children and young people could cause injury to themselves or others, consequently all staff must familiarise themselves with this policy.
Lawdale Junior School believes that in situations such as this, that the care, welfare, safety and security of the children and young people should always come first and the use of reasonable force should be seen in this context.
Lawdale Junior School will ensure that appropriate training on non-violent crisis intervention and physical restraint is given to key staff. Training in physical restraint was ndlast given on 2 September 2009. It is the responsibility of Annette Rook to ensure
that any adults (including volunteers) that have control or charge of pupils are given guidance or training in this area. Lawdale Junior School will keep up to date records of
the names of trained staff and the dates of their training.
When is the use of force reasonable?
There is no legal definition of reasonable force. What is deemed to be reasonable always depends on all the circumstances.
There are two considerations:
？ The use of force can only be regarded as reasonable if the incident warrants it.
Force cannot be warranted if it is used to prevent a child or young person committing
a trivial misdemeanour or in a situation that could be resolved without the use of
？ The degree of force must be in proportion to the circumstances of the incident. Any
force should be kept to a minimum. It should bear a relationship to the age, sex and
understanding of the child or young person.
Situations where reasonable force may be appropriate:
There are a number of situations where adults may use reasonable force: ？ It may be necessary in self-defence or because there is an imminent risk of injury to
a child or young person.
？ It may be necessary if there is a developing risk of injury or significant damage to
property by a child or young person
？ In extreme circumstances it may be appropriate where a child or young person is
compromising good order and discipline.
Examples of these situations are:
？ When a child or young person is putting them selves at risk
？ when a child or young person attacks a member of staff or another pupil, ？ where children or young people are fighting,
？ when a child or young person is engaged in or is about to commit an act of
deliberate vandalism or a criminal offence
？ when a child or young person is causing danger through rough play or misuse of
dangerous objects or materials
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？ when a child or young person is acting in an unsafe manner where they might hurt
？ where a child or young person may be at risk if not kept within the school or a child
or young person persistently refuses to leave a room/premises
？ when a child or young person looses physical and emotional control (loss of temper).
Intervention should not immediately involve the use of restraint or the application of force unless it is an emergency. In most situations it is possible to apply strategies to manage behaviour to prevent the situation developing into a crisis where physical intervention is the only solution.
Physical intervention using force should not be a substitute for good behavioural management. Before intervening, a staff member, wherever practicable should tell the child or young person to stop and what will happen if he/she does not in accordance with the school’s Behaviour Policy. If restraint becomes necessary, staff should continue to attempt to communicate with the pupil throughout the incident and tell them that the physical contact or restraint will cease as soon as it is no longer necessary. Staff should remain calm and not give the impression they have lost their temper or are punishing the pupil.
Physical intervention can take several forms:
？ Physically interposing between children or young people.
？ Blocking a child or young person’s path
？ Leading the child or young person by hand or arm
？ Shepherding a child or young person by placing a hand in the centre of their back ？ In extreme circumstances using more restrictive holds. (Staff would normally be
specially trained for this)
Force which is not appropriate:
？ Holding a child or young person by the neck, collar or in any way that might restrict
？ Slapping, punching or kicking a child or young person
？ Twisting or forcing limbs against a joint
？ Tripping up a child or young person
？ Holding a child or young person by his/her hair or ear
？ Holding a child or young person face down on the ground
？ A hold or touch that may in any way is considered indecent.
Staff should always try and deal with a situation through other strategies first. Possible consequences of intervening physically may increase the disruption or provoke an attack and need to be carefully evaluated. Physical intervention to enforce compliance is likely to be increasingly inappropriate with older pupils.
It is important that a detailed, contemporaneous written report by all involved be made of any incident where force is used. Incidents should be reported to the HeadTeacher.
If it seems likely that physical intervention using force may become necessary it is essential to seek assistance from colleagues who can independently support the
Dec 2006 - Page - 4 -
intervention, control the environment by removing onlookers and verify the nature of the intervention.
Physical intervention and the reasons for it must be logged in accordance with Section 550a of the Education Act 1996. The appropriate documentation is available from the Head Teacher.
Any allegation of inappropriate restraint or excessive force will initially be considered under child protection procedures. The Designated Person for Child Protection is Annette Rook and they will refer any allegations to the Child Protection Advice Line. (020 7364 3444)
It cannot be ruled out that any complaints regarding the application of force or the failure to restrain, will be the subject of an investigation either under disciplinary procedures, child protection procedures or by the police. In these cases it will be necessary to have regard to section 550A of the 1996 Act and determine whether the degree of force was reasonable in the circumstances. It will also need to take account of this policy, whether it had been followed and whether the child suffered significant harm.
Physical Contact in other Circumstances:
Some physical contact may be necessary and proper to demonstrate exercises or techniques during sports, PE or CDT. It is proper in the administration of first aid.
Young children or those with SEN may require physical prompts to help or encourage where they may be wary of initiating activity. Usually care programmes will address any physical contact required as part of a personal care package. For children with physical or learning disabilities this may include intimate care, which is the subject of a separate policy. Touching may also be appropriate when a child is in distress and needs comfort. This must be the result of a staff member’s own professional judgement. There may be some children where touching is unwelcome due to cultural background or abuse. Physical contact becomes increasingly open to question as children reach and pass puberty. Staff should bear in mind innocent and well intentioned physical contact can be misconstrued.
This policy has been developed following reference to:
？ Section 550A of the Education Act 1996
？ DFES Circular 10/98: The Use of Force to Control or Restrain Pupils
available on DFES website at:
？ Guidance on the Use of Restrictive Interventions for Staff Working with Children and
Adults who Display Extreme Behaviour in Association with Learning Disability and/or
Autistic Spectrum Disorders LEA/0242/2002
？ Guidance on the Use of Restrictive Physical Interventions for Pupils with Severe
Behavioural Difficulties LEA/0264/2003
？ Safeguarding Children in Education DFES/0027/2004
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？ Draft London Child Protection Committee Safeguarding Children in Education
？ Draft LEA Guidance on Physical Intervention 2006
？ Guidance for Safe Working Practice for the Protection of Children and Staff in
Educational Settings DfES/IRSC Feb 2005.
？ Dealing with Allegations Against Teachers and Other Staff
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Lawdale Junior School
Parental Guidance on Physical Restraint –
In some circumstances children or young people;
？ may attempt to commit a crime
？ may cause injury to others
？ may put others in danger of injury
？ may become seriously disruptive or defiant
？ may put themselves at risk
Under current DFEE Guidelines (Section 550A of the 1996 Education Act) teachers have the right to physically restrain children who act in this way.
Staff at Lawdale Junior School believe that the care, welfare, safety and security of the children and young people should always come first and the use of restraint will be seen in this context.
Prior to dealing with dangerous or criminal behaviour staff at Lawdale Junior
？ use the school’s behaviour policy to manage and calm poor behaviour
？ provide opportunities for children and young people to calm down ？ tell the child or young person to stop and what will happen if they do not, ？ only use physical restraint if the situation merits it
？ remain calm and not use physical restraint as a form of punishment ？ use physical restraint only as a last resort
Staff may use reasonable force
？ in self defence or if they or the young people are at risk of injury ？ where they judge there is an pending risk of injury or damage to property ？ where they judge a child or young person is making good order and discipline
Following the use of physical restraint our staff will:
？ cease physical restraint as soon as it is no longer necessary ？ use the minimum force required in the circumstances
？ Use physical control methods that minimise the risk of injury to the children and
？ Provide opportunities for children and young people to calm down, help them
negotiate a contract about future behaviour and to understand why restraint
In addition staff will:
？ record incidents in detail to the Headteacher in writing as soon after the event as
？ inform parents at the first opportunity and provide written reports as required ？ attend restraint training as part of their professional development when
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？ share information about the protection of children and young people with other
professionals, particularly investigative agencies e.g. police, NSPCC and social
Parents can help by:
？ attending meetings at Lawdale Junior School to discuss plans for managing your
？ informing us of situations or places where your child is involved in angry / violent
incidents and how you manage them at home so we can use your experience to
plan a joint strategy
？ support our joint plans with your child
？ keeping us informed if your child is attending Lawdale Junior School following
any angry or violent incidents at home so we can be prepared
？ being aware that physical contact may be necessary to demonstrate techniques
in sport, PE or CDT, during first aid treatment, if a child or young person requires
physical prompts to help, or needs comforting.
Parents should be aware that children and young people who witness violent assaults or behaviour could feel anxious, frightened and powerless. Lawdale Junior School staff
will ensure that our children and young people will be reassured when the situation is back under control, that the participants are not hurt/ and are being looked after. Witnesses will be provided with support and counselling as required and parents will be informed at the first opportunity.
A copy of the Lawdale Junior School Policy on Physical Restraint is available on
You can obtain independent advice and support on any school related
issue from the Parents Advice Centre, 85 Harford St London E1 4PY
(020 7364 6489)
Dec 2006 - Page - 8 -
Guidelines for reducing likelihood of violent incidents
Notes Primary Prevention
The number of staff deployed and ？ Undertake bullying/violent behaviour level of competence should match audit and map to locations. Allocate the needs of the children or young staff to locations appropriately.
people. Staff should not be left in Identify emergency/backup vulnerable positions. procedures. Undertake training.
Clear staff guidelines and ？ Are guidelines published and clear. procedures, acceptable behaviour Develop teams, plan, take pre-
standards, management structure emptive action, and agree and expectations clearly understood emergency procedures.
by all staff. ？ Hierarchy of consequences agreed
Help children and young people to ？ Queue management
avoid situations, which are known to ？ Alternatives to Playgrounds e.g. provoke violent or aggressive quiet rooms, lunchtime clubs.
behaviour. E.g. settings where there ？ Gate duty prior to and after events
are few opportunities for individual ？ Unpredictable adult patrols
expression and activities or ？ Toilets
unsupervised or unstructured ？ Carefully planned inclusive activities activities. ？ Corridor duty
Pastoral support Plans and Positive ？ See notes on Positive Handling Handling Plans, which are Plans below
responsive to individual needs and ？ Certainty of consequences for failure
include current information on risk and rewards for success.
Opportunities to engage in ？ Rewards policy.
meaningful activities including ？ Publicise positive achievement.
opportunities for choice and ？ Extended school opportunities.
achievement. ？ Effective lesson/activity plans.
？ Effective risk assessments
Developing staff expertise in ？ Staff and team training
working with children and young ？ Appropriate and public staff people who present challenging guidance and procedures.
behaviours. ？ Team feedback opportunities to
review procedures in the light of
Talk to children, young people ？ Pastoral Support Plans/behaviour parents and advocates about their contracts.
preferred way to be managed when ？ Circulate agreed procedures to they pose a threat to self and appropriate staff.
Positive handling plans – Planned (rather than emergency) physical intervention. The plan should be discussed at the PSP/contract meeting and agreed with parents and child or young person following a risk assessment. It should include strategies for pre-physical intervention, the nature of the physical intervention should it become necessary, recording, reporting, and
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Secondary Prevention Notes
Pupils behaviour: Recognise the ？ Be able to deal with anxious and
early stages of a behaviour defensive behaviour.
sequence that is likely to lead to ？ Make best use of non-verbal
violence or aggression and use behaviour to calm pupils.
appropriate defusing strategies to ？ Make use of appropriate intervention
avert escalation. during a verbal escalation to pacify.
？ Be aware and prepare for
Staff behaviour: Be aware of your ？ Know how to deal with intimidation
own emotional needs and learn how ？ Develop a rational detachment to
to deal with them. Be aware of your help stay in control of own emotions.
responsibilities and the ？ Be aware of strategies and policies.
responsibilities of the school and ？ Get trained.
contribute to the propagation of ？ Practice personal safety techniques. good practice. ？ Practice team interventions
Youth Groups frequented by students who present challenging behaviour management problems should contact the student’s school to arrange attendance at appropriate
planning meetings with a view to implementing joint and consistent behaviour management plans.
School strategies that are worth considering:
1. Anger Management Training-
Generally considered helpful for persistently aggressive and violent students and students with violent and uncontrolled temper tantrums, once they have accepted that the consequences of their behaviour are not in their best interests. Much more effective when combined with Moral and Ethical Reasoning and Social Skills Training. For details
see Aggression Replacement Training by Goldstein, Glick and Gibbs ISBN 0-87822-379-7.
2. Social Skills Training-
Drama based opportunities to act out difficult social situations e.g. making a complaint, offering help, accepting criticism, understanding the feelings of others, getting ready for
a difficult conversation, dealing with an angry person etc.
3. Moral and Ethical Reasoning
Opportunities for discussion about normal everyday events that present moral and ethical complication, e.g. theft, bullying, friendship, jealousy, homophobia etc.
4. Solution Focussed Brief Therapy
Easy to learn, harder to practice method of establishing a preferred future and identifying ways in which it is already happening. VERY useful for making use of the short verbal interventions available to the harassed youth worker or teacher.
5. Staff Training
One day certificated training courses in Non-violent Crisis Intervention are available through the Pupil
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